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Full text of "Westmoreland, Cumberland, Durham, and Northumberland, illustrated : from original drawings by Thomas Allom, George Pickering, & c. ; with descriptions by T. Rose"

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Langdale Pikes, situate at the western extremity of Westmorland, in the immediate 
vicinity of Bowfell, exhibit some of the principal characteristic features of lake and moun- 
tain scenery. Separated by a valley, through which runs the river Brathay, these hills rise on 
each side to an astonishing height, and form a vast amphitheatre, where the simple beauties 
of nature unite, in effect, with the loftier and more sublime creations of the Almighty hand. 

The highest pike, known in the neighbourhood by the name of Harrison Stickle, 
is elevated 2,400 feet above the level of the sea ; and the other, called Pike o'Stickle, 2,000 
feet. From these hills, a fine blue slate is obtained, much of which is sent to London, 
and other parts of the kingdom. 

In the fore-ground of the view, we notice the fragments of rock which follow the 
windings of the road, and form a romantic entrance to the valley ; the guide-post, indi- 
cating a connexion with the dwellings of man ; and the lone traveller, with his laden 
beast, home returning, toil-worn and weary. Proceeding onward, we traverse the wind- 
ings of the Brathay river, which at length terminate in a distant and narrow dell. Here 
the contemplative angler may enjoy his Walton, and allure the playful trout to his 
hook ; delighted with the strip of verdure that skirts along the stream, from its 
striking contrast with the barrenness which extends around. The eye then glances, not 
without interest, on the heathy wilderness that covers the hill-side ; and though the 
distant fires are easily explained, imagination views them as altars whence the circling 
incense rises, grateful to the genius of the scene. 

Feelings of reverence, of astonishment, of undefined pleasure, flow through the 
heart, as we fix our earnest gaze upon the surrounding hills. The lightnings have 
furrowed their sides with deep and awful ravines, the thunder-scars of a thousand tempests. 
Many, many winters have poured the snows upon their heads ; as many summers have 
scorched them with a noon-day sun. Still they remain in their place, asserting the 
wonders of creative power : a memento of past ages — a record for a future race of men . 






Pleasantly situated on the Northumbrian coast, at the distance of four miles from 
Alnwick, is Howick Hall, the seat of Earl Grey ; whose family have held possession of 
the manor of Howick for several centuries. 

Sir Henry Grey, Bart., one of the ancestors of the present Earl, erected the parish 
church ; a neat edifice, without a tower, and in the Greek style, standing on the margin of 
a brook that skirts the lawn of the manorial house. He also founded a free-school for the 
children of his tenants ; and endowed it with ten pounds per annum, chargeable on the 
Howick estate. This endowment was augmented with a rent-charge of thirteen pounds, 
by Mrs. Magdalen Grey. The school-room has been recently rebuilt ; and in addition to 
the former grants, the master now receives five pounds per annum from the present Earl. 

The old tower of Howick, mentioned by Leland, is entered by a flight of steps', and is 
still a goodly structure. In its immediate vicinity are the remains of a Roman encamp- 
ment ; and more than half a century ago, many relics of " the eternal city" were here 
discovered, and removed into the antiquary's cabinet. 

Howick Hall, the modern building, was erected towards the close of the eighteenth 
century, under the direction of Mr. Newton, of Newcastle. Within the last eight years, 
the furniture and internal decorations have been renewed, and the wings of the edifice 
united to the centre by intermediate buildings. The gateways have been altered, and new 
approaches made to the hall; the lawn has also been broken, and disposed in better style. 

The west front of this elegant mansion is seen to great advantage in the view before 
us ; and forms, with the wings and connecting buildings, an imposing and splendid 
coup d'ceil. The lawn sweeps in a magnificent slope to the margin of a fine trout 
water ; which, after flowing through the shrubberies and plantations, passes away by a 
gentle fall. The gardens are perfect " realms of fairy," enriched with every species of 
native flowers and exotics, on which Flora has bestowed a more than ordinary richness of 
scent, or beauty of appearance. 

Into this calm, yet princely retreat, Earl Grey may occasionally retire from the tumult 
of applauding multitudes, and the fatigues of legislative duty ; but again and again he 
will be called from the scene of quiet, as was the Roman dictator of old, to resume the 
management of national affairs, and to conserve the interests of his country. In the 
" Biographical Sketches of the Reform Ministers," Mr. Jones gives a faithful summary of 
Earl Grey's character in so few words, and in terms so apposite, that with it we conclude 
our notices of Howick Hall. — " He has, says the author, " eloquence of the highest and 
rarest stamp — instinct with deliberative wisdom and classic fire, set off by a personal 
delivery, at once popular and noble ; and an exalted integrity of character, upon which 
calumny has never ventured to breathe." 

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Alnwick Castle, the seat of the Duke of Northumberland, occupies an eminence on the 
south side of the river Alii, directly opposite to the town of Alnwick. It was probably 
founded by the Romans ; but no part of the original structure is now remaining. 

In the reign of William Rufus, Malcolm III. of Scotland having laid siege to the 
fortress, one of the garrison rode forth completely armed, with the keys of the castle tied 
to the end of a spear ; and presented himself humbly before Malcolm, as being come to 
make surrender. The latter went forward to meet him, and instantly received a mortal 
wound; while the assailant, by the fleetness of his horse, escaped through the river Aln. 
The name of this bold adventurer was Hammond ; and the place of his passage was long 
known by the name of Hammond's Ford. Malcolm's defeat is commemorated by a cross, 
erected about a mile from Alnwick, called Malcolm's Cross. 

In 1750, by the death of Algernon, Duke of Somerset, this ancient edifice, with all the 
estates of the barony, devolved upon the late Duke of Northumberland, who immediately 
began to repair the castle. These renovations were conducted with such consummate 
taste and judgment, as to render this structure a splendid model of an ancient baronial 

Nothing can be more striking than the entrance within the walls of this castle, from 
the town. Passing through a dark gateway of considerable length, the splendid and 
stupendous fabric, at once bursts upon the sight. It is not possible, in the brief space 
allotted us, minutely to describe the interior. The saloon is designed in the most magni- 
ficent style of gothic architecture. The dining-room and drawing-room are on a similar 
scale of elegance and grandeur ; and the library includes a rich collection of rare and 
valuable works. The chapel is inimitably fine; and embellished throughout with highly 
decorative gothic work. The ceiling, copied from that of a chapel in King's College, 
Cambridge — and the east window, taken from the one in York Cathedral — are most superb. 
The walls are painted in a manner similar to those of the great church at Milan. 

Our view, taken from a woody elevation on the banks of the Aln river, discovers 
the beautiful gothic bridge erected by the Duke of Northumberland. Raised on a lofty 
eminence, the castle appears to look proudly down on the surrounding country, as though 
conscious of having been, for upwards of five hundred years, the residence of the Percys. 


Carlisle is delightfully situated on a rising ground in the midst of extensive and 
fertile meadows, bounded by the distant mountains, and watered by the rivers Eden, 
Caldew, and Peteril. 


Carlisle is still surrounded by the ancient walls, which are entered by three gates, 
respectively named after the three kingdoms. The castle and cathedral possess a powerful 
interest arising from historical associations. The former occupies the north-west angle 
of the city, and consists of an outer and inner ward. Within the citadel is a deep well, 
traditionally said to have been sunk by the Romans. Mary, Queen of Scots, was impri- 
soned here, and the apartments she occupied are still shown. The cathedral is chiefly 
remarkable for its east window, the largest in the kingdom ; and for the choir, a beautiful 
specimen of gothic architecture in the pointed style. Hadrian's wall, better known by 
the name of the Picts' Wall, extending from the Tyne to Solway Frith, passes Carlisle 
at the distance of about half a mile on the north. The entrance to the city from the 
south is rendered striking by two magnificent circular towers, erected on the site of those 
which formerly defended the English gate of the city. These structures were raised in 1812, 
from designs by R. Smirke, Esq., architect, and are used as court-houses for the county. 

Since the union with Scotland, Carlisle has improved rapidly ; and it is now little 
inferior to any town of similar size in the kingdom. Its manufactures of cotton, linen, 
woollen, and leather, together with several founderies and breweries, give employment 
to about two-fifths of the inhabitants. The navigable canal to the Solway, opened in 1823, 
has added many facilities to the manufacturing and commercial interests. Besides the 
weekly markets on Wednesday and Saturday, numerous fairs are held in Carlisle for the 
sale of cattle and agricultural produce. The great show-fair for oxen, &c. takes place in 
April, when cattle are brought in from all parts of Scotland, and prizes distributed by the 
Agricultural Society. 

The church of St. Cuthbert, rebuilt in 1/78, is a fine ecclesiastical edifice. A hand- 
some bridge of white free-stone was, in 1812, erected over the Eden, after a design by 
R. Smirke, and at an expense of £70,000. Carlisle is provided with a commercial news- 
room, an academy of arts, a mechanics' institution, and a theatre. 

The illustrative view taken from Etterby Scar, comprehends the castle and cathedral; 
and discovers the river Eden skirting the eminence, forming the foreground of the scene. 
" The lowing herd" are ruminating in the rich meadows, bounded by the distant hills ; 
and the patient anglers complete this picture of rural quietude and olden grandeur. 


Cockermouth is pleasantly seated in a narrow valley, at the mouth of the Cocker, by 
which river it is divided into two parts, united, however, by a bridge of one arch. The 
church, market-place, and castle stand on the east side, and the remaining portion of the 
town is on the south-west. The buildings and avenues are very irregularly constructed ; 
with the exception of the street ascending to the castle gate, and that leading to Derwent 



The remains of the castle, which appears to have been originally a strong and exten- 
sive fortress, stand on the summit of an artificial mount near the junction of the Dement 
and Cocker rivers. The period of its erection is considered to he a few years subsequent 
to the Conquest. This building, with its rich demesnes, had been in the possession of 
several noble families, when at length it descended, by inheritance, to the late Earl of 
Egremont. On the tower are five shields, which are said to contain the armorial hearings 
of the successive proprietors. During the civil contentions, in the reign of Charles I., 
this castle was garrisoned for the king; falling, however, into the hands of the parlia- 
mentarians, it was reduced to a state of ruin, in which it has ever since remained. 

The church, first erected in the reign of Edward III., was, with the exception of the 
ancient tower, entirely rebuilt in 17H 3 and is now a spacious and handsome edifice. 

The trade and merchandise of Cockcrmouth derive great advantages from its situation 
in the neighbourhood of three sea-port towns. The chief articles of manufacture are hats, 
coarse woollens, linens, and leather. The principal market is on Monday, when a con- 
siderable quantity of grain is brought for sale ; and there is another on Saturday, for pro- 
visions, &c. Fairs for cattle take place every fortnight, from the beginning of May to the 
end of September, besides the one on the 10th of October; and two annual fairs, or statutes 
for hiring servants, are held in the castle yard. 

At the distance of two miles from the town stands the village of Papcastle, so called 
from a castle, supposed to have formerly been a Roman station. 

Cockermouth sends two representatives to the Commons' house of parliament. 

The accompanying view is taken from a beautiful woody eminence, bounding the rich 
cornfields and meadows on the banks of the Derwent. The church and castle, though 
prominent objects in the distant mass of buildings, appear to occupy but little space in 
the extensive plain, stretching to the very foot of the mountains. The hills rise up like a 
fenced Wall of colossal dimensions; yet, 

" The barriers disregarding that surround 
This deep Abiding-place, before your sight 
Mounts on the breeze the Butterfly — and soars, 
Small creature as she is, from earth's bright flowers 
Into the dewy clouds." 


Hartlepool is a sea-port town of great antiquity, occupying a peninsular situation on 
a promontory of the German ocean. It has only one principal street, from which, how- 
ever, a number of smaller avenues diverge in cross directions. The government of the 
town is vested, under a charter of King John, in a corporation, including the mayor, 
alderman, recorder, and common-council. 

Few places can convey to the tourist so perfect an idea of ancient fortifications, as 
Hartlepool. A long-extended wall, with bastions and remains of sally-ports, defended by 



turrets, are still visible. The harbour was formerly a fine basin of water within the walls 
of the town; but the present one, which lies to the south, has been much improved by the 
extension of the stone pier. The entrance is easy; yet vessels of light burden only can 

This town has been much frequented of late years, during the summer months, for sea- 
bathing. On the south side of the town is a chalybeate spring, which is covered by the 
sea on every return of the tide ; there is also another below the south battery, which 
resembles, in the properties of its waters, the far-famed springs of Harrowgate. 

Hartlepool being included in the parish of Hart, the church is merely a chapel of ease. 
Of this building, erected in different ages, and in various styles of architecture, the most 
ancient parts are the nave and tower. In the grave-yard may still be seen some old 
mutilated monuments, said to be those of the Bruce family ; by one of whom the 
monastery of Grey Friars was established in the thirteenth century, the ruins of which are 
still visible. In the centre of the town is a well-constructed hall, where the business of 
the corporation is transacted ; the only public buildings beside this, being the custom- 
house and the free-school. There is a good weekly market on Saturday. 

The fishery, which is very considerable, constitutes almost the entire trade of Hartle- 
pool ; indeed, if we except the influx of visitors during the bathing season, the inhabitants 
are nearly all fishermen. These are an athletic and courageous race of men, ever ready 
to face the storm, when the signal of distress announces a ship in danger ; an occurrence 
by no means infrequent on this coast. The scenery in the neighbourhood is of an inter- 
esting character. The rocks which girt the ocean on the north side of the town, have 
been excavated by the violence of the waves ; and many pleasant and romantic retreats are 
discovered during low water, the most curious of which is Black Hall. 

Our engraving exhibits the south wall of the town, and the distant pier. A number of 
small craft are seen with swelling sails; some approaching the harbour, and others leaving it. 
In the fore-ground the artist has introduced a variety of detail connected with the fishing 
trade. The group, at some little distance on the right hand, appear to be assorting their 
fish ; while those immediately before us are busily engaged in their several occupations. 


The city of Durham, capital of the County Palatine of Durham, is romantically situated 
on a commanding eminence, occupying a peninsula formed by the river Wear. From 
this elevation, the most picturesque and interesting views are obtained over diversified and 
far-extended tracts of country. The city is partly surrounded by the ancient walls ; 
beneath which, on one side, are beautiful gardens and plantations, descending to the 
margin of the river ; and on the other, a naked and abrupt descent from the acclivity. 

A superstitious legend, (commemorated in some emblematic devices on the east 
transept of the cathedral,) ascribes the origin of Durham to the monks of Lindisfarne, 


who, arriving here so early as the year 995, with the remains of Saint Cuthbert, were 
directed, by miraculous interposition, to make this place the mausoleum of their patron. 
Having determined on a permanent settlement, the monks raised habitations round the 
tabernacle in which they had enclosed the saintly relics ; and thus laid the foundation of 
the Saxon Dun-holme, corrupted by the course of time into Durham. William the Con- 
cpieror desolated the town and neighbourhood ; when a dreadful famine ensued. About 
1424, the plague raged violently, and carried off several thousands of the inhabitants. 

The cathedral, originally founded a.d. 1093, occupies the highest ground in the city, 
and, when viewed from the opposite bank of the Wear, bursts upon the eye with imposing 
grandeur. This edifice was completed towards the close of the thirteenth century. The 
character of the architecture, though chiefly Anglo-Norman, partakes in a considerable 
degree of the English or pointed style. At the time of the dissolution, this priory was 
rated at about £1600 per annum. In 1541, Henry VIII. granted a foundation charter to 
this church, altering its dedication from St. Mary and St. Cuthbert, to that of Christ and 
St. Mary. The see of Durham is the richest in the kingdom ; and the bishop is invested 
with higher prerogatives than any of his episcopal brethren. He is perpetual justice of 
the peace in his own territories, and lord-lieutenant of the county ; and to what court of 
justice soever he comes, within the limits of his diocese, he there sits as chief. 

The castle, now the residence of the bishop during his visits to Durham, was first 
erected, it would appear, by William the Conqueror. At the present time, though accom- 
modated in a great measure to the taste and manners of our own age, this structure 
discovers many traces of military harshness and feudal barbarity, mixed up with the 
elegancies and conveniencies of modern improvement. It stands on the north side of an 
open area, called Palace Green, whence a number of beautiful public walks, kept in repair 
by the minster funds, lead along the windings of the river. 

Durham contains six churches, exclusive of the cathedral. It has a commodious 
infirmary, and a small square market-place, with a guildhall on the west side, and, in the 
centre, a fountain, surmounted by a statue of Neptune seated on a dolphin. The trade of 
this city has declined of late years. There are manufactories for stuff and carpets, 
and for spinning and combing wool ; a brass foundry, two iron foundries, and a hat 
factory. It has a market on Saturday for corn and provisions, and five annual fairs, for 
horned cattle, sheep, and horses ; that on the three last days of March being accounted the 
principal. The government of the city is vested in a mayor, recorder, twelve aldermen, and 
twenty-four common council men. Durham gives the title of baron to the Lambton family. 

In the illustrative engraving, the first object that excites attention is the salmon leap 
of the river Wear. Framwell-gate bridge assumes a bold and striking character; the 
elliptic arches of which, span a distance of ninety feet each. On the left hand is seen that 
venerable .and colossal mass of feudal architecture, the castle. The lantern tower of the 
cathedral, and an oblique glance at the west front, with some few details of lesser note, 
complete the line of view. The setting sun sheds a warm glow over these splendid 


erections <;f departed davs ; and the whole scene is calculated to carry back the mind to a 
remote period, when wine and wassail prevailed at the castle board, and the blended voices 
of the monks of Lindisfarne, were heard, " glad even, and glad morn," chanting the vesper 
hvinn and matin song. 


The beautiful and romantic waterfall of Dungeon Gill is situated in the deep cleft of a 
hill, in the immediate neighbourhood of Langdale Pikes. The name is compounded of ilun- 
geoti', signifying, in the language of the country, a deep chasm ; and gill, a valley or deli. 

" The quantity of water here," Mr. Baines remarks, " is not considerable, but the fall 
is exceedingly high and picturesque. It descends in a fine sheet of foam betwixt two 
walls of perpendicular rock, which I should judge to be more than a hundred feet high. 
Two enormous rocks, which have fallen into the top of the chasm, hang suspended in a way 
alarming to the spectator. Trees have taken root in the sides of the cleft, and hang out 
their branches to receive the perpetual rain of spray from the waterfall." 

There is an air of venerable grandeur in the appearance of the rocks, forming a 
stupendous archway for the rush of waters, and the reflective mind will trace 

" Upon their bleak and visionary sides. 
The history of many a winter storm." 

Amid this thought-inspiring solitude of nature, Wordsworth's shepherd boy, perhaps, enjoyed 

" the first virgin passion of a soul 

Communing with the glorious universe." 

Here, also, it may be, 

he scanned the laws of light 

Amid the roar of torrents, where they send 
From hollow clefts up to the clearer air 
A cloud of mist, which in the sunshine frames 
A lasting tablet — for the observer's eye 
Varying its rainbow hues." 

It has been remarked, that the seclusions of nature, are more favourable to pure 
devotional feeling, than the crowded haunts of society ; and few, we believe, will dispute 
the truth of the observation. The footsteps of Deity are far less discernible in the 
thickly inhabited city, where every thing that meets the eye is the result of human art and 
ingenuity, than in the wide theatre of nature, where " littleness is not," and even " the 
least of things seem infinite." 

The engraving is illustrative of an interesting poem, by Wordsworth, founded on the 
fact of a lamb having fallen into the basin of the cataract, whence it was taken unhurt. 


At the distance of five miles, west from Ambleside, the tourist discovers a precipitous 
path leading to Colwith bridge ; a rude structure of one arch, thrown across the river 
Colwith, which, taking its rise in the stupendous fells above, here discharges its waters 


down the rocks with a fearful impetuosity. An awful grandeur pervades this scene at all 
times, but more especially at those seasons 

" When copious rains have magnified the stream 
Into a loud and white-robed waterfall." 

The dashing of the waters is heard long before you reach the spot. The dim and woody 
path leading to it is every way calculated to increase the effect, and when at length an 
opening in the copse reveals the Force in all its " dread magnificence," the mind is over- 
come with a mingled feeling of terror and delight. 

The total depth of Culleth or Colwith Force, may not exceed 150 feet ; but the rocky 
projections and other obstacles which oppose the waters in their descent, render it 
eminently picturesque and sublime. After falling successively from one crag to another, 
the headlong stream plunges into a basin, from the outer edge of which rises a massive 
fragment of rock. Impeded in their course, the waters rage violently, and shoot with 
terrific rapidity through the narrow openings on each side, whence they fall, amidst clouds 
of spray, into a deep and fearful chasm below. 

In every period of human history — in the regions of savage and civilized life, — the 
extent of ocean, the raging of the mountain torrent, the unbroken surface of the quiet lake, — 
have claimed pre-eminence in the nimd of man over all the various phenomena of the natural 
world. The sacred writings abundantly show, that water, in a state of action or repose, 
affords the most sublime and comprehensive similes. The Creator, it is said, " sitteth 
above the water-floods;" — the noise of a multitude, is compared to " the voice of many 
waters ;" — and of the placid streams, we are told that " they make glad the city of God." 


On the east bank of the Lowther river, and at the distance of about half a mile from 
Eamont bridge, stands Brougham Hall, the seat of Lord Brougham and Vaux. Dis- 
tinguished only by a venerable simplicity of style, this mansion has frequently been 
designated, from the elevated situation which it occupies, the " Windsor of the North." 
The terrace, in front of the house, commands a delightful prospect, comprising the river 
Lowther, and its plumy woods ; the village of Clifton, an extended level of rich meadows, 
and the mountain scenery of Ullswater. Five gothic windows of painted glass, including 
a great variety of subjects, admit a subdued light into the entrance hall, and cast upon 
its lofty walls the beautiful tints of an autumnal evening. 

The extensive shrubberies and pleasure-grounds, laid out in excellent taste, are 
esteemed the most exquisite of their kind. Within the former is a hermit's cell, furnished 
with the usual characteristics of an anchorite's dwelling. A scroll is exhibited in part of 
the building, with these lines inscribed : 

" Beneath this moss-grown roof, this rustic cell, 
Truth, liberty, content, sequestered dwell : 
Say, you, who dare our hermitage disdain, 
What drawing-room can boast so fair a train V 



Brougham Hall, as shown in the engraving, is seen to great advantage ; the rich 
foliage of the shrubbery being contrasted in a pleasing manner with the simple and anti- 
quated character of the building. The figure in the fore-ground of the view, will be easily 
recognized, as being that of the modern Gracchus himself. 

Possessing talents of the highest order, with the most extensive acquired knowledge, 
and, superadded to these, a strong feeling of philanthropy and benevolence towards his 
fellow-men, this illustrious statesman was peculiarly fitted to rise up as the instructor of 
the people, and the champion of their rights. Swayed by no prejudices, and actuated by 
no sinister motives, his decisions have in all cases been formed on the broad principle of 
right and wrong. He is now the caressed of thousands, — the idol of a grateful nation ; 
and, in no case, perhaps, have popular esteem and admiration been more justly conferred. 

In the neighbourhood of Brougham Hall are the remains of the ancient castle. History 
is silent respecting both the architect and the period of its erection ; the ruins, however, 
retain the character of Norman architecture, and appear to be those of a once strong, exten- 
sive, and beautiful edifice. 


Windermere, or Winandermere, the most capacious and extensive of all the English 
lakes, lies on the boundary line which separates Westmorland from Lancashire. The 
circumference of this vast sheet of water is something less than twenty-three miles, and 
the breadth rarely exceeds a mile ; the depth varying from thirty to one hundred and 
twenty feet. It is formed principally by the united streams of the Rothay and Brathay 
rivers. The waters are finally discharged at Newby Bridge, under the name of the Leven 
river ; which, after a course of two miles, falls into an estuary of Morecambe Bay. 

" Diffusiveness, stately beauty, and, at the upper end, magnificence, have been justly 
considered as the characteristics of Windermere." The extraordinary clearness of this 
lake is such, that the eye can distinctly view the finny inhabitants of its deep recesses, as 

they play in shoals, and, " sporting with quick glance, 

Show to the sun their waved coats, dropp'd with gold." 

This lake suffers little change in its appearance, either from the drought of summer, or 
the copious rains of winter ; almost constantly maintaining a uniform level. It is, how- 
ever, subject to violent agitation by the winds ; and there are times when its disturbed waters 
bear no indistinct resemblance to a tempestuous ocean. Windermere abounds with trout, 
perch, pike, and char ; and its banks are the favourite haunts of wild fowl, " which add to 
the scenery of the lake, by the variety of forms in which they appear — sometimes, sitting 
in black groups on the water, they rise and sink with the waves; at other times in the 
air, they circle the lake in figured files, or with hesitating wing seize some station on its 
banks or surface." 

In the centre of Windermere are several beautiful islands, the largest of which is 
Curwen island, so named after the proprietor, Mr. Curwen. " A more sequestered spot," 


it has been remarked, " cannot easily be conceived. Nothing can be more excluded from 
the noise and interruption of life ; or abound with a greater variety of those circum- 
stances which make retirement pleasing." 

This island formerly belonged to the Phillipsons, a Westmorland family of some note ; 
and, during the contentions between Charles I. and his parliament, two brothers of this 
name, one of whom was then proprietor, aided the royal cause. After the war had sub- 
sided, Robert Phillipson being on a visit to his brother's house on the island of Winder- 
mere, Colonel Briggs, a parliamentarian officer, attempted to secure him, as a person who 
had rendered himself obnoxious to the ruling powers. Accordingly, he laid siege to the 
house ; but was compelled, by the return of the proprietor with a strong party, to abandon 
the enterprise. Robert Phillipson had no sooner been relieved by his brother, than he 
meditated revenge. Advancing with a small troop of horse to Kendal, he there was told 
that ColonelBriggs had gone to prayers; upon which, he rode directly to the church, and 
proceeded on horseback through the midst of the congregation. The object of his search, 
however, was not there ; and, the girths of his saddle breaking, Robert was unhorsed by 
the people, and, but for the timely succour afforded by his companions, would have been 
destroyed for this impious profanation of the sacred edifice. " The action marked the 
man. Many knew him; and they who did not, knew as well from the exploit, that it 
could be nobody but Robin the Devil." 

This incident is worthy of remark, from its having been introduced with some poetical 
embellishment into the " Rokeby" of Sir Walter Scott. 

" Through the gothic arch there sprung 
A horseman armed, at headlong speed — 
Sable his cloke, his plume, his steed. 
All scattered backward as he came, 
For all knew Bertram Risingham ! — 
Three bounds that noble courser gave ; 
The first has reached the central nave, 
The second cleared the chancel wide, 
The third, — he was at Wyclifl'e's side." 

The view of Windermere, shown in the engraving, is taken from the Ferry-house, 
whence a most delightful prospect is obtained across the lake. The distant mountains are 
named High Street, Harter Fell, and Hill Bell. The situation of the island previously 
mentioned, is indicated by the clustering foliage, connecting apparently with the foot of 
the mountains, yet being in reality far distant from them. Cowper would have been con- 
tent to forego his " lodge in some vast wilderness," for a convenient dwelling on the banks 
of Windermere; and the beautiful remark made by Miss Landon on another view of the 
lake will apply with equal propriety to this : " Here might the weary heart dream itself 
away, and find the freshness of the spring-time of the spirit return upon it." 


Newcastle, a borough and market town, usually designated Newcastle-upon-Tyne, 
from its situation on the northern bank of that river, was formerly a Roman station ; and 


some remains of the Picts' wall, which, extending from sea to sea, ran through the town, 
are still discernible in the vicinity of the Panden Gate. The town originally derived its 
name from a castle erected in the neighbourhood to check the inroads of the Scots ; and, 
despite of changes and renovations, this noble structure affords strong evidence of its former 
strength and beauty. 

Newcastle contains four churches, of which those dedicated to St. Nicholas and All- 
Saints are the most remarkable ; the former for its lofty and ornamental spires, and the 
latter for its elegant steeple and beautiful interior. There are also many neat and appro- 
priate buildings for the dissenting communities. The public charities of Newcastle are 
numerous, and most efficient ; including among others an infirmary, a lunatic asylum, a 
lying-in hospital, and the keelmen's hospital, which last is supported by trifling contri- 
butions from the daily earnings of the keelmen. The bridge, an elegant structure, con- 
necting the towns of Newcastle and Gateshead, was erected in 1781, at an expense of 
£30,000. In addition to other recent improvements, the town is adorned with an exchange, 
an elegant theatre, and a set of handsome baths. The residences of the higher classes are 
mostly in the northern part. 

Newcastle has long been famous for its coal-trade, of which article it has frequently 
sent coast-wise, in the course of a year, upwards of 600,000 chaldrons. Here are also 
several extensive manufactories of glass, cloth, hardware, wrought iron, &c. ; and ship- 
building is carried on to a great extent. Newcastle returns two members to parliament ; 
and by the provisions of the reform bill, the inhabitants are entitled, under certain restric- 
tions, to the right of voting in the election of members for the county. 

The view of Newcastle, shown in the engraving, is taken from the Gateshead side of 
the river. The Tyne, partially covered with small craft, and graced by its elegant bridge, 
directs the eye to the dense line of erections, receding into remote perspective along the 
opposite shore. In this mighty assemblage of buildings, we readily distinguish the church 
of St. Nicholas, the castle, the new county courts, the church of All-Saints, and the 
exchange. There is an air of commercial greatness in the scene ; and the distant shipping, 
of which the principal part, probably, is engaged in the coal trade, forcibly reminds us of 
the colliers, to whom a description of the Cimmerians, by Homer, may very well apply : 

" The gloomy race, in subterranean cells, 

Among surrounding shades and darkness dwells. 
Hid in th' unwholesome covert of the night, 
They shun th' approaches of the cheerful light. 
The Sun ne'er visits their obscure retreats, 
Nor when he runs his course, nor when he sets." 


North Shields, Northumberland, forming the principal feature in the illustrative view, 
is a place of considerable antiquity, standing on the north bank of the river Tyne. 



The earliest mention of this place occurs in the reign of Edward I., at which time it con- 
sisted only of a few cottages, or shielings, inhabited hy fishermen. An attempt was made, 
about this period, by the prior and monks of Tynemouth, to extend the village, and give 
it a commercial character; for which purpose they erected houses, founded a harbour, and 
established a market. Newcastle had, however, till then, enjoyed the exclusive trade of the 
Tyne, and its authorities possessed sufficient influence to thwart these efforts for the 
advancement of Shields. During the commonwealth, Cromwell used great exertions to 
remove the restrictions under which the town laboured ; but, in consequence of his death, 
the plan proved abortive, and it was not until the end of the seventeenth century that Shields 
was admitted to the advantages which its maritime situation had so long presented. 
Since then, however, the population of the town has risen with unexampled rapidity, and 
its commerce has assumed a most important character. It has a weekly market on Friday, 
and an annual statute fair on the first Friday in November. 

Clifford's Fort, a strong and handsome stone building, well provided with ordnance, 
stands at the bottom of the town, and effectively secures the entrance to the river. In this 
fort is the low light, which, corresponding with one more elevated on an adjacent bank, 
serves as a pilot-mark for vessels entering the harbour. 

The staple article of commerce at Shields, like that of Newcastle, is coal, and the 
number of vessels annually loaded at this port, falls very little short of the shipment from 
the latter place. The manufactories have reference principally to ship-building. The 
only ecclesiastical edifice connected with the established church, is a chapel of ease; 
besides which, there are many places of dissenting worship. Here, also, are several free 
schools, and charitable institutions, all liberally endowed. 

South Shields, of which a distant view is included in our engraving, is seated on the 
south bank of the Tyne, and forms, with North Shields, a very considerable maritime port. 
It was formerly celebrated for its salt works ; but, at the present time, its commerce is con- 
fined chiefly to the coal trade, and to the extensive glass manufactories. The town consists 
almost entirely of one street, two miles in length, near the centre of which is a spacious 
square, where a weekly market is held on Wednesday. The ancient chapel was rebuilt, 
and considerably enlarged, in 1811. South Shields has the honour of being the first place 
where a society was instituted for the rescue of mariners from shipwreck, by means of the 
life -boat; of which a beautiful model, presented by the inventor, is preserved in the chapel. 

By the late reform bill, South Shields is constituted a borough, and, in conjunction with 
Westoe, is entitled to the return of one member to parliament. 


Ullswater is usually included among the lakes of Cumberland, though, from its situa- 
tion on the line of demarcation between that county and Westmorland, it might properly 
be considered as common to both. The accompanying view is taken from the valley of 



Patterdale, on the Westmorland side of the lake, a point happily chosen hy the artist for 
displaying the peculiar features of Ullswater. 

This magnificent expanse of water is admitted to be the finest of all the lakes. It does 
not, like Windermere, present scenes of voluptuous beauty, equal to those which the 
Arabian prophet has promised shall hereafter be unveiled to the faithful ; but a succession 
of imagery, incomparably grand and sublime. Its waters advance into the very heart of 
the mountains, which, " lifting their huge forms above the clouds," impend over the 
lake, and shroud in awful majesty this seclusion of nature. The hill-sides are covered 
with waving forests ; and rich meadows are spread at their feet. At intervals are seen, 
peeping forth from among the trees, those quiet habitations of rural industry, that capti- 
vate the heart of the occasional visitor, and for which he is inclined to think the busy 
world can offer no equivalent in exchange. In the survey of such a scene, the mind of neces- 
sity becomes contemplative, and every feeling of levity subsides into emotions of reverence 
and admiration ; whether it be at a time when the smooth lake " mirrors the Almighty's 
form," or on those solemn occasions when the echoing mountains reverberate 

" — his voice, deep, dreadful loud ; 

Utter'd from forth the rolling thunder-cloud." 

Ullswater is nine miles in extent, and, excepting in one part where a rocky projection 
occurs, above a mile in breadth. " But the eye loses its power of judging even of the 
breadth, confounded by the boldness of the shores, and the magnificence of the fells that rise 
beyond : the proportions, however, are grand ; for the water retains its dignity, notwith- 
standing the vastness of its accompaniments." This lake abounds with a great variety of 
fish, including a peculiar species of trout, weighing upwards of thirty pounds ; eels of very 
considerable size, and of the finest flavour, are also readily found. 

The village of Patterdale derives considerable interest from a traditional history con- 
nected with the Mounsey family. On one occasion, when the Scots had made an irruption 
into the northern counties, a chief was wanted to lead the herdsmen to battle against the 
marauders. A peasant of the name of Mounsey, offering his services, was accepted as 
their leader, and, by great vigilance and warlike ingenuity, he succeeded in putting the 
enemy to a total rout. As a reward for his valour, he was crowned amid loud acclama- 
tions, and proclaimed king of Patterdale ; which title, accompanied by a substantial 
homage, was afterwards enjoyed by his descendants. The kings of Patterdale, however, 
now exist only in the chronicles of departed days. 


Derwent Water, not unfrequently called Keswick Lake, from its vicinity to that town, 
is a beautiful sheet of water, inclining to an oval form, extending about three miles in 
length, and a mile and a half in breadth. It partakes of the lofty majesty of Ullswater, 
and the delicious scenery of Windermere ; having, like the last mentioned lake, a number 
of small islands appearing on its surface, and being, like Ullswater, surrounded by an 


amphitheatre of rocky mountains, occasionally covered with woods. On the south side 
of the lake is the cataract of Lowdore, one of the most magnificent water-falls in " this 
region of the sublime." 

Derwent Water gave the title of earl to the Ratcliffe family, in whose possession the 
lake and adjacent lands continued until the ruin of that noble house, when they were 
vested in trustees for the benefit of Greenwich Hospital. Castlerigg, or Castle Head, 
whence the illustrative view is taken, is the site of an ancient castle, formerly the residence 
of the Earls of Derwentwater ; afterwards, however, they had a house on one of the 
islands of the lake, since named Lord's Island. Castlerigg is further remarkable for the 
remains of a druidical temple. 

The islands of Derwent Water are five in number, of which the principal arc Lord's 
Island above mentioned, and Pocklington Island. The whole are covered with trees, and 
contribute very materially to the picturesque beauty of the lake. Towards the southern 
extremity is occasionally seen a floating island, the alternate appearance and disappearance 
of which has given rise to various hypotheses. Mr. Southey, in his " Madoc," thus alludes 
to this phenomenon, connecting it with the artificial islets which float on the lakes of 

Mexico and China : « \Ve reached the shore : 

A floating island waited for me there, 

The beautiful work of man. I set my foot 

Upon green growing herbs and flowers, and sate 

Embowered in odorous shrubs: four long light boats, 

Yoked to the garden, with accordant song, 

And dip and dash of oar in harmony, 

Bore me across the lake." 

The mountains of Skiddaw and Helvellyn sinking the neighbouring elevations into 
comparative littleness, give a dignified character to this scene of natural beauty. Of the 
former, Mr. Wordsworth has spoken in glowing terms : 

" What was the great Parnassus' self to thee, 
Mount Skiddaw? In his natural sovereignty, 
Our British hill is fairer far ! he shrouds 
His double-fronted head in higher clouds, 
And pours forth streams more sweet than Castaly." 

It has been recommended to tourists to survey the romantic scenes of Derwent Water 
by moonlight. Of its effect upon the lake, Mr. Southey thus speaks : 

" The moon arose ; she shone upon the lake, 
Which lay one smooth expanse of silver light ; 
She shone upon the hills and rocks, and cast 
Upon their hollows and their hidden glens 
A blacker depth of shade." 

A night-view of Derwent Water, it might be supposed, would call up devotional feel- 
ing in the bosom of an atheist. Every object is invested with a mantle of soft light ; the 
broad shadows of the mountains give indefinite extent to those parts over which they 
extend ; and the solemn voice of the waterfalls, and the echoes of the mountains, fall upon 
the ear in sounds not altogether of earth, 


"In expatiating over the vastness of the scene," Mr. Baines justly observes, " the 
mind rises far above the insignificant works of man, and deligbts to feel itself at liberty, 
unconstrained by the observations of others, to range and exult on the magnificent temple 
of nature." 


Lambton Castle, the seat of Lord Durham, occupies an eminence on the north bank of 
the river Wear, the identical site of Harraton Hall, anciently the residence of the D'Arcys 
and Hedworths. This edifice, erected by Bonomi, is pleasantly situated in an extensive 
park, seven miles in circuit, and intersected by the river Wear, over which is thrown a 
simple, yet elegant bridge, of one arch. Though not entirely free from incongruities in 
the design and execution, the Castle presents a magnificent appearance ; and the judicious 
improvements that have been effected by the present noble proprietor, add greatly to the 
chastity of the mansion, and to the beauty of the park. The library, a quadrangular 
apartment of good proportions, contains a choice selection of literature, and several family 
paintings of excellent character. The grounds are disposed in the most effective manner ; 
and the ride, through a hanging wood, on the south bank of the river, is beautifully 
romantic. Races were annually held in the park, in October. They were commenced 
in 1821, by Mr. Lambton, (now Lord Durham,) for the amusement of himself and friends; 
and, in consequence of the general interest excited, his lordship threw them open to the 
neighbouring gentry: but from the ill health of the noble proprietor, and a residence abroad, 
these races have been discontinued. 

The illustrative View of Lambton Castle is taken from the south bank of the Wear. 
The foliage skirting the margin on either side, is effectively relieved by the bridge. The 
deeply-toned shadows in the foreground give distance to the Castle, which is here shown 
to great advantage, on the summit of an eminence, and completely embosomed in rich 
and massive woods. The name of Lambton is connected with a marvellous legend, of an 
enormous worm, that infested the banks of the river Wear, and which was at length 
overcome by a hero of this family. This tradition, veiling some mystery which has not 
descended to us, is a strong testimony to the antiquity, the valour, and prowess of the 
party whose achievements it perpetuates. Indeed, both history and tradition, uniting with 
the common consent of the present day, bear witness, that with the house of Lambton 
has ever been associated those lofty qualities which ennoble high birth ; and whence are 
derived the highest advantages to a people, for whom their inheritor may be called to 


Ravensworth Castle, the seat of Thomas-Henry Liddell, Lord Ravensworth, is situate 
westward of the river Team, on the site of the ancient castle, a fortress of very great antiquity. 

3L AMIS T 13)17 <£ A S TT 3k 2S v ID TLT IE SHI A 1 


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" The present edifice stands proudly in its park, at the distance of three miles south-south- 
west from Newcastle." 

" In the oldest records concerning Ravensworth, the village is written Rqffenswarth, 
and the castle Rqffenshelm, the first signifying the estate, and the second the fortress of 
Iiaffen, which, heing the name of the Danish standard, shews that they were anciently 
l^ossessed by the Danes, who were probably the founders of the castle." 

The manor of Ravensworth was purchased by an ancestor of the Liddells in 160/. 
" Sir Thomas Henry Liddell, the seventh baronet, and present possessor of the estates of 
this family, was raised to the peerage in 1821, by the title of Baron Ravensworth." By 
this nobleman, the old castle was, in 1808, taken down, and a new erection begun. The 
works were placed under the superintendence of Mr. Nash, the architect ; and an excellent 
white free-stone, obtained from a quarry in the park, was used in the construction of the 
edifice. The mansion is sheltered on the north and west sides by a fine forest of oaks. 
Towards the east it commands an extensive view over Lamesly vale ; and immediately 
opposite, in the distance, is seen " the wild and shaken ridge of Gateshead Fell, covered 
with a multitude of rude hovels." The contrast between these humble dwellings and the 
magnificent castle by which they are overlooked, might induce the observer to lay too 
great a stress on the disproportionate allotment of temporal good : the Latin poet, how- 
ever, takes occasion to shew how shadowy is the difference made by wealth and title 
between man and man : — 

Pallida mors aequo pulsat pede paupeium tabernas, 
Regumque turres. 

This superb Gothic structure unites nearly all the warlike features of the ancient 
baronial residences with the elegance and splendid refinement of modern times. As we 
look upon it, the mind, without laborious effort, recurs to the olden time, when the Raven 
standard was here unfurled, and the walls rung with the rejoicings and laughter of the 
Danish chiefs: We pause : a thousand years have passed by — the invader is gone — 
a renovated, rather than a new edifice rises before us — and the barbarous manners and 
usages of the period we had contemplated, retire before the superior influence of a more 
refined and enlightened age. 

" Near to Ravensworth Castle is a stone column, concerning which there is a tradition, 
that it was one of the crosses erected to hold markets at, during the great plague at New- 
castle in 1645, when the produce of the county was not allowed to be exposed for sale at a 
less distance than three miles from that town." 


Corby Castle, the seat of Henry Howard, Esq., stands on the summit of a cliff, on the east 
side of the river Eden, at the distance of about five miles from Carlisle. This mansion, 
though now bearing no resemblance to a fortress, occupies the site of an ancient castle, 



" and actually consists in part, of the very walls of a large square tower, such as was not 
an uufrequcnt object upon the marches in early times." 

The rocky but richly wooded banks of the Eden, in this neighbourhood, have long been 
the theme of universal admiration. David Hume visited this part of the country, about 
1"50; and the following lines written by him upon a pane of glass at the Old Bush Inn 
at Carlisle, were communicated to Mr. Howard, by the late lamented Sir Walter Scott : — 

" Here chicks, in eggs for breakfast, sprawl ; 
Here godless boys, God's glories squall ; 
AVUile Scotsmen's heads adorn the wall: 
But Corby's u-ulks atone for all." 

The natural scenery in the neighbourhood of Corby Castle has been greatly increased 
in effect by the tasteful and judicious management of the pleasure-grounds. " From the 
castle, a flight of steps, hewn out of the natural rock, and overshadowed with lofty trees, 
leads to a long walk on the margin of the Eden, where a number of caves and grotesque 
apartments have been scooped with considerable labour, and great taste. Concealed by 
umbrageous foliage, is a singular colossal statue, standing in a romantic spot, beneath a 
lofty rock, nearly opposite to which are erected wears for catching salmon, and affording 
an easy communication with a long wooded island in the middle of the river." These 
delightful grounds are opened to the public on Wednesdays, when the visitor to the north 
is at liberty to wander, free from restraint, amid scenes of more than Arcadian beauty. 

In 1813, the castle, which had till then been an irregular building, was made uniform, 
and cased with stone, according to the Grecian Doric order of architecture. The apart- 
ments are elegantly furnished, and contain many fine paintings and relics ; amongst the 
latter is a gold chain worn by Mary Queen of Scots, and the claymore of Major Macdonald, 
the Fergus Mc. Ivor of Waverley. 


The upper reach of Ullswater lies wholly in Westmorland ; but, from the curvature at 
Glencoin, the boundary line between the two counties passes down the middle of the lake. 

The head of Ullswater is situated amongst majestic mountains, interspersed with 
several glens, or small valleys, and having their sides embellished with a variety of native 
wood and rocky scenery. The general character of this lake was slightly sketched at 
page 18; and the upper reach differs from the lower parts, only in exhibiting the charac- 
teristic features under the most striking combinations. " This reach of the lake is a piece 
of water scenery, that can scarcely be surpassed in grandeur, and which displays itself to 
the eye in a majestic sweep around Place Fell, a lofty mountain on the opposite shore." 

The rocks in the neighbourhood of Ullswater are remarkable for the grandeur and 
variety of their echoes. The firing of a cannon causes an awful uproar, as if the founda- 
tions of every rock on the lake were giving way. A few wind-instruments produce an 


entirely different effect : the most ravishing sounds fill the air, and form a thousand sym- 
phonies playing together from every part. Such is the illusion of the moment, that " the 
whole lake is transformed into a kind of magical scene, in which every promontory seems 
peopled by aerial beings, answering each other in celestial music."' 

Between Ullswater and Windermere there is this difference ; the former will be most 
attractive to the deeply-contemplative mind, and the latter to the young and the volatile — 
to those who had rather be pleased than astonished. Solitude has placed her throne on 
the mountains of Ullswater ; if, indeed, we may call it loneliness, to range amid the 
magnificence of nature, and " hold high converse with her charms :" — 

" To sit on rocks, to muse o'er flood and fell, 
To slowly trace the forest's shady scene, 
Where things that own not man's dominion dwell, 
And mortal foot hath ne'er, or rarely been ; 
To climb the trackless mountain all unseen, 
With the wild flock that never needs a fold; 
Alone o'er steeps and foaming falls to lean ; 
This is not solitude ; 'tis but to hold 
Converse with nature's charms, and view her stores unrolled." 

" But 'midst the crowd, the hum, the shock of men, 
To hear, to see, to feel, and to possess, 
And roam along, the world's tir'd denizen, 
With none who bless us, none whom we can bless ; 
Minions of splendour shrinking from distress I 
None that, with kindred consciousness endued, 
If we were not, would seem to smile the less, 
Of all that flattered, followed, sought, and sued ; 
This is to be alone ; this, this is solitude !" 

The boatmen who ply on the lakes have learned, by observation, from what point, a 
view appears to most advantage ; and they frequently endeavour to keep the visitor 
ignorant of their intention, till, by a skilful manoeuvre, they have brought the object 
immediately before his eyes. Mr. Baines, jun., in his " Companion to the Lakes," relates 
a circumstance of this kind, which occurred in passing up Ullswater. — 

"At the desire of the boatman, we crossed to the side of Gowbarrow Park, just where 
it terminates in the deep and secluded valley of Glencoin, which contributes its streamlet 
to the waters of the lake. He contrived that we should creep along the shore, till we 
came close under a lofty crag, enveloped from the base to the summit in natural wood. 
Then, turning the head of the boat from the land, and desiring me to pull as strongly as 
I could, whilst be directed us all to keep our eyes on the crag, we shot out towards the 
middle of the lake. The effect was magical. The naked peak of a mountain, before con- 
cealed, seemed to rise up swiftly out of the woody eminence from which we were receding, 
till it stood in its just proportion before us, and appeared many hundred feet above our 
heads, leaving at its base the bold crag from under which we had darted." 



The magnificent and extensive ruins of Warkworth Castle occupy a bold eminence, 
near the little river Coquet. This fortress is said to have been erected by the Bertram 
family. The Percy arms are seen on different parts of the building, whence some have 
thought that it was built by an ancestor of that house; whilst others contend that these 
armorial tokens appear to have been inserted long after the completion of the structure. 

The keep stands on the north side, on an artificial mount ; and the masonry in this 
part of the building is in such excellent preservation, that a few ordinary repairs only 
would be sufficient to restore the numerous apartments to their ancient state. Indeed, the 
present noble proprietor, the Duke of Northumberland, has invariably shown a disposition 
to preserve this grand specimen of the ancient baronial mansions of England, from reckless 
dilapidation and decay. " The area of the keep has been enclosed within a wall thirty- 
five feet high, a great portion of which is still standing : the principal gateway has been 
a stately edifice, but only a few of its apartments now remain. Near to the draw-well, in 
the great area, are two subterraneous apartments." 

On the north bank of the Coquet, at a short distance west of the castle, is the 
Hermitage, which is indebted for much of its celebrity to the beautiful Northumbrian 
ballad, entitled " The Hermit of Warkworth," written by Dr. Percy, Bishop of Dromore, 
and published in 17/L This sacred edifice, hewn out of a solid freestone rock, is 
embosomed in the foliage of venerable trees, " impending from the top of the precipice 
and fissures of the cliffs." The Chapel adjoins the Hermitage, and is curiously decorated 
in the ancient style of Gothic architecture. " In a niche, near the altar, is the repre- 
sentation of a table monument, with a recumbent female figure ; and at her feet the 
figure of a hermit, in an attitude denoting grief." This cenotaph faintly shadows forth 
the touching incidents connected with the Lord Percy and the fair Maid of Widrington, to 
which the author of the ballad, before-mentioned, has imparted so intense an interest. 
The first resident in this hermitage is said to have been a member of the Bertram family, 
who, to expiate the double murder of his rival brother and " faithless fair one," renounced all 
intercourse with the world, and here devoted himself to a life of abstinence and solitude. 

Warkworth Castle continued, for several ages, to be a favourite residence of the Percy 
family ; the Earls of Northumberland usually residing here, when circumstances required 
their presence in this county. Alnwick Castle appears to have been used rather as a 
military fortress, than as the palace and domestic abode of the Northumbrian lord. 


Scotswood Suspension-bridge, erected over the river Tyne, about three miles above 
Newcastle, was begun in August, 1829, and opened, with great ceremony, on Tuesday, the 
12th of April, 1831. The design was furnished by Mr. Green, architect, of Newcastle; 
under whose direction and superintendence the works were conducted. 



The two piers are built in the Norman style of architecture; and, together with the 
land abutments, are constructed of solid ashlar masonry. The distance between the points 
of suspension is 3/0 feet, with two half arcs of 130 feet each, making the total length of 
the bridge 6"0 feet. There are four suspending chains, each consisting of four flat bars, 
in ten-feet lengths, (four inches by one inch,) coupled together with five plates, eight 
inches broad and one inch thick, with strong connecting bolts. 

The roadway, 22 feet in width, is constructed with Memel timber, having a strong 
longitudinal beam on each side, with transverse joists bolted on to the same, and overlaid 
with strong planks, upon which is spread a composition of prepared tar and gravel, which 
renders it impervious to water. The masonry work was executed per contract by 
Messrs. Welsh and Son, Gateshead ; and the chains by Messrs. Walker and Yates, at 
their iron-works, near Birmingham. 

The estimated expense of the bridge was £12,900, within which sum the contracts 
were all performed; but in consequence of the unforeseen difficulties in the foundations, 
which required the piling and masonry of the piers to be founded at a greater depth, and 
thereby rendered an additional quantity of timber and labour necessary, both for the 
foundations and construction of the coffer-dams, the total expenditure amounted to 
about £15,000. 

From the unfavourahle nature of these foundations, the progress of the work was 
unavoidably protracted beyond the time at first expected; the able architect, however, 
aided by the prompt energies of an active and spirited committee, in carrying into effect 
those plans which he found necessary to adopt, was enabled successfully to overcome 
every obstacle, and place the structure on a firm basis, and that within the time limited 
by the Act for the erection of the bridge. 

We refrain from any eulogium on the zeal and ability of Mr. Green, the architect. 
The proprietors of the beautiful structure, brought to completion under his superintendence, 
are the best judges of his deserts; and their opinion of his merits is evidenced by the 
presentation of an elegantly- formed silver claret jug, as a testimonial of respect for his 
eminent services. 

A situation more picturesque and striking than the one it occupies, could scarcely have 
been selected for the site of this beautiful bridge, had it even been designed for no other 
purpose than to adorn the noble Tyne. The country on each side is a chosen spot for 
pleasurable excursions, and is enriched with " all the attractive charms which nature 
yields ;" while the river itself adds an exhaustless variety of feature to the landscape. 


Bowness, which has been not inaptly termed, " the capital port town of the lakes," 
forms part of the parish of Windermere, and is situated on the eastern shore of the Lake. 
It has a few fishing vessels, and enjoys a considerable trade in charcoal and slate ; but the 
chief support of the town is derived from the vast conflux of visitors, by whom, during 



the season, the numerous pleasure boats are constantly kept in hire. A small market, 
principally for butcher's meat, is held every Wednesday. 

Of the Fisher family, formerly of considerable note in this place, and from whom the 
proprietor and publisher of this work is descended, tradition records many remarkable 
incidents and anecdotes during the turbulent reign of Charles I., and through the pro- 
tectorate of Oliver Cromwell. 

The church at Bowness, an ancient edifice, with a square tower, is chiefly remarkable 
for " a large and curiously painted east window, the coloured glass of which was brought 
from Furness Abbey." 

This window is divided into seven compartments, including scriptural subjects, 
Catholic superstitions, ancient legends, and armorial bearings of several noble families. 
The interior of the church bears strong resemblance to that described in the " Excursion." 

" Not framed to nice proportions was the pile, 
But large and massy, for duration built : 
With pillars crowded, and the roof upheld 
By naked rafters intricately crossed, 
Like leafless under-boughs, in some thick grove, 
All withered by the depth of shade above." 

" Marble monuments were here displayed 

Upon the walls, and on the floor beneath 
Sepulchral stones appeared, with emblems graven, 
And foot-worn epitaphs, and some with small 
And shining effigies of brass inlaid." 

We must not omit to mention, that within this church lie the earthly remains of 
Bishop Watson, a man by whom human distinctions were valued merely as an enlarged 
means of doing good. The only memorial inscribed over " the illustrious dead," is a 
small plate, containing a brief record of his name, age, and death. 

The rectory house is pleasantly situated in front of the lake : — 

" A house of slate, 

One, beneath whose roof, methinks, 

A rural lord might dwell. 

" There abides, 
In his allotted home, a genuine priest, 
The shepherd of his flock ; or, as a king 
Is styled, when most affectionately praised, 
The father of his people." 

The verdant mounds scattered over this " church-yard in the mountains," to mark the 
hallowed spots where " the rude forefathers of the hamlet sleep," more deeply impress 
the mind, than the most elaborate trophies which human ingenuity has been able to erect 
in loftier temples : — 

" Where, through the long-drawn aisle and fretted vault, 
The pealing anthem swells the note of praise." 


The illustrative view, taken from an eminence, presents a bird's-eye view of Bowness, 
and the Lake of Windermere. Rural dwellings, the abode of honest industry; the church, 
"a happy beacon, visible to all;" the lake, " calm and placid as a good man's hopes ;" 
the mountains, clad in aerial vestments, and towering to heaven ; — these are the varied 
objects which compose the scene — a scene, of all others, perhaps, the most replete with 
associations on which a well-regulated mind delights to dwell. 


Pleasantly situated in the vale of the Kent, on the west side of the river, is Kendal, the 
largest town in Westmorland. It is intersected by four principal streets; one of which, 
running north and south, extends a mile in length, and leads northward to the lakes. 
Kendal is a place of great antiquity ; but the re-erections and enlargements which have 
taken place within the last forty years, have given it an entirely modern aspect. The 
building material, obtained from Undcrbarrow Scar, on the west side of the town, will 
receive a polish nearly equal to that of marble. The white appearance of the houses is 
effectively relieved by a number of Lombardy poplars, and towards the west by a long 
range of hanging gardens. The beautiful stream of the Kent river skirts the town, and is 
crossed by three substantial bridges. 

In the fourteenth century, some Flemish weavers settled, by invitation, at Kendal, and 
founded the woollen manufacture, to which the town has long been indebted for its pros- 
perity : latterly, however, owing to the competition in Yorkshire, the trade in coarse 
woollens has not increased so rapidly as formerly. The manufactures of Kendal now con- 
sist principally of fancy fabrics for waistcoats, carpets, worsted, and leather. In a neigh- 
bouring fell, several varieties of marble are found, the cutting of which forms a lucrative 
branch of trade. 

The Castle occupies a grassy hill on the east side of the Kent. Of this structure, four 
broken towers, and part of the outer wall only, are now remaining. This fortress was the 
ancient seat of the barons of Kendal, and the birth-place of Catherine Parr, the last wife 
of Henry VIII. "The Castle is well worth visiting, both from the situation, and from the 
interest always attaching to the venerable relic of former days. Its appearance, however, 
is more imposing from a distance than close at hand." 

The Engraving exhibits a portion of the ruins of the Castle ; beyond which is seen the 
river Kent, winding its course through rich and fertile meadows. The town of Kendal is 
partly concealed by the foliage in the foreground. 


The village of Brancepeth, pleasantly situated at the distance of four miles and three 
quarters south-west by west of Durham, is said to have derived its name (a corruption of 
Brawn' s-path) from a brawn of vast size, which in ancient times laid waste the surround- 


ing country. After committing many ravages, it was at length destroyed by " Hodge of 
Ferry," whose prowess is celebrated in the " Superstitions of the North," whence the two 
following stanzas are extracted : — 

" The muse may sing how in a northern wood 
In olden time, a bristled brawn was seen, 
Of giant size, which long the force withstood 
Of knight well arru'd with club or dagger keen. 

" And how, when Dian held her nightly reign 

And silv'ry moon-beams slept on Vedra's breast, 
The monster scour'd along the silent plain, 

And, roaring loud, disturb'd the peasant's rest." 

Brancepeth Castle, the magnificent residence of William Russell, Esq., anciently a 
seat of the Earls of Westmorland, stands a little to the south-west of the village. The 
old castle, originally erected by the Bulmer family, previous to the Conquest, was 
strongly fortified, and defended by towers and a moat ; this was, however, nearly all taken 
down by the late Matthew Russell, Esq., and the present structure erected on its site. 
The modern edifice is deemed equal in magnificence and grandeur to any of the baronial 
residences in this part of the kingdom. 

That part of the ancient building which was suffered to remain entire, contains, 
besides several fine apartments, the Barons' Hall; which last was, in 1821, lighted at the 
sides by stained-glass windows ; and at the west end, by a beautiful painted window, 
representing, in three compartments, so many different views of the memorable battle 
of Neville's Cross. 

Considerable alterations and improvements have been made in the gardens and 
pleasure-grounds of the Castle ; and the well-stocked park was, a few years ago, enlarged 
by the addition of more than a hundred acres. 

The illustrative Engraving presents a north-east view of the Castle, including a great 
portion of the park, through which runs the Stockley rivulet, a considerable stream, 
uniting, in the parish of Brancepeth, with the river Wear. The Church, which is here 
shown embosomed in foliage, stands at the south end of the village, and is the burial-place 
of several members of the Neville family. 


The village of Castle Eden, formerly called South Eden, is situate on the high-road 
between Stockton and Sunderland, at the distance of little more than two miles from the 
sea. At the time of the dissolution of monasteries in England, this parish belonged to 
the prior and convent of Guisborough. Subsequently, however, the church and manor 
were purchased by Rowland Burden, Esq., whose descendant, of the same name, is the 
present possessor. 



Castle Eden Hall, a spacious and elegant structure, stands on the summit of a 
woody precipice, which forms the southern boundary of Castle Eden Dean, and commands 
an extensive prospect over sea and land. 

"The Dean (written in Saxon Den, or Dene, and signifying a valley, or woody place, 
that suddenly sinks from the common level of the country, and cannot be seen till the 
spectator is close upon the borders) extends about three miles from its entrance on 
the sea-shore, takes a waving course, and constitutes some of the finest scenery in the 
county, being deep, rocky, and sylvan." Appearances would argue, that this defile was 
originally formed by some great convulsion of nature, which tore the rocks asunder. 
The tourist, as he passes along the road which has been made through it, is delighted with 
the various beauties which present themselves before him in this singularly wild and 
romantic valley. A beautiful cascade, issuing from the crevice of a rock at the head of the 
dell, falls at length into a basin called Gunner's Pool. 

In the accompanying View, we obtain a glimpse of the Hall, throned on a lofty and 
woody eminence, at the foot of which is seen the southern extremity of the Dean. The 
artist has here introduced, with considerable taste and good effect, what is called a 
gypsy party. Within this syhan retreat, the wanderers of a day appear to have acquired 
a flow of spirits,' and a degree of enjoyment, that has banished the ennui consequent upon 
the monotony of the drawing-room. 


Tarn is the name applied to a small lake found at a considerable elevation amongst the 

Crossing the valley of Little Langdale, the tourist ascends a slack, (or defile formed by 
the dip of two contiguous hills,) which leads to Great Langdale. " In this slack, between 
two considerable mountains, faced with tremendous crags, lies Blea Tarn, with a single 
farm-house near it, and a plantation of fir and larch on each side." Wordsworth has 
made this wild and lonely region the residence of his hermit. 

" We scaled, without a track to ease our steps, 
A steep ascent ; and reached a dreary plain, 
With a tumultuous waste of huge hill-tops 
Before us; savage region! which I paced 
Dispirited ; when, all at once, behold ! 
Beneath our feet a little lowly vale, 
A lowly vale, and yet uplifted high 
Among the mountains, even as if the spot 
Had been, from eldest time by wish of theirs, 
So placed, — to be shut out from all the world '." 
* * * * * 

A quiet, tree-less nook, with two green fields, 

A liquid pool that glittered in the sun. 

And one bare dwelling; one abode, DO more!" 




Low Wood Inn, distant about two miles from Ambleside, is delightfully situated on a 
small bay, whence the head of Windermere opens magnificently. Beyond, lie Brathay 
Park, and the valley of Great Langdale ; the mountains of Langdale Pikes, Loughrigg Fell, 
and Fairfield, with others in the remote distance, forming the back-ground. This Inn is 
a favourite residence of visitors to the lakes. A grand annual regatta is held on Winder- 
mere at Low Wood, and another at the Ferry Inn, early in September. These delightful 
exhibitions attract most of the families of distinction, and the inhabitants of the neigh- 
bouring county, to the lake, which on these festive days is literally covered with boats and 
barges, forming splendid aquatic processions, attended by bands of music, and crowded 
with gay and mirthful parties. A more enlivening spectacle cannot be conceived: the 
sublime scenery, the music with all its soul-enchanting echoes, the variety of costume, 
and, " prime ornament of all," the enrapturing smile of many an " English flower" — 
these together convert the charming solitude into a high festival, of which, even the 
legends of fairy-land can furnish no example : 

Low Wood Inn commands a view of the whole upper part of the lake ; the prospect 
extending towards the south, so far as Curwen's Island. The appearance of Windermere 
from this station cannot be adequately described. The lake spreads out into an extensive 
plain of water, which " may be compared to a mirror of vast size and rude shape, set 
in a huge frame of grotesque figure, adorned with the grandest carvings and lace work, in 
a variety of the richest colours, and altogether bearing the negligent air of nature's original 
workmanship." On the opposite shore, the gradually sloping hills display a mixture of 
woodlands and beautiful farms. Some of the mountains surrounding the head of Winder- 
mere are clothed with wood, and others, of a dark slaty colour, extend their bases into the 
lake itself. " Indeed, the vicinity of Low Wood presents numerous charming views of the 
lake and surrounding country ; but of the beauties of this situation, a true idea only can 
he formed by him, who has time to explore the various elevations, who considers the dif- 
ferent points of views, and who suffers no accidental circumstance to escape his obser- 

Not far distant from Low Wood Inn, is a gentle eminence leading to the village of 
Troutbeck. From this acclivity the spectator surveys all the prominent beauties of the 
surrounding landscape. The stupendous chaos of rocks, terminating the northern shore, 
might be mistaken for the Pyrenean chain, and " a very moderate exertion of the fancy 
would transport the beholder to the borders of the Leman Lake." 

In the neighbourhood of Low Wood Inn, is a commodious pier for the accom- 
modation of water parties. Cannon is kept at this place, to gratify visitors with 

3IL2EA Tii I 


the surprising reverberations of sound that are produced amongst the mountains by its 


" The cannon's roar 
Bursts from the bosom of the hollow shore : 
The dire explosion the whole concave (ills, 
And shakes the firm foundation of the hills. 
Now pausing deep, now bellowing from afar, 
Now rages near the elemental war : 
Affrighted echo opens all her cells, 
With gather'd strength the posting clamour swells, 
Check'd or impell'd, and varying in its course, 
It slumbers — now awakes with double force, 
Searching the straight and crooked hill and dale, 
Sinks in the breeze, and rises in the gale: 
Chorus of earth and sky ! the mountains sing, 
And heaven's own thunders through the valleys ring." 

" In no part of the world are tourists treated with more respectful attention, and on more 
reasonable charges, than at this health-restoring portion of the British empire." 


Early in the seventh century, Edwin, king of Northumberland, built a small chapel, 
of wood, at Tynemouth, in which his daughter Rosella took the veil. This humble 
structure, to which, however, the Priory of Tynemouth owed its origin, was rebuilt of 
stone, by St. Oswald, the successor of Edwin. It was dedicated to St. Mary ; and, in the 
course of a few years, so great was the sanctity which it obtained, that the illustrious dead 
were brought from various parts to be interred within its sacred precincts. During the 
infuriated career of the Danes, this edifice, in common with most other religious houses 
and monasteries in the kingdom, was plundered and destroyed. Tostig, Earl of Northum- 
berland, is said to have rebuilt the monastery from the foundations ; and his successor, 
Waltheof, about 1074, gave it, with all its possessions, to the monks of Iarrow. In 1090, 
Earl Mowbray, a patron of this house, having conspired against William Rufus, converted 
the building into a fortress, which, after a siege of two months, was taken by storm. 
After an ineffectual attempt to secure his safety by flight, Mowbray returned to take refuge 
in the ruined sanctuary, whence he was dragged forth, and consigned to a dungeon. 

Twice after this period, the Priory was subjected to spoliation and ravage : in 1306, by 
a victorious band of Northumbrians; and, in 1389, by the Scots, to whose outrages the 
northern parts of England were so much exposed. A high degree of sanctity, however, 
continued to brood over the edifice ; and it was not unfrequently the temporary residence 
of royalty. On the dissolution of religious houses, the prior of Tynemouth, making a 
virtue of necessity, surrendered his monastery ; when an annual pension of £80 was 
assigned to him, and smaller stipends to the other members of the convent. The pos- 
sessions of this richly-endowed priory were granted, by Edward VI., in 1550, to John 


Dudley, then Earl of Warwick ; but, on the attainder of that nobleman, they again 
reverted to the crown, and, in 15G/, were enumerated among the queen's possessions in 

Though sufficient is still remaining to show its former extent and grandeur, this 
beautiful structure has, since the dissolution, suffered greatly from the ravages of time and 
military occupations. "The little oratory of the Virgin, at the east end of the chancel, 
which, till of late years, was preserved in great perfection, has been converted into a 
magazine for military stores, and has had its windows walled up. The cemetery of this 
venerable ruin still continues to be used, by the parishioners of Tynemouth, as a place of 
burial. The remains of the priory stand at the east end of the town, on a peninsula 
formed of stupendous rocks, on the north side of the mouth of the Tyne, against which 
the heavy seas break with great vehemence and tumult." They are approached from the 
west by a square gateway, at the north-east corner of which is a circular exploratory 
turret. This tower has been modernized, and converted into barracks, capable of 
accommodating a considerable force. Tynemouth Castle (the title of Priory being now 
inapplicable) has been made a dep6t for arms and military stores, under the superin- 
tendence of a governor and lieutenant-governor. 

The dim obscurity which gathers upon the past, imparts to every thing that carries 
back its original to former times, a peculiar degree of interest, varying, it is true, in extent 
and character, with the nature of the subject by which it is called forth. The splendid 
and venerable ruin, shown in the Engraving, is a stupendous memorial of departed years. 
Whether it be viewed as the altar on which a maiden sacrificed her earthly hopes, thither 
led by an enthusiastic and mistaken zeal ; or as the once impregnable fortress of an impe- 
rious churchman, who strangely blended piety with warfare, and religious services with 
the shock of arms — it calls up visions of other days, on which the poet, the philosopher, 
and the historian delight to dwell. 

" Ruin sublime! Oh! who could gaze on thee 
Untouched by tender thoughts, and glimmering dreams 
Of long departed years ?" — 


The building of the Castle, and surrounding fortifications, at Newcastle, is ascribed, by 
historians, to William the Conqueror. It seems probable that he contemplated, and even 
commenced the work ; but there is good reason to believe, that these erections were carried 
on and completed by William Rufus. According to some writers, Rufus was despatched 
by his father against an insurgent army, commanded by the Duke of Northumberland, who 
were then in possession of Prudhoe Castle, situated about ten miles west of Newcastle. 
Not thinking it advisable to commence the siege of that fortress till the ensuing spring, 
Rufus garrisoned his troops for the winter in Newcastle. He employed his soldiers, 
during this cessation of arms, in building the Castle ; remarking on the occasion, " if we 


cannot take the old, (meaning the Castle of Prudhoe,) we will at hast build a new Castle." 
Thereafter the town, previously known hy the appellation of Monkchester, received the 
name of Newcastle. 

In early times, social life was rendered so insecure, by a system of predatory warfare 
and intestine strife, that a town usually either owed its origin to the erection of a strong 
fortress in the immediate neighbourhood, or, at least, continued of no importance, so long 
as this necessary protection was wanting. After the completion of the Castle, the town 
of Newcastle increased rapidly; and many privileges and immunities were conferred upon 
it by the Conqueror, and the monarchs who succeeded him. 

The Castle, of which it is our business more particularly to speak, is a fine speci 
of Norman military architecture, occupying a lofty and natural eminence on the river Tyne. 
The height of the tower, to the tops of the lowest battlements, exceeds 97 feet ; and the 
base covers an area of 62 by 66 feet. The walls, having chambers within them, are nearly 
15 feet in thickness at the top, and 17 feet at the bottom. A bold and spacious winding 
staircase, in the north-east corner, leads from the ground- floor to the top of the keep. 
The grand entrance led immediately into the state apartments, some of which display 
much antique grandeur. After entering the inner wall, that enclosed the keep, a flight 
of stairs, of which nineteen are still in existence, led to the second portal, of prodigious 
strength, from whose top the besieged had great power to annoy assailants. This fortress 
stands on the site of the Roman station, Pons IEIU. 

The Engraving exhibits the interior of the Castle Chapel, Newcastle. The charac- 
teristic features of Norman architecture are strongly developed in the circular arches, 
their intersections, and zig-zag ornaments. There is a mixture of rudeness and grandeur, 
of barbarity and solemnity, in the appearance of the edifice. It may he said rather to 
resemble a prison than a temple of peace; it serves, however, to impart a vivid impression 
of those unsubdued times, when the warrior kneeled at the altar witli his breast-plate 
girded on, and when the chance of sudden assault obliged him to make the sword and 
shield, companions of devotional hours. 


The city of Durham, and its environs, from what point soever they may be surveyed, 
present an unique and striking appearance. The public buildings exhibit a degree of 
magnificence not expected at so remote a distance from the metropolis ; and the situation 
and ichnography of the city have, from their peculiar character, obtained it the name of 
the English Zion. From the legend of St. Cuthbert, (written and published by Robert 
Hegg, in 1626,) the following passage, referring to the cathedral and city of Durham, is 
extracted: — "This reverend and aged Abbey is seated in the heart of the citty, advanced 
upon the shoulders of an high hill, and encompassed againe with the higher hills, that he 
that hath seene the situation of this citty, hath seene the map of Sion, and may save a 



journey to Jerusalem. Shee is girded almost round with the renowned river Weer, in 
which, as in a glass of crystall, shee might once have beheld the beauty, but now the ruine 
of her walls." 

On approaching this place from the south, the attention of the traveller is arrested by 
the elegance of its situation, and the venerable appearance of the castle and cathedral, 
rising from an eminence enclosed within the remains of the old city walls. The long 
expanse of the river Wear, crossed by Framwell-gate bridge, is adorned, on the east side, 
with sloping gardens ; and on the opposite banks, which are high, rocky, and scattered 
over with trees, is Southwell-street. Newton Hall, with the adjacent plantations, occu- 
pies the middle distance; behind is a fine, cultivated country, extending the prospect 
to the distance of ten miles and including, among other beautiful objects, a view of 
Painshaw Hill. 

In an ancient Saxon poem, the city of Durham is thus described : — 

" This city is celebrated 
In the whole empire of the Britons. 
The road to it is steep : 
It is surrounded with rocks, 
And with curious plants : 
The Wear flows round it, 
A river of rapid waves." 

The poet adds- 

: There is in this city 
Also, well known to men, 
The venerable St. Cudberth." 

We are not to understand that the patron saint was living at the period when this poem 
was written. The writer merely alludes to the commonly received opinion, that the 
body of this holy man had not undergone the corruption which ordinarily attends the 
remains of mortality. 

William the Conqueror, returning from an expedition against Malcolm, king of 
Scotland, sojourned at Durham. Resolving to ascertain the fact of " the incorruptibility 
of the saint's remains," he ordered the officers of the church to open the sepulchre ; but, 
at that instant, he found himself, says the chronicle, smitten with a burning fever. This 
circumstance obtained for St. Cuthbert's shrine, a still greater celebrity than it had 
before enjoyed. 


The ruins of Finchale Priory are situated in a secluded spot, in the parish of St. Oswald, 
on the western side of the river Wear, at the distance of nearly three miles from Durham. 
This place appears to have been of some note in the time of the Saxons ; a synod having 
been held here so early as 792, and another, as Leland states, in 810. This Abbey is 
rendered famous by the austerities of St. Godric, born at Walpole in Norfolk, who, after 


twice performing the pilgrimage to Jerusalem, came, directed by a vision, to Finchale, 
where he erected a chapel and hermitage. Here he resided sixty-six years, practising 
" unheard-of austerities," which, in the eyes of a superstitious and ignorant people, were 
sufficient to invest his character with a high degree of sanctity. The mortifications to 
which he subjected his body, if not laudable, were extremely severe. He wore an iron 
jerkin, mingled ashes with the flour of which he made his bread, and, not (infrequently, 
passed whole nights at his devotions, immersed up to his chin in water. He died in 11/0, 
and was then admitted, on account of his uncommon penances, and the great miracles he 
is said to have performed, into the calendar of the saints. 

About the year 1118, Bishop Flambard granted the hermitage of Finchale to the monas- 
tery of Durham. In 1190, a priory of Benedictines, subordinate to the church of Durham, 
was founded at Finchale, by Henry, son of this prelate. At the dissolution, it consisted of 
a prior and eight monks ; and its revenues were valued at nearly £147 per annum. It was 
shortly afterwards granted to the see of Durham, and is now appropriated to the support 
of a prebendary in that cathedral. 

The remains of this abbey, which " cover an extensive plot of ground, are so much 
dilapidated, that the original appropriation of their respective parts can with difficulty be 
traced, and several portions of the walls are hid beneath a profusion of ivy, 

" which now with rude luxuriance bends 

Its tangled foliage through the cloistered space, 
O'er the green window's mouldering height ascends, 
And fondly clasps it with a last embrace." 

These ruins, in conjunction with the opposite cliffs of Cocker, compose a peculiarly 
fine and interesting scene. In the summer months, excursions are frequently made to this 
delightful place, which cannot fail to afford high gratification to those who are able to 
appreciate the grand and the sublime. Though now a refuge for the solitary owl, with 
only a few shattered walls remaining, legendary lore and historical associations so closely 
connect themselves with this edifice, that the mind of the spectator is crowded with 
memories of the past. By an illusion peculiar to itself, the mind's eye conjures up the 
ancient resident of this hermitage, and sees him " in his habit, as he lived." The ear 
joins in this delicious mockery, and discovers low sounds, as of the brotherhood chanting 
their evening service. The past then merges into the present : the visitor deplores the 
credulity and superstition of past ages, but congratulates his country, that the day-spring 
of knowledge has visited her shores, and dispelled for ever that " palpable obscure" in 
which her earlier sons were left to grope " their uncouth way." 


Within the distance of a mile from Ambleside, is Stock-Gill Force, the most beautiful 
waterfall amongst the lakes, if we except the far-famed cataract of Lowdore, in the 


neighbourhood of Keswick. The torrent which supplies this cascade, rises in the neigh- 
bouring mountains, and flows in a confined channel, through a chasm in the rocks, 
partially concealed by the foliage of overhanging trees. Mr. Baines appears to have con- 
templated this sublime spectacle from the identical spot whence our view is taken : we, 
therefore, borrow from his " Companion to the Lakes," the following animated description 
of the scene : — 

"We had pursued our course up the glen for some time, when, on climbing a sharp 
ascent, and going to the edge of the chasm, the cascade burst upon us in all its splendour. 
It was immediately opposite to us, and we were about mid-way between the top and 
bottom, its height being one hundred and fifty feet. The stream is divided into two 
portions, by a huge crag interposed just in the centre of the precipice over which it flings 
itself, and covered with bushes and trees ; yet both branches of the fall are visible at once, 
and the division heightens its beauty. They do not reach the abyss at a single leap, but, 
after falling about half the depth in smooth lines of silver, they meet with a projecting 
rock, from which they rebound in large volumes of flashing foam and spray, uniting at the 
bottom in a very deep but clear basin." 

This waterfall, as indeed do all the others at the Lakes, varies exceedingly, according 
to the weather. In time of drought it is reduced to an insignificant rill, but after a heavy 
fall of rain it becomes an overwhelming torrent. 

The most elaborate effort of art is frequently only a feeble approximation to the realities 
of nature. The poet may describe a scene of beauty in rich and animated language, 
but the mere glow of words cannot bring it immediately within our sight ; and though 
the painter has an advantage over the poet, inasmuch as he can produce a perfect 
delineation of his subject, still he is unable to communicate motion, sound, the momentary 
variations of light and shade, and all those accidental circumstances which so greatly con- 
tribute to picturesque effect. The artist has, however, in the scene before us, done all that 
art can do ; and it is with a feeling of admiration, not of disappointment, that we adopt 
the exclamation of the poet — 

" Ah ! that such beauty varyiug in the light 
Of living Nature, cannot be portrayed 
By words, nor by the pencil's silent skill ; 
But is the property of him alone, 
Who hath beheld it, noted it with care, 
And, in his mind, recorded it with love." 


The Falls of Rydal Water, in the grounds of Rydal Hall, are two highly-picturesque 
Cascades. Though inconsiderable, by comparison with others, in extent and magnitude, 
they are invested with an air of romantic grandeur, and apparently identified with tales of 
mystery, that impart to them all the magic influence of a theatrical scene. 


The Lower Fall (of which a beautiful and correct representation appears in the 
Engraving) is an object of intense interest to every lover of the picturesque. ' The 
approach to it is through a narrow glen, till you come to a little thatched summer- 
house, standing on the banks of the Rothay, and which, from the date upon one of the 
window- shutters, would seem to have been erected in the year 1617- On entering the 
room of the summer-house, the view of the cascade bursts at once upon the eye. The 
suddenness and velocity of the impressions which the mind receives, defy every attempt to 
describe the effect produced on the spectator. The momentary effect is electrical. The 
noise of the torrent, and the dark shade of the overhanging and surrounding trees, form a 
scene which inspires a variety of pleasing yet melancholy sensations." Mr. Gilpin, one 
of our most distinguished topographers, observes, with reference to this cascade, that, 
"though a miniature only, it is so beautiful, both in itself and its accompaniments, as to 
deserve a particular notice. The water falls within a few yards of the eye, which, being 
rather above its level, has a long perspective view of the stream, as it hurries from the 
higher grounds, tumbling in various little breaks through its rocky channels, darkened 
with thicket, till it arrives at the edge of the precipice, before the window, whence it 
rushes into the basin, which is formed by nature in the native rock." Another writer 
remarks — " Nature has here performed every thing in little, that she usually executes on a 
larger scale ; and on that account, like a miniature painter, she seems to have finished 
every part of it in a studied manner. Not a little fragment of rock thrown into the basin, 
not a single stem of brushwood that starts from its craggy sides, but has a picturesque 
meaning, and the little central current, dashing down a cleft of the darkest coloured stone, 
produces an effect of light and shadow beautiful beyond description. This little theatrical 
scene might be painted as large as the original, on a canvass not bigger than those usually 
dropped in the Opera House." 

After the glowing descriptions we have quoted, it can scarcely be necessary to dwell 
longer on this unique and singularly interesting cascade. Nature, in her happiest mood, 
produced this scene — 

" In lofty minds to nourish high romance ;" 

and we would ask, who — 

" if master of a vacant houi, 
Here would not linger, willingly detained." 


Underlay Hall, the princely residence of Alexander Nowell, Esq., is situated in an 
extensive park, about half a mile northward of the town of Kirby Lonsdale. 

This structure is of very recent date, and is built of the finest stone, principally in the 
old English style of Gothic architecture, that prevailed in the reign of James I., but with a 
rich and massive Grecian portico. Objection has been taken to the site of this edifice, as 



not commanding those extensive and delightful prospects, which other and neighbouring 
situations afford. However this may be, the view which is here given of it can scarcely 
fail to raise a longing in the mind of the spectator, that this splendid fabric, with its 
magnificent lawn and gardens, were his " allotted home." " Shrined in its own delicious 
seclusion," Underlay Hall resembles the palace of the Happy Valley, where the Abyssinian 
princes reside during their minority, and to which they would willingly retire again, after 
brief experience of the world's tumult, and the ceaseless anxieties which gather round 
a throne. 

The artist has thrown a broad and vivid light upon the building, giving distinctness to 
that minute and decorative finish, the prevailing characteristic of the style in which it is 
executed. Over the lawn and gardens — 

" Behold, the shades of afternoon have fallen" — 

and the massive shadow affords a decisive and pleasing contrast to the brilliancy and lustre 
which invest the mansion. 


This majestic structure, the magnificent residence of the Earl of Lonsdale, stands in 
an extensive park, comprising six hundred acres of land, four miles and a half south of 
Penrith, on the east side of Lowther vale. The site of this mansion had attracted the 
notice of Lord Macartney, who, whilst describing a beautiful and romantic scene in China, 
observed, that " it reminded him of Lowther in Westmorland, which, from the extent of 
pi-ospect, the grand surrounding objects, the noble situation, the diversity of surface, the 
extensive woods, and command of water, might be rendered, by a man of sense, spirit, and 
taste, the finest scene in the British dominions." Whether his Lordship's opinion 
influenced the Earl of Lonsdale in his undertaking, we are not able to say ; but certain it 
is, that this nobleman, by the erection of the present Castle, and by a tasteful and judicious 
arrangement of the grounds in its vicinage, has nearly, if not entirely, realized the sug- 
gested scene. 

The Lowther family is of great antiquity. The names of William and Thomas de 
Lowther are subscribed as witnesses to a deed executed in the reign of Henry IT. ; 
there can, however, be little doubt that they were located here previously to the Conquest, 
as their name is evidently derived from the Lowther river, which in the ancient British 
language is Gled-dwr, signifying a limpid stream. In the reign of Elizabeth, Sir Richard 
Lowther, Knt., was appointed Lord Warden of the West Marches, and had the custody 
of Carlisle Castle, and of the unfortunate Mary, Queen of Scotland. In addition to the 
manor of Lowther, this house is now possessed of many other extensive demesnes, 
formerly belonging to the ancient families of Westmorland and Cumberland. 

Lowther Castle, the erection of which was begun in 1802, occupies the site of the old 
hall, which was nearly destroyed by fire so far back as the year 1720. This noble 


: ■■ 



structure is built of pale freestone, and combines the majestic effect of a fortification, with 
the splendour of a regal abode. The north and south fronts are of a widely different 
character, the former presenting the appearance of a castle, and the latter that of a 
cathedral. The view exhibited in the Engraving is taken from the south, and discovers 
the highly decorative Gothic work in this front of the building. The surrounding scenery 
" accords well with the solemn character of the edifice, being a lawn of emerald green and 
velvet smoothness, shut in by ornamental trees and shrubs, and by timber of the loftiest 
growth." The prospect from the north front is more extensive, and that from the great 
central tower is extremely grand, being shut in by the mountains Skiddaw and Helvellyn. 

The interior of the Castle is fitted up in a style of splendour, corresponding with the 
richness of the exterior, and exhibits a plentiful use of British oak, beautifully carved, in 
the wainscotting and furniture of the rooms. The grand staircase has an imposing 
appearance. The apartments are enriched with a vast quantity of massive plate, and 
contain several pictures of great value. 

The monastic character of the south front almost identifies the structure with our 
ancient abbatical residences ; while the aspect of the northern front recals the glorious 
days of chivalry, when " the feast was kept right merrily," and the castle walls echoed 
back the song of the minstrel : — ■ 

" The minstrel ! wandering on from hall to hall, 
Baronial court or royal; cheered with gifts 
Munificent, and love, and ladies' praise ; 
Now meeting on his road an armed knight, 
Now resting with a pilgrim by the side 
Of a clear brook ; — beneath an abbey's roof 
One evening sumptuously lodged ; the nest, 
Humbly, in a religious hospital ; 
Or with some merry outlaws of the wood ; 
Or haply shrouded in a hermit's cell." 


The view which is here presented of Derwentwater differs widely in its character from 
the one already described, at Castle-head. In the latter, the mountains, stretching along 
the western shore of the lake, rise smooth and uniform; several islands variegate the 
surface of the water ; and the whole scene reposes in quiet and pleasing majesty. Sur- 
veyed from the north-west, the stern and rugged features of the southern boundary arrest 
the sight. The spectator gazes in silence on the scarred and tempest-worn rocks, beyond 
which are seen a series of broken mountainous crags, soaring one above the other, and 
overshadowing the dark winding deeps of Borrowdale. 

The southern extremity of Derwentwater is shown in the accompanying view. This 
portion of the lake, usually called the Bay, includes in its scenery a picturesque, though 
distant view of the Lowdore cataract, issuing from a chasm in the rear of a small hamlet, 


which takes its name from the waterfall. Much of the wild sublimity that characterises 
this region, is produced by the vast and awful crags which rise on either side of the 
torrent. At the foot of these stands the hamlet of Lowdore, in which is a well-conducted 
inn, for the reception and accommodation of tourists. In the meadow, descending to the 
margin of the lake, an extremely fine echo can be heard, proceeding from the enormous 
fells above. 

The lake scenery of England is in no degree monotonous : when the visitor has con- 
templated with a mingled feeling of reverence and delight any one of those romantic and 
mind-ennobling prospects which it affords, he must not conclude that he has seen all the 
combinations of form that " mountain, flood, and vale," can assume. Even amid those 
scenes where beauty seemeth to repose " in the lap of horror," the naked crags and gloomy 
recesses of the overhanging mountains are surveyed with emotions of pleasure, rather than 
of pain ; — for, stern and awful as their appearance may be, they image forth a majesty 
more solemn, a magnificence infinitely greater than their own : — 

" These craggy regions, these chaotic wilds, 
Does that Benignity pervade, that warms 
The mole, contented with her darksome walk, 
In the cold ground." 

The meditative wanderer lingers in these deep retirements of nature " from morn till 
dewy eve," and at length leaves them with regret. He views them as the sacred haunt of 
superior intelligences, — beings with whom his soul claims kindred, and to whose " high 
converse" he hopes to be admitted. He feels — 

" How divine, 

The liberty, for frail, for mortal man 

To roam at large among unpeopled glens 

And mountainous retirements, only trod 

By devious footsteps, regions consecrate 

To cidest time * 

While the streams 

Descending from the regions of (he clouds, 

And starting from the hollows of the earth 

More multitudinous every moment, rend 

Their way before them — what a joy to roam 

An equal amongst mightiest energies, 

And haply sometimes with articulate voice, 

Amid the deafening tumult, scarcely heard 

By him that utters it, exclaim aloud, 

'Be this continued so from day to day, 

Nor let it have an end from month to month.' " 


The lake of Thirlmere, which is also called Wythburn Water, and occasionally Leathes 
Water, lies along the foot of the Borrowdale Fells, and extends nearly three miles in 


length ; the shores, however, approach so near to each other in the middle, that 
a bridge has been thrown over the strait, which divides the lake into two distinct 

On its eastern side, Thirlmere skirts the vast base of Helvellyn ; and the numerous 
torrents that rend their way down the sides of this mountain contribute their copious 
streams to the lake. A deep brown shade is imparted to the waters by the surrounding 
hills ; and there being little or scarcely any verdure on the banks, and no hanging woods 
to cast a rich shadow on its surface, this mere presents an almost uniform air of wildncss 
and desolation. The predominating features of the scene are greatly heightened by the 
vast crags apparently hanging on the sides of Helvellyn; from which, it is probable, they 
have been torn by some convulsion of nature. The western shore of the lake forms a 
small promontory, adorned with a neat manor-house enveloped in trees, and a picturesque 
group of rocks, some of which are pyramidal, and mantled with wood to their summits, 
while others boldly project their grey and naked sides. Thirlmere exceeds in its elevation 
that of any other lake, being five hundred feet above the level of the sea : the greatest 
depth of its waters is ascertained to be eighteen fathoms. 

In some measure connected with our present subject, is the mournful catastrophe of a 
young gentleman, who, in the spring of 1805, lost his way in the mountains, and perished 
beneath " the dark brow of the mighty Helvellyn." He had left Patterdalc without being 
able to procure a guide, and was proceeding to Wythburn ; contrary, however, to the 
advice of those acquainted with the dangers of the road, by whom he had been strongly 
persuaded to wait till a conductor could be procured. It began to snow heavily a short 
time after his departure, and to this circumstance his unhappy fate was, no doubt, mainly 
attributable. The mountain passes are, on such occasions, rendered unusually perilous, 
and the greatest circumspection is required, even in those who are not ignorant of their 
route. His remains lay undiscovered for three months ; when, at length, they were found 
guarded by a female terrier, the companion of his rambles. 

Sir Walter Scott, and the author of the " Excursion," have given a permanency to this 
touching incident ; the former by his poem — " Helvellyn," and the latter, by a beautiful 
composition, entitled " Fidelity." 

In " Helvellyn" are the following exquisite lines : — 

" How long didst thou think that his silence was aliiml»'r ' 
When the wind wav'd his garment, how oft didst thou starl ' 
How many long days and long nights didst thou numher, 

Ere he faded hefore thee, the friend of thy heart ! 
And, Oh ! was it meet that, no requiem read o'er him, 
No mother to weep, and no friend to deplore him. 
And thou, little guardian, alone Stretch'd before linn. 
Unhonoiar'd the pilgrim from life should depart." 


Different in poetical character, but not less beautiful and affecting, is this extract from 
" Fidelity :"— 

" The dog which still was hovering nigh, 
Repeating the same timid cry, 
This dog had been through three months' space 
A dweller in that savage place. 
Yes, proof was plain, that, since the day 
On which the traveller thus had died, 
The dog had watched about the spot, 
Or by his master's side : 
How nourished here through such long time 
He knows, who gave that love sublime, 
And gave that strength of feeling, great 
Above all human estimate." 

On the eastern side of Wythburn water is a rock, projecting into the lake, known by the 
name of "Clarke's Leap." It acquired the appellation from the circumstance of a person, 
bearing this name, having, in deference to the suggestion of his wife, precipitated himself 
into the mere. This singular instance of complaisance, it has been remarked, can find few, 
if any, parallels in ancient or modern times. 


Applethwaite, a hamlet in the township of Under-Skiddaw, is situated on the south 
side of the mountain, at the end of " a deep and wild chasm ;" and is distant from 
Keswick about a mile and a half towards the north. Oruiathwaite Hall, in the immediate 
neighbourhood, belongs to Sir John Walsh, Bart., together with the extensive surrounding 
estate. In Applethwaite is a large woollen manufactory. 

Skiddaw, as seen in the illustrative view, is too distant to give a just idea of its 
stupendous height and extent. It will, however, form the subject of another Engraving ; 
we may, therefore, refer to the present one as merely exhibiting, from a commanding point, 
the picturesque features of a mountain village : — 

" Seemingly preserved 
From the intrusion of a restless world. 
By rocks impassable and mountains huge." 


Airey Force, situated in a deep and winding glen, in the neighbourhood of Gowbarrow 
Park, is an extremely fine and picturesque object; contesting the palm of beauty with 
Stockgill Force. A delightful winding path leads up the rocky vale to the waterfall, and 
after making a sudden turn, so as to come into a nook of the glen, the visitor arrives in 


front of the cataract. The water rushes through a chasm in the rocks, divided at the top 
by a narrow ledge ; but the stream thus broken, unites again before it has fallen half way 
down. The descent is not less than eighty feet perpendicular ; and the sun's rays, falling 
upon the clouds of mist, produce several concentric rainbows, which brighten and fade 
alternately, according to the greater or less density of the spray. The waters plunge into 
a deep basin, whence they issue forth in a rapid and transparent stream. The rocks and 
trees, surrounding the Force, render it perfectly secluded, and invest it with the deep 
privacy of those mountain retreats, where — 

" Once, while the name Jehovah was a sound 
Within the circuit of this sea-girt isle 

To the inventions of corrupted man 
Mysterious rites were solemnized — " 

" rites of such strange potency. 
As, done in open day, would dim the sun, 
Though high enthroned in noontide brightness." 

Seen from the highest point of rock, whence the fall commences, this cascade assumes 
an appearance yet more striking than when viewed from below. The yawning gulf, and 
perpendicular channel, excavated by the continual passage of the waters, have some- 
thing terrific in their character, and cause the spectator powerfully to feel 

" How fearful 
And dizzy 'tis to cast one's eyes so low." 


Pooley-Bridge, a village at the foot of Ullswater, has a comfortable inn for the reception 
of tourists ; and boats can always be obtained here for voyaging the lake. 

The mountains surrounding Ullswater, in the neighbourhood of Pooley-Bridge, do not 
rise to so great a height as those which extend along the middle and upper reaches ; the 
general features of the lake are, however, distinctly charactered. Here, as at Patterdale, 
and in the vicinity of Gowbarrow Park, the mountains wear not the aspect of peaceful 
majesty, but the stern frown of demons sullenly brooding over the waters. The scenery 
of the lower reach is enriched by the river Eamont, a clear and rapid stream, into which 
the lake discharges its contents ; and by the steep, conical, wood-covered hill of Dun- 
mallet, at one season of the year wearing a mantle of the richest foliage, and at another 
assuming the mellow tints of autumn. 

The Engraving exhibits the lake of Ullswater under an aspect entirely different from 
any in which we have before seen it. The glassy surface of the waters is broken up, and 


in its place a thousand waves are rolling and tossing over each other. The trees bend 
beneath the fury of the winds, and " howl a mournful requiem in the blast." The 
accumulated clouds roll heavily along, and, descending by the sides of the mountains, 
increase a thousand-fold the awful grandeur of this solitude : — 

" The stormy winds 
Are working the broad bosom of the lake 
Into a thousand, thousand sparkling waves, 
Rocking the trees, and driving clouds on clouds 
Along the sharp edge of yon lofty crags.' 

A tempest is at all times, and under any circumstances, a solemn and awakening occur- 
rence ; but in those chaotic wilds, where humanity shudders at its own helplessness, the 
mountain wanderer gazes with fearful interest on " the war of elements," till at length 
appears the token of returning peace — 

" Bright apparition, suddenly put forth — 
The rainbow ! — smiling on the faded storm." 

When the thunders have ceased to lift up their voice — when the tumultuous echoes of 
the hills are hushed again to silence, and the dark clouds which overshadowed the spirit 
of the storm, are broken and dispersed — should the sun at this instant be near his setting, 
a scene of overpowering splendour bursts upon the sight : — 

" Rays of light- 
Now suddenly diverging from the orb, 
Retired behind the mountain tops, or veiled 
By the dense air — shoot upwards to the crown 
Of the blue firmament — aloft — and wide : 
And multitudes of little floating clouds, 

Innumerable multitude of forms, 

Are scattered through the circle of the sky. 

• **»** 

That which the heavens display, the liquid deep 
Repeateth, but with unity sublime !" 


Lanercost Priory, giving the name of Abbey Lanercost to a small hamlet in its 
neighbourhood, stands on the north bank of the river Irthing, at the distance of about 
twelve miles east-north-east from Carlisle. 

This Priory appears to have been founded about the year 1116, for the reception of a 
brotherhood of the Augustine order, by one Robert de Vallibus, who endowed it with 
" all the lands lying between the Picts' Wall and the Irthing." Liberal donations, and pro- 
gressive extension of territory, had enriched this monastery so greatly, that at the dissolu- 
tion it was enjoying a yearly income of nearly £80 — a considerable revenue in those days. 




The edifice, in its present state, includes the remains of the conventual church, a 
portion of the cloisters, and part of the walls of the refectory and other buildings. The 
west end being used as the parish church, is preserved from dilapidation ; but the tower, 
chancel, and cross aisles have long been roofless, and the beautiful Gothic work displayed 
on the walls is nearly hidden beneath a profusion of ivy. At the extremities of the cross 
aisles are several tombs, sculptured with the armorial bearings of the Dacres and the 
Howards. These memorials of departed greatness, now mutilated and overgrown with 
moss, refer to a period when the structure flourished under the auspices of papal authority, 

" The heavy knell, the choir's faint swell 
Came slowly down the wind, 
And on the pilgrim's ear they fell, 
As his wonted path he did find." 

Hutchinson relates, on the testimony of an aged person living near the Abbey, " that, 
some years ago, one of the sepulchral vaults fell in, when several bodies were found entire ; 
one in particular with a white beard down to the waist, but a few days reduced them to 
dust." The cemetery-grounds have been converted into gardens ; and many stone coffins 
and inscribed monuments may still be seen lying amongst the trees. 

This Priory, with the adjacent lands, was granted by Henry VIII., in 1543, to 
Thomas Dacre, a descendant from the founder. He repaired the conventual mansion for 
his residence ; and here his descendants remained, till, by a failure of male issue, the 
building and its demesnes reverted to the crown. It is now in the tenure of the Earl 
of Carlisle. 

The Engraving exhibits the richly-ornamented gateway at the west end, consisting of 
a circular arch of many members, supported by pilasters. Three lofty Gothic windows 
confer dignity on this front of the edifice ; and in a niche immediately above them, is a 
statue of Mary Magdalen, the tutelary saint of the Priory. The structure, both in itself 
and in its scenic accompaniments, is exceedingly picturesque ; and of Lanercost Abbey, 
as of the far-famed Melrose, it may be said, in the glowing language of the Northern 
Minstrel : — 

" Wouldst thou view this fair Abbey aright, 
Go visit it by the pale moon-light; 
For the gay beams of lightsome day 
Gild but to flout the ruins gray ; 
When the broken arches are black in night, 
And each shafted oriel glimmers white ; 
When the cold light's uncertain shower 
Gleams on the ruin'd central tower ; 
When buttress and buttress alternately, 
Seem framed of ebon and ivory ; 
When silver edges the imagery, 
And the scrolls that teach thee to live and die." 




Raby Castle, situated within the parish of Staindrop, on the east side of an extensive 
and beautiful park, is the magnificent seat of the Duke of Cleveland. This nobleman be- 
came Earl of Darlington on the decease of his father, in 1792 ; he was created Marquis in 
182/, and has subsequently been elevated to a Dukedom. The site of this edifice is pas- 
toral rather than romantic ; being in the vicinity of a richly-cultivated country, which 
exhibits all the gratifying results of agricultural art. The prospect is bounded on the 
east and west by distant hills ; and towards the north " the nearer parts of the horizon 
are beautifully verged by plantations, raised by the late Lord Darlington, who, in every 
part of his extensive property, gave the highest proof of his attention and taste." 

This " noble pile of stately towers, retaining all the appearance of antiquity, and giving 
the most perfect idea of a great baron's palace in feudal ages," is supposed to occupy the 
site of " Canute's Mansion." Great part of the present Castle was built by John de Nevill, 
to whom, in 1379, license was granted to castellate and fortify the same. Its pristine 
appearance remains uninjured to this day ; the recent repairs and additions having been 
made in strict conformity to the character and original design of the building. The 
possession continued in the Nevill family till the forfeiture by Charles, sixth Earl of 
Westmorland, in 15/0, when it fell to the crown. In the reign of James I., the manor 
and castle of Raby, with their appendages, were purchased by an ancestor of the present 
noble proprietor. 

The south front of the edifice is extremely beautiful, and the windows are truly 
elegant in their style and proportions. The great hall, or " rendezvous apartment," is 
120 feet long by 36 feet broad; and is crossed at the west end by a gallery, which, in 
olden times, was appropriated to orchestral purposes, and those exhibitions of mimicry in 
which our ancestors took so great delight. To this room are attached historical recollec- 
tions of the proudest character. Here were celebrated those baronial festivals, at which 
were assembled full seven hundred knights, who held their estates of the Nevill family : 
here, at intervals, when the laughter and loud merriment of the feast were suspended, the 
minstrel told his legendary tale, and aroused the lofty valour of the warriors, as he swept 
with aged hand over the sounding strings, and alternately sunk the chords to the ecstacies 
of love, or swelled them to the thunders of battle. 

The different towers are said to derive their names from the various distinguished 
personages to whom, during the periods of civil war and Scottish incursions, their 
government was consigned. The dining-room in Clifford's tower is ornamented with 
a large music-piece, containing the group of figures placed by Rubens in the centre of 
" the Marriage-feast of Canaan," in which he introduces himself and his contemporaries 
as musical performers. In this room, also, and in other parts of the Castle, are many 
excellent portraits of personages connected with the present family. 



" Sunderland and Bishop Wearmouth, on the south side of the river Wear, together 
with Monk Wearmouth, on the opposite shore, are connected by a handsome iron bridge, 
and form one populous commercial town and sea-port, pleasantly situated near the con- 
fluence of the Wear with the German Ocean." 

Early in the seventh century, a monastery was founded on the north side of the Wear, 
in which, according to the testimony of Bede, a religious society assembled under the 
superintendence of St. Bega. A more splendid foundation, however, was laid about the 
year 674, by Biscopius, who, having obtained from King Egfrid a grant of land on 
the north bank of the Wear, built an abbey, which he dedicated to St. Peter. In 786, 
the Danes plundered and destroyed this monastery ; and when, after a lapse of five years, 
it had been rebuilt, another religious institution had also been founded on the south side 
of the Wear. From the contiguity of these two edifices, considerable confusion arises in 
their history. At the dissolution, the whole yearly revenues did not amount to more 
than £26. 9s. 9d. ; which, though an important sum at that time, was trifling when com- 
pared with the resources of other monasteries. 

Monk Wearmouth is a place of great antiquity, and appears to be coeval with the monas- 
tery; but Bishop Wearmouth is not mentioned in history till the year 930, in the reign of 
Athelstan. The first authentic record which speaks of the port and borough of Sunderland, 
is dated in the close of the twelfth century. It is probable, however, that the coal-trade, 
from which Sunderland has derived great part of its wealth, did not reach the Wear 
until the reign of Elizabeth, or of James I. In 1G34, the burgesses and inhabitants were 
incorporated under the title of " mayor, aldermen, and commonalty of the borough of 
Sunderland ;" and a privilege was granted for holding annual fairs and a market. A 
progressive increase of population and commerce has, by a natural consequence, brought 
about very considerable improvements in this port, as well in its maritime appendages, as 
in the extent of the streets, and the character of the buildings. Besides the parish 
church, there is one erected so recently as the year 1827, in St. John Street, by order of 
the parliamentary commissioners, together with many dissenting chapels, and a consider- 
able number of charitable institutions. By the provisions of the Reform Act, Sunder- 
land has been erected into a borough, and returns two members to Parliament. 

The iron bridge, which crosses the river Wear at Sunderland, is beautifully simple in 
its construction, having only one magnificent arch, spanning a distance of nearly 23J feet : 
the centre of the arch is elevated almost 100 feet above the water, when the tide is down ; 
and vessels of 200 to 300 tons burden can pass under with only striking their top-gallant- 
masts. This structure was begun in 1793, and opened on the 9th of August, 1796, in the 
presence of his Royal Highness the Duke of Gloucester, and a vast multitude of spectators. 
In the centre, on each side of the bridge, is the motto — " Nil desperandum auspice Deo." 


The imports of Sunderland are numerous, as are also the exports ; but of the latter, the 
principal article is coal, the trade in which furnishes employment for a vast number of 
keels and vessels. Lime and glass form important articles of commerce in this port, 
and ship-building is carried on to a very great extent. 

That terrible visitation, the cholera morbus, after having traversed Asia, and great part 
of Europe, at length reached Hamburgh ; it then passed across the German ocean tb 
Sunderland, whence it spread itself through great part of the United Kingdom. 


In this View, the spectator, standing with his back towards Skiddaw, enjoys a fine 
prospect, including the beautiful and romantic hamlet of Applethwaite, the northern 
extremity of Derwentwater, and the lofty range of mountains forming the south-western 
boundary of the lake. 

The lovely and sequestered dwelling-place, in the foreground of our View, by " circling 
mountains sever'd from the world," appears to be a spot peculiarly suited to the rich and 
glowing visions of young romance. 

" There the rapt poet's step may rove, 
And yield the Muse the day ; 
There Beauty, led by timid Love, 
May shun the tell-tale ray." 

The distant lake reposes in calm and silent majesty : 

"Time writes no wrinkles on its azure brow!" 

The hills, patriarchs of the solitude ! decked with their coronets of mist, and " gleam- 
ing with purple" — 

" like giants stand 
To sentinel enchanted land." 


Keswick, a small market-town of neat appearance, consisting of one long street, is 
delightfully situated near the foot of Derwentwater, at the distance of eighteen miles from 
Penrith. Tourists to the Lakes are here provided with every accommodation, both as 
respects domestic comfort, and the requisites for their pleasurable excursions. An annual 
regatta is held on the last Thursday and Friday in August, when the several sports of 
horse-racing, rowing, and wrestling are maintained with great spirit. 

The Town-hall was erected in 1813 : on the ground-floor the meal, butter, egg, and 
poultry market is held ; and the upper part of the building forms a commodious court- 
room, in which the Governors of Greenwich Hospital sit as lords of the manor of Castle- 
rigg and Derwentwater. The principal manufactures in Keswick consist of coarse woollen 
goods, and black-lead pencils ; and in these a considerable portion of the inhabitants 


find employment. The population at this time can scarcely be estimated tit less than from 
two to three thousand. 

There are in Keswick two museums, exhibiting, in addition to many foreign curiosities, 
the natural history and mineral productions of the surrounding country. At each of 
these, the visitor can purchase interesting specimens, illustrating the geology of the 

With the accompanying view before him, the reader need not be told that the situation 
of the town is beautiful and romantic. From the spirited delineation here given, the eye 
is enabled to convey to the mind a vivid impression of " this scene sublime :" — 

" Where, as to shame the temples deck'd 
By skill of earthly architect, 
Nature herself, it seemed, would raise 
A minster to her Maker's praise." 

On the mountains forming the back-ground of the view, the history of centuries is 
charactered ; and whilst viewing them, the question suggests itself, — 

" Yon beetling brow, 
In craggy nakedness sublime, 
What heart or foot shall dare to climb?" 

The following extract from " The Lady of the Lake," beautifully describes the natural 
phenomena so frequently observable in a mountainous neighbourhood : — 

" The evening mists, with ceaseless change, 
Now clothe the mountain's lofty range, 

Now leave their foreheads bare, 
And round the skirts their mantle furl, 
Or on the sable waters curl, 
Or on the eddying breezes whirl, 
Dispers'd in middle air. 

And oft, condensed, at once they lower, 
When, brief and fierce, the mountain shower 

Pours like a torrent down ; 
And when return the sun's glad beams, 
Whiten'd with foam, a thousand streams 

Leap from the mountain's crown." 

Keswick offers a delightful and halcyon retreat, suitable to many occasions in life. 
The young bride who has unreluctantly parted with " her maiden gladness, for a name and 
for a ring" — the happy family circle, desirous of collecting a store of amusing incidents and 
useful information, to enliven the winter evenings at home — the citizen who can assure 
himself, that labyrinths of brick and mortar are not the most picturesque features in nature, 
and that an echo heard in the mountains, discourses music not less eloquent than " cent 
per cent" whispered on 'Change — for each and all of these, Keswick and its neighbourhood 
affords the varying prospect, " ever charming — ever new," fanned by breezes pregnant with 
health, and redolent of balmy odours, more grateful and refreshing than the rich fragrance 
" of Araby— of Araby the blest." 




The ancient village of Bothal is seated in a romantic and picturesque amphitheatre, on 
the north bank of the river Wansbeck, three miles from Morpeth. The church contains 
black-letter tablets inscribed with the genealogy of the Ogles, and also an alabaster monu- 
ment, bearing recumbent figures of a lord of this family and his lady. 

Bothal Castle stands between the river and the village, on the brink of a rock whose 
foot is washed by the Wansbeck. Of this edifice, a large tower gateway, and several 
fragments of the outer walls, are still remaining. The former of these, with its strong lofty 
towers, appears to be the most modern part of the castle, and bears several shields of arms, 
besides the figure of a man in the attitude of sounding a horn, and another effigy repre- 
senting a man holding a ball in his hands. This part of the structure is referred to the 
time of Edward IV., and several of its apartments are still in a state of good preservation. 

The lordship of Bothal having been made a barony by Richard Coeur de Lion, was 
held in capite by Robert Bertram, on the service of three knight's fees. In the reign of 
Edward III., a descendant of the same family obtained the royal permission to make a 
castle of his manor-house at Bothal. His daughter and heiress conveyed the barony in 
marriage to Sir Robert Ogle, Knt., whose family, had long enjoyed considerable influence, 
and held large possessions in Northumberland. It subsequently came into the possession of 
the Duke of Portland ; by whom a court-leet and baron is held annually in April and May. 
It has frequently been remarked, that the ancient baronial structures have, written upon 
their walls, a brief history of the most remarkable characters and events that are to be 
found in the annals of their country. Bothal Castle is not wanting in proud associations : 
Richard, the lion-hearted, conferred upon it marks of royal favour; and with his memory 
are connected the crusades against the Saracens, the " pride, pomp, and circumstance" of 
chivalrous enterprise, and (resulting from the last of these) the earlier dawn of national 
refinement. Edward III. granted permission to castellate the edifice. With his name are 
associated the " harde foughten fieldes" — Cressy and Poictiers. The mention of Edward IV. 
refers us to those scenes of carnage with which the rival princes of York and Lancaster, 
in an age when freedom had not reached maturity, were permitted to " affright the 
peaceful land." Our ancient structures, therefore, whether lay or ecclesiastical, are sacred 
depositories of national history; — either records of glorious achievements and eventful 
periods, or venerable witnesses against tyranny and injustice, and the lawless aberrations 
of regal sway. If such be their uses, wisely may we adopt the prayer of the poet, — 

" that no proud, insulting foe 
May ever lay these temples low, 

Or violate these fanes ; 
No moody fanatic deface 
The works of wondrous art that grace 

Antiquity's remains." 



Morpeth is a well-built town, pleasantly situated on the north side of the river 
Wansbeck, at the distance of nearly fifteen miles north from Newcastle, in a warm 
and sheltered vale, surrounded with a rich, cultivated country. The name is, perhaps, 
derived from More-path, or the road through the moor ; and if so, its corruption by the 
course of time is comparatively inconsiderable. Under the Saxons and Danes this town 
arrived at no great importance ; but after the Norman Conquest it was erected into an 
honour and styled the Barony of Morpeth or Merlay, from its possessors the Lords 

The borough of Morpeth first sent members to parliament in the reign of Queen Mary, 
since which time it has continued to send two representatives to the Lower House. By 
the recent act for amending the representative system, the borough is now, however, 
restricted to the return of only one member. In Leland's Itinerary, it is spoken of as 
being " a far fayrer towne then Alnwicke ;" but the improvements which have been wrought 
by time in the latter place have brought them nearer to an equality. Morpeth retains 
its ancient consequence ; and exhibits in its southern suburbs many handsome houses of 
modern erection. 

The view of Morpeth, illustrating this description, exhibits the bustle and activity 
which prevail at the weekly market, held on Wednesday. The market place is conveniently 
situated near the centre of the town ; but so numerous are the droves of cattle exposed for 
sale, that more space than it affords would be desirable. The cross is a commodious 
structure; and was built in 1699, at the joint expense of the Hon. Philip Howard, and 
Sir Henry Belasyse, Knt. The clock-house, a square tower, near to the market place, 
contains a clock, and a good peal of bells. The utility of this erection arises from the 
parochial church being situated at some distance from Morpeth, in the township of High 

On the west side of the market place stands the town-hall, built in 1/14, by the Earl 
of Carlisle, whose eldest son takes the title of Viscount Morpeth. The lower part of the 
edifice is occasionally converted into a theatre, and the upper story has been appropriated 
to the courts of sessions, and to other public uses. This structure has a rusticated piazza, 
and is decorated with turrets and a pediment. Between the town-hall and the bridge 
stands the county gaol, a decent and substantial building. 

The Grammar-school, an ancient building, coeval with many other similar institutions, 
was founded in the reign of Edward the Sixth ; by whom it was endowed with the lands 
belonging to two dissolved chantries in Morpeth, and one at Nether Witton. 

Morpeth has been the birth-place or residence of many eminent individuals, amongst 
whom is Robert Morrison, the celebrated Chinese linguist and missionary. 



This view has been selected on account of its wild, romantic, and melo-dramatic cha- 
racter; and not with reference to any historical incident, or traditional legend connected 
with it. To the tourist, this Mill, with its accompaniments, presents a beautiful and highly 
interesting scene ; and the visitor to Stockgill Force would deprive himself of a gratifi- 
cation, if he were not to include it among the noticeable objects in the neighbourhood 
of that cascade. 

Unobtrusive, however, as the Mill on the Stockgill is, the most interesting associations 
are connected with it. The Mill itself is the offspring of mechanical art, and an accessory 
of commerce ; but the situation which it occupies is in the midst of those solitary retreats 
where the eagle builds her eyrie, and in which other sounds than those of the torrent and 
of the echoing hills are seldom heard. 


Of the Lower Fall at Rydal, a beautiful representation, accompanied by a description, 
has already been given. The Upper Fall being more extensive, its beauties are of a very 
different character; and whilst the former is surveyed with an unmingled feeling of 
delight ; the latter inspires sensations of astonishment bordering on fear. 

The cascade exhibited in the engraving, is in a glen, at a short distance from Rydal 
Hall, whence a convenient path conducts the spectator at once to the most picturesque 
point of view from which the Fall can be seen. On arriving at a turn in this road, the eye 
is arrested by a considerable stream of water, descending in one unbroken sheet from a 
rock of great height into a basin below ; and the ear is at the same time stunned with the 
roar of the torrent, which produces a concussion that appears to shake the very mountain 
itself. The grandeur of the spectacle is considerably increased by the foaming and strug- 
gling of the waters over a rocky bed previously to their reaching the basin. 

The beautiful and well-known description of a waterfall, by Thomson, applies with 
singular fidelity to this cascade : — 

" Smooth to the shelving brink, a copious flood 
Rolls fair and placid ; where, collected all, 
In one impetuous torrent, down the steep 
It thundering shoots, and shakes the country round. 
At first, an azure sheet, it rushes broad ; 
Then whitening by degrees as prone it falls, 
And from the loud-resounding rocks below 
Dash'd in a cloud of foam, it sends aloft 
A hoary mist, and forms a ceaseless shower." 



The village of Mitford, pleasantly situated at the confluence of the rivers Wansbeck 
and Font, is distant two miles west from Morpeth. The church is an interesting and 
ancient edifice; the advowson and impropriation of which were granted by Edward I. to 
the Priory of Lanercost, in Cumberland. Within the chancel is the tomb and effigy of 
Bertram Revely, of Mitford Castle, who died in 1022. 

The ruins of Mitford Castle stand upon a lofty eminence on the south side of the 
Wansbeck. These remains lie scattered in confused heaps, and occupy nearly an acre of 
ground, skirted on the south and West by a deep ditch or moat. 

The manor of Mitford, so early as the reign of Edward the Confessor, gave name to its 
proprietors ; and shortly after the Conquest, William I. conferred the only daughter and 
heiress of Sir John Mitford on Sir Richard Bertram, one of his Norman adventurers, by 
whom she had two sons, William and Roger. The former of these succeeded to the manor 
and castle, which were erected into a barony by Henry I., and subsequently forfeited in 
the reign of Henry III. In 1316, this Castle was in the possession of Gilbert Middleton, 
a noted freebooter, who, for his daring outrages, was executed in London. Two years 
after, the structure was seized and dismantled by Alexander, king of Scotland; when the 
whole barony was held by the Earl of Pembroke, an unworthy favourite of the unfortunate 
Edward II. In the reign of Henry VIII. these demenses were possessed by Lord Brough, 
whose descendant granted them, in the time of Queen Mary, to Cuthbert Mitford and his 
heirs for ever; reserving, however, to himself the site of the castle and its royalties. These 
last having devolved on the crown, were given by Charles II. to the representative of the 
Mitford family, with whose descendants they have ever since remained. 

Mitford Castle has never undergone repair since its destruction by the Scottish monarch ; 
and the ravages of time during a lapse of five hundred years, it may well be supposed, 
have contributed, in no slight degree, to its utter demolition. The remains which do 
exist, however, have a two-fold interest, arising from their antiquity, and a close con- 
nexion with the national history. Time is " the beautifier of the dead :" it shrouds the 
frailties of departed greatness, — it throws a mystic veil over the ruined edifice ; and men, 
the beings of a day, approach with reverential awe the dilapidated tomb or structure that 
rolls back upon them long departed ages, and reveals, it may be said, the history of a by- 
gone world. 

The accompanying view is taken from the east. The road across the bridge leads to 
the church and parsonage house. Along the side of the Wansbeck, the scenery is exceed- 
ingly picturesque ; and from the turnpike road to the north of the Castle, a beautiful 
prospect is discovered, including a noble vista of trees, the river, and an elegant modern 
edifice erected by Mr. Mitford, the present proprietor of the manor. 




This ancient and beautiful edifice was founded in the year 1091, by Osmund, bishop 
of Salisbury and Earl of Dorset, a follower of the Norman conqueror. Henry I. gave it, 
with others, to the church of Carlisle ; in the patronage of which see it still remains. 
Though the presentation to the living, however, is vested in the Bishop of Carlisle, the 
vicar of St. Nicholas claims jurisdiction over the other three parochial churches in the 
town, and their benefices are in his gift. > 

The original structure was burnt down in 1216, and the present edifice erected in 
1359; since which period it has undergone frequent repairs, and been rendered eminently 
beautiful. It is now universally allowed to be a most magnificent building ; and its situa- 
tion, on the crown of a bold eminence, rising abruptly from the river nearly to the centre 
of the town, is the, most advantageous position that could have been selected. The exterior 
dimensions of the church are, — eighty yards in length, twenty-five in breadth, and sixty- 
four in height, to the extremity of the steeple. From the square tower rise two bold stone 
arches, supporting a large and beautiful lantern, crowned with a tall spire, and decorated with 
a number of rich pinnacles. The steeple is the admiration of all strangers visiting Newcastle. 

The interior of this church presents a most solemn and imposing appearance. The 
nave measures nearly 1 10 feet in length, and about "J A feet in breadth ; while the choir, 
from the organ gallery to the east window, extends something more than 110 feet, and is 
63 feet and a half in width. In 1783, a subscription, amounting to upwards of £1200, 
was formed, for the purpose of making such alterations, as should give this church the air 
and character of a cathedral. The chancel was accordingly thrown open, the communion 
table removed under the great east window, and the erections at the west end cleared 
.away to afford space for the purposes of sepulture. Many of the ancient monuments were 
destroyed by the Scots ; and others were unfortunately much broken and defaced during 
the progress of the renovations. The church, however, contains several fine specimens of 
modern sculpture ; the most interesting of which are those erected to the memory of 
Sir Matthew White Ridley, Lord Collingwood, the Rev. Hugo Moises, and Calverley 
Bewicke, Esq. The figure of Religion on the tomb of the Rev. H. Moises is much admired ; 
as is also the group in the monument of Colonel Bewicke. 

An admirable painting on glass, (executed by John Gibson, Esq., of Newcastle,) repre- 
senting our Saviour bearing the cross, was placed in the great east window in 1827. 

Our view, taken from the entrance to the south aisle, extends to the great east window, 
and conveys a perfect idea of the interior of this noble ecclesiastical edifice. The monu- 
ment, forming a prominent feature of the engraving, is that of a former mayor of New- 
castle ; and round the lower part of the cenotaph are carved the effigies of his children. 
It is deemed a fine specimen of funereal architecture, belonging to the era of James I. 



This mansion, delightfully situated on the banks of the river Derwent, in the parish 
of Bridekirk, overlooks the fine venerable ruins of Cockerrnouth Castle ; and commands 
the most picturesque views, comprising magnificent scenery in mountains, rivers, and 

Wood Hall, together with the manor of Bridekirk, was at an early period vested in the 
Priory of Guisborough ; but when, at the dissolution of religious houses, this, with other 
monastic estates, was seized upon by the crown, Henry VIII. granted them to Henry 
Tolson, Esq., and to his heirs for ever, to be held in capite, by the twentieth part of a 
knight's fee, on yielding to his majesty's successors the annual rent of twenty-six shillings. 
A descendant from this proprietor enfranchised the manor in 1701 ; and six years after- 
wards, it appears, sold the estate of Wood Hall to Mr. Grisdale, the ancestor of the pre- 
sent possessor, J. S. Fisher, Esq., who resides at the mansion. Major Richard Henry 
Tolson, F.S.A. is the existing representative of the ancient family, named above. 

This elegant structure is a modern erection ; but the original edifice occupied part of 
a Roman station. It subsequently became the retreat of Henricus, a Saxon ; one of those 
who excelled in olden magnificence, by having a dais in the hall for the reception and 
entertainment of his guests, and, at the lower end, a bower, or recess, where he retired to 
rest. In a stream of water which ran through the premises into the river Derwent, he- 
is also said to have baptized his children. Near the windows of the hall, the vallum and 
walls were sufficiently thick to form a vestibule, in which conversation might be held, yet 
not be heard in the room. 

The building, exhibited in the engraving, is a truly enviable retreat; seated on a con- 
siderable elevation, in the midst of a picturesque amphitheatre, it commands the most 
delightful prospects, bounded by wood-covered eminences, or terminating with the distant 
mountains. The tortuous windings of the Derwent enrich the landscape, and confer upon 
it an air of surpassing loveliness. The river itself is not monotonous in its beauty: 
the glassy surface that, with the fidelity of a mirror, reflects the objects extending 
along its banks, is occasionally broken and relieved by the trout-leap foaming over its 
stony bed. 

To those, if any there be, who have no relish for the charms of nature, as developed in 
the scene before us, the poet addresses a powerful remonstrance : — 

" Oh, how canst thou renounce the boundless store 
Of charms, which nature to her votaries yields ! 
The warbling woodland, the resounding shore, 
The pomp of groves, and garniture of fields, 
All that the genial ray of morning gilds, 
And all that echoes to the song of even." 



This Lake, situated between the lofty mountains of Grasmoor and Melbreak, is distant 
two miles east from Lowes Water, and extends within about three quarters of a mile of 
Buttermere. On its surface are three small islands, one a naked rock, and the other two 
covered with wood : owing to their contiguity to the shore, they contribute but little to 
the beauty of the lake. The head of Crummock Water is exceedingly line ; the middle 
part is remarkable for bold and naked grandeur ; and at the foot is spread a rich profusion 
of wood. Like Buttermere, and many of the other lakes, it is well stocked with trout, &c.&c. 

This romantic solitude is invested with a sublimity attributed by fable to the regions 
that " mortal foot bath ne'er profaned ;" and were it not for the shepherds and their 
faithful assistants, gathering their scattered charge, and the diminutive sails visible on the 
deep-shadowed wave, we might justly deem it the peculiar abode of silence, and 

" The broad blue lake, extending far and wide, 
Its waters dark beneath the light of noon," 

would picture to the imagination the classic Lethe. 

If to " look through nature up to nature's God" is the legitimate object of refined and 
sensitive minds, in their contemplations of material beauty, scenes similar to that which 
we have described, cannot fail to excite emotions of reverence, and give enlarged con- 
ceptions of Deity. To recognize a supreme Power in the dark cloud and in the stirring 
wind, is not the mere simplicity of an untutored mind. Standing in those cloud-roofed 
temples " that human hands have never helped to pile," the philosopher and the peasant 
are alike compelled to acknowledge the presence of the " God of the mountains," 

" at whose will the clouds 
Cluster around the heights, who sendeth them 
To shed their fertilizing showers, and raise 
The drooping herb, and o'er the thirsty vale 
Spread their green freshness ; at whose voice the hills 
Grow black with storms." 

The illustrative Engraving exhibits the central portion of Crummock Water, and is 
taken from a point between Scale Hill and Scale Force. The vast mountain of Grasmoor, 
its barren sides streaked with beds of shale, is seen robed with the thunder-cloud ; and 
immediately in front, is the comparatively low but abrupt hill, called Randon Knot, 
extending a bold promontory into the lake. In the centre of the Engraving appear the 
rugged heights of Honister Crag ; and the acclivity, in the foreground, on the right hand, 
is part of'the Red Pike mountain. The foot of this hill, and the road along it, are merely 
sheep tracts, and form by no means a convenient route for the pedestrian tourist. He, 
however, who travels " in search of the picturesque," will not regard obstacles of this 
nature ; a good staff, strong shoes, and a little patience, will enable him to make his way. 



This is the usual residence of the Bishop of Durham ; the Castle, at the latter place, 
being only occasionally occupied by the right reverend prelate during his visits to the 
seat of his diocese. The present edifice, like that at Durham, is known indifferently 
by the name of the Castle, or the Palace. The original building is said formerly to have 
been a manor-house belonging to the see; afterwards castellated by Bishop Bek, who also 
built a large hall, and adorned it with pillars. During the commonwealth, this structure 
was placed in the hands of a violent partizan. Sir Arthur Hazelrigg; who, after demolish- 
ing nearly all the buildings, produced a magnificent mansion out of the ruins. At the 
Restoration, Bishop Cosins, who had been ejected from his palace by the puritans, was 
restored to his diocese ; and by him the lordly erection of the before-named fanatic was 
levelled with the ground. The materials were then once more applied to their ancient 
uses, and great part of the now existing palace produced. 

The building is somewhat irregular in its character, owing to the different periods in 
which the several parts were completed ; and, having lost its castellated form, it now bears 
strong resemblance to some of the magnificent foreign Abbeys. The approach to the 
edifice is by an elegant gothic gateway, and skreen, erected by Bishop Trevor, after a 
design by James Wyatt, Esq. The principal apartments in the Palace are, a spacious 
old hall, and a magnificent dining-room, ornamented with excellent paintings of Jacob 
and the Twelve Patriarchs. The wainscoting, in one of the lower rooms, is decorated 
with the armorial distinctions of many potentates, contemporaries of Queen Elizabeth, 
together with those of sixteen peers attached to her court ; and over all are emblazoned 
the heraldic bearings of every bishopric in England. 

The approach to the Park, in which the Palace is situated, is particularly beautiful ; 
the scene being varied by verdant slopes, rising grounds, woods, and deep precipices 
impending over the Wear, and enriched with landscapes composed of wild and irregular 
woodlands, bold cliffs, and eminences, mingled* in the most picturesque manner. — 
It has been remarked, that " language is too weak, and but few pencils are suffi- 
ciently powerful to delineate the rich scenery of Auckland Park." From a descriptive 
poem, by one of Bishop Trevor's domestics, the following lines, happily illustrative 
of the subject, are extracted : — 

" When Spring, advancing, clothes the laughing grove 
In robes of green, embossed with blossoms pale ; 
When Autumn tinctures every fading leaf 
With vivid dyes, from the refulgent gold 
To the full-bodied tint of russet brown; 
Say, can the pencil's warmest touch convey 
The varied richness of the glowing scene?" 



Barnard Castle, a market-town and township in the parish of Gainford, situated on 
the southern declivity of a hill, descending to the river Tees, is distant twenty-five miles 
south-west from Durham. It is a place of great antiquity, and, in common with many other 
ancient towns, originated with the fortified erection in the immediate neighbourhood. 

About the year 1093, William Kufus gave to Guido Baliol, a follower of the Conqueror, 
" the forests of Teesdale and Marwood, together with the lordships of Middleton, in Tees- 
dale, and Gainsford, with all their royal franchises, liberties, and immunities." A descend- 
ant of this knight, in 11/8, erected the Castle, which, after the name of its founder, was 
called Barnard Castle. By him the inhabitants of the adjacent town were invested with 
certain privileges, which his son afterwards enlarged and confirmed by a written charter. 
The estates and liberty of Castle Barnard remained in the family of Baliol till the time 
of Edward I., when John Baliol, king of Scotland, having forfeited the possession, Edward 
bestowed them on Guy Beauchamp, Earl of Warwick, in whose line they continued for 
five descents. They subsequently reverted to the crown in the reign of Henry VII. ; and 
were afterwards granted by James I. to the unfortunate Robert, Viscount Branspath, Earl 
of Somerset. Ultimately they were purchased by an ancestor of the Duke of Cleveland ; 
and they now confer the title of Viscount Barnard on a member of that family. 

The ruins of the Castle enclose an area of about six acres and a half. The strongest 
portion of the walls stands on the verge of a cliff, rising precipitously from tire Tees to 
the height of seventy feet, and commanding a rich and extensive view of Teesdale. During 
the periods of feudal commotion, this fortification was a post of great importance. It is 
defended by a semicircular tower, the broken walls of which exhibit some appearance 
of maskings and outworks. In the area are the remains of several edifices ; the most 
prominent of which is "Brackenbury's gloomy weed-capt tower," so named after the 
Lieutenant of the Tower of London, in the reign of Richard III. An arched vault, open 
in front, is all that now remains of the once darksome dungeon. The principal strong- 
holds of the Castle stand on an elevated ground, surrounded by a dry ditch or covered 
way ; with small gateways through the intersecting walls, and terminated by two sally- 
ports. At the north-west corner of this area is a circular tower of excellent masonry, 
having a vault thirty feet in diameter, with a plain roof, without ribs or central pillar. 
This tower is in a fine state of preservation, having, some years ago, been repaired and 
fitted up as a shot manufactory. The inner area of the castle has been dug up, and con- 
verted into a spacious garden. At the present time, though the owl may occasionally sing 
her watch-song amid the ruins of Barnard Castle, the structure no longer wears the aspect 
of entire desolation ; taste and industry have rendered it a pleasing seclusion, where the 
contemplative idler may sit and muse upon the past, and discover a local habitation for 
those things that have fallen away into a by-word and a tradition. 


The church of Barnard Castle, occupying an elevated ground, is a spacious building, 
in the form of a cross, with a detached tower. The interior has a very neat appearance ; 
and an elegant organ of fine tone was erected near the south window in lS2o, by voluntary 
subscription. The living is a curacy in the patronage of the vicar of Gainford. The 
Wesleyan Methodists, and the Independents, have each a place of worship ; to which is 
attached Sunday schools for the education of nearly COO children. A national school also 
exists here for boys and girls, who receive gratuitous education. 

Barnard Castle has long been famous for the manufacture of imitative Brussels and 
Kidderminster carpets ; and for the fabrication of plain and fancy worsted stuffs. The 
water of the Tees is supposed to be the best in England for the process of dyeing, and in 
consequence the goods manufactured here are much esteemed. The market day is on 
Wednesday; besides which there are four annual fairs, and a fortnightly fair for the sale 
of cattle held every alternate Wednesday. 

The bridge, crossing the Tees at Barnard Castle, and dividing the counties of Durham 

and Yorkshire, obtains celebrity from the following incident, taken from Sir C. Sharp's 

History of Hartlepool. " Alexander Hilton, curate of Denton, left a son named Cuthhert, 

of great notoriety, who, having taken orders in no church, but having been trained as 

bible clerk under his father, came to Barnard Castle, and celebrated illicit marriages 

upon the centre of the bridge. The old rhyme made use of by him on these occasions, 

after having made the parties leap over a broomstick, is still remembered — 

" My blessing on your pates, 
And your groats in my purse: 
You are never the better, 
And I am never the worse." 

Barnard Castle has given birth to several eminent characters ; amongst whom we mav 
particularize William Hutchinson, Esq., F.A.S., author of the " History and Antiquities 
of Durham," — George Edwards, Esq., M.D., writer of several works on political economy, 
— and Mr. G. Layton, who in 1823, conferred distinction on his native place by the publi- 
cation of " Castle Barnard, a poem." 


Mardale is a chapelry in the parish of Bampton, and forms part of the Earl of Lons- 
dale's forest of Thornwaite. The chapel of ease stands on an eminence, one mile south of 
the head of Haweswater, in a beautifully picturesque and fertile situation, surrounded by 
lofty mountains and fells. 

Among the mountains which form the southern boundary of Haweswater is Mardale 
Head, a wild and solitary region, wherein nature, working with a master hand, seems to 
have produced the very beau ideal of romantic grandeur and sublimity. The beautiful 
representation which the artist has given, renders description almost needless, and almost 


impossible. The reader may look on the bold delineation before him, and realize the very 
scene itself; but language is cold and feeble when attempted as the medium for conveying 
to the mind's eye perfect ideas of objects so vast and overwhelming. The view is taken 
from the side of the river flowing into Haweswater. This stream issues from a tarn in 
the distant central mountains, across which is the pass of Nan-bield leading to Kentmere. 
Salset-brow appears on the left. The mists gather suddenly and with great density 
on the mountains in this neighbourhood ; and woe to the traveller, who, relying on his 
knowledge of the road, suffers them to overtake him in his journey. 

The clouds gather round the mountains, and hang poised and motionless upon their 
heights. The gushing streams descend from the hills, — 

" Still gathering, as they pour along, 
A voioe more loud, a tide more strong." 

To the master spirits of poesy we are indebted for those glowing descriptions, which 
almost nullify the remark lately made, that language is inadequate to portray the 
beauties of nature. Apposite to our present subject are these splendid lines of " Caledonia's 
much lamented son :" — 

" The western waves of ebbing day 
Roll'd o'er the glen their level way ; 
Each purple peak, each flinty spire, 
Was bathed in floods of living fire, 
But not a setting beam could glow 
Within the dark ravines below, 
Where twined the path in shadow hid, 
Round many a rocky pyramid ; 
Shooting abruptly from the dell 
Its thunder-splintered pinnacle ; 
Round many an insulated mass, 
The native bulwarks of the pass, 
Huge as the tower which builders vain 
Presumptuous piled on Shinar's plain." 


The parish of Grasmere, anciently written Gresmere and Grismere, a name derived 
from the grise, or wild swine, that formerly abounded in these parts, was once a chapelry 
attached to Kendal, but is now a rectory. In the reign of Henry VIII., the right of 
advowson was sold by the crown to Alan Bellingham, who afterwards disposed of it for 
£100 to the Flemings of Rydal. The church is a burial place of the last-named family. 

The lake of Grasmere, situated at the lower end of a valley, whence it obtains its 
name, is about four miles in circumference. From whatever point it is viewed, nearly the 
whole of this lake can be seen at once. A small green island partially covered with 
wood adorns the centre, and the head is decorated with the church and village of Gras- 
mere, behind which rises the lofty pyramidal hill called Helm Crag. 

' - 


Helm Crag is a solitary conical mountain, which, at its highest point, is said to bear 
a striking resemblance to an "ancient woman;" and Mr. Wordsworth alludes to the 
circumstance, whilst noticing the effects of an echo in the neighbouring hills : — 

"When I had gazed perhaps two minutes' space, 
Joanna, looking in my eyes, beheld 
That ravishment of mine, and laughed aloud. 
The rock, like something starting from a sleep, 
Took up the lady's voice, and laughed again: 
That ancient woman, seated on Helm Crag, 
Was ready with her cavern : Hammar Scar, 
And the tall steep of Silver How, sent forth 
A noise of laughter: southern Loughrigg heard. 
And Fairfield answered with a mountain tone : 
Helvellyu far into the clear blue sky 
Carried the lady's voice ; — old Skiddaw blew 
His speaking-trumpet ; — back out of the. clouds 
Of Glaramara southward came the voice ; 
And Kirkstone toss'd it from his misty head." 

The highest part of this mountain is covered with fragments of rock, which give it the 
appearance of a grand ruin occasioned by an earthquake. The summit is very difficult of 
access ; yet, when attained, the prospect thence discovered amply repays the tourist for 
all the toils of his ascent. The scene comprises " the whole of Windermere, Esthwaite 
Water, and Grasmere, with the intervening valley, divided into rich and highly cultivated 
enclosures, and seeming to contain almost every thing that can be beautiful in rural 

" From an eminence, a little distance from the church," says Mr. Hutchinson, " we 
viewed the whole circle, delighted with the scene. All the fields were clothed in fresh 
verdure ; the vale was graced with some humble cottages, dispersed on the borders of the 
lake, among which the sacred fane, with its white tower, stood solemnly superior. The 
hills were here and there patched with a few trees, and their slope enlivened by flocks of 
sheep that broused on each declivity. This seemed to us to be the vale of peace." The 
matin hour is beautiful upon the hills — when "the gray mist leaves the mountain side," 
and over rock and vale the morning splendour breaks : 

" The rocks, and shores, 
The forest, and the everlasting hills, 
Smile in that joyful sunshine, and partake 
The universal blessing." 

The accompanying Engraving discovers the head of Grasmere lake, with the village 
and its peaceful residences, behind which rises the Helm Crag mountain. The time 
selected by the artist for taking the view is shortly after sunrise, when 

" Morn, her rosy steps in the eastern clime 
Advancing, sows the earth with orient pearl." 




Appleby, the capital of Westmorland, is an ancient market-town and borough, con- 
sisting of two parishes, lying on opposite sides of the Eden ; Appleby St. Lawrence being 
on the west bank of the river, and Appleby St. Michael on the east. It is distant twenty- 
four miles from Kendal, and two hundred and sixty-six miles from London. This borough 
is now disfranchised ; but, until lately, it had returned two representatives to parliament, 
from the time of Edward I. The town received a charter of incorporation at a very early 
period; this having been long since lost or destroyed, the corporation still exists by 
prescription. The charters of this borough were all surrendered to James II., by whom 
they were partially restored, and the corporation made to consist of a mayor, twelve 
aldermen, and sixteen capital burgesses, besides inferior officers. 

The church of Appleby, dedicated to St. Lawrence, is a fine gothic structure, erected 
in 1655, by the Countess of Pembroke, and consists of a nave, chancel, side-aisles, and a 
square tower. The chancel contains a beautiful marble effigy of Margaret, Countess of 
Cumberland, and an elegant altar-tomb, in memory of her daughter, the before-mentioned 
Countess of Pembroke. The Wesleyan Methodists have a chapel in this town. 

The illustrative View is taken from the side of the river, to the north of the town. 
The river Eden, which flows between the parishes, nearly surrounds that of Appleby 
St. Lawrence, and is crossed by a plain stone-bridge of two arches. The road, on the left, 
along which cattle are seen passing, leads to Penrith. In the midst of the woody eminence, 
southward of the town, stands the castle of Appleby; and the beautiful gothic church, 
forming a prominent feature in the engraving, terminates the view on the right. 

The weekly market, held on Saturday, is remarkable for the supply of com. A 
fortnightly market for cattle is held at the High Cross. Besides which, there are three 
annual fairs, for the sale of horses, sheep, merchandise, &c. 


Levins Hall, the romantic seat of the Honourable Fulke-Greville Howard, stands 
on the eastern side of the river Kent. This venerable mansion is deeply embosomed 
in wood, and commands, from its towers, extensive prospects of the surrounding country. 
It has been frequently repaired and beautified ; and presents an interesting object for the 
attention of antiquaries, and the lovers of picturesque architecture. The gardens, by 
which it is surrounded, are cultivated in the German style ; and the grotesque figures 
formed in the foliage of the trees, give to the edifice a character of wild and indefinite 
romance. In these sylvan shades, on the 12th of May, the mayor and corporation of 
Kendal, together with the friends of the house of Levins, spend the afternoon (after having 
proclaimed the fair at Milnthorp) in eating radishes, drinking morocco, (a very strong old 
ale,) smoking, bowling, and a variety of other amusements. 



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The interior of Levins Hull exhibits a great diversity of elegant carved work, which 
abounds throughout the house, with the exception of the new tower recently erected. 
The carving represents a great variety of figures, emblems and ornaments said to have 
been bestowed on the building in the reign of Queen Elizabeth. In the north dining- 
room, so rich and expensive is this work, that it has been valued at three thousand pounds, 
according to the present scale of wages. The carved chimney-piece in this apartment, 
dated 1586, is supported by large figures of Samson and Hercules, and bears, in its several 
compartments, beautiful emblematic representations of the five senses, the four elements, 
and the four seasons, with a poetical inscription. In another room arc seen rich specimens 
of gobeline tapestry, exquisitely finished, and illustrative of a pathetic tale from one of the 
Italian poets. The entrance-hall is decorated with relics of ancient armour of various 
dates, " bearing the bruises of war, and the rust of time ;" and contains a costly saddle 
of red velvet and gold, which formerly belonged to Elphi Bey. The drawing-room, and 
library also, display most beautiful specimens of ancient carved work in the chimney- 

The view from the lower apartments is not very extensive ; but the propect on every 
side is rendered agreeable by the noble avenues and clumps of trees — patriarchal in their 
age, and flourishing in strength. The park is well stocked with fallow-deer, and acknow- 
ledged to be one of the most delightful spots that fancy could imagine. Rocks, wood, and 
water combine, in beautiful assemblage, and endless variety. 


This Cataract, formed by the Lowdore river flowing out of the valley of Watendlath, 
aided by numerous tributary streams from the mountains, discharges its waters into the 
lake Derwent Water. The character of this fall varies considerably with the season. 
Though at all periods an object of great interest to the tourist, it is only after a heavy fail 
of rain that the grandeur and sublimity of the torrent can be justly estimated. Then, when 
the thousand streams of the mountains are let loose, the cataract appears in all its majesty: 
rushing down an enormous pile of protruding rocks, it rolls along with uninterrupted 
volume and impetuous velocity, " and shakes the country round." The scene is fearfully 
magnificent ; and the deafening tumult of the raging waters can, it is stated, in a serene 
evening, be distinctly heard at the distance of twelve miles. 

The Lowdore waterfall forms a splendid adjunct to the scene, when viewed from a 
distance in connexion with other objects; but it requires no accompaniments to heighten 
its effect : it exhibits in itself the most stupendous dignity — a wild and varied grandeur — 
an overwhelming sublimity of sight and sound — 

" Where the proud queen of wilderness hath placed 
By lake and cataract her cloudy throne." 


The spectator grasps instinctively the straggling shrub, or projecting branch, that 
meets his hand, fearful lest the resistless torrent should bear him away in its course, 
as he stands 

" Gazing on pathless glen, and mountain high, 
Listing where from the clifTs the torrents thrown, 
Mingle their echoes with the eagle's cry, 
And with the sounding lake, ami with the moaning sky." 

The stream falls between two perpendicular rocks, the intermediate parts of which, broken 
into large fragments, form the rough bed of the cascade. Some of the fragments stretch 
out in shelves, and hold a depth of soil sufficient for large trees ; among these the stream 
hurries along through a fall of at least one hundred feet. Towards the bottom, also, the 
ground is much broken, and overgrown with wood : here the water reaches an abyss, 
whence it finds its way through deep channels into Lake Derwent. 

The View, which accompanies this description, is taken from a ledge of rocks about 
the centre of the stream, and is the most extensive survey of the cataract that can be 
taken from one point. 


This cascade, distant about a mile and a half from the village of Buttermere, exceeds, 
in extent of fall, the renowned Niagara ; yet, owing to a difficulty of access, it is frequently 
neglected by the tourist. The most commodious route for the visitor is, to engage a 
boat at Buttermere inn, and, crossing the lake of Crummock Water, land at the foot of 
the mountains in which the torrent is situated. The journey on foot is both dangerous 
and inconvenient, leading over a rapid river, with only a single plank laid across, and 
continuing over a boggy pasture along the foot of the Red Pike mountain. The tourist, 
however, who can set at nought the difficulties of the journey, will be gratified by the wild 
sublimity which surrounds his path, apparently leading into the heart of the mountains. 

An opening between the hills of Mellbreak and Blea Crag, shows the course of the 
waterfall. A large fissure here presents itself, extending nearly one hundred feet into 
the mountains. Passing through this chasm, which is about four or five yards wide, and 
fenced on each side by perpendicular rocks, the visitor discovers the torrent rushing down 
a height of nearly two hundred feet. The steep on each side is covered with foliage, 
nourished by the spray from the falling waters. Several large trees, growing in the 
fissures near the summit of the mountain, cast a deep shade on the cavern below. 

Scale Force should be visited on the day succeeding a heavy rain ; it will then appear 
in all its grandeur. On such an occasion, the volume of water fills the whole chasm ; 
the rocks and the torrent struggle fearfully together, and seem to shake the mountain, 
while the noise of the fall, loud as that of a peal of thunder, carries dismay into the most 
intrepid heart. 




The Troutbeck is a tributary stream to Windermere, and falls into the lake at a 
short distance from Calgarth. The valley of Troutbeck, " a favoured spot of earth," is 
fertile and lively ; and the village, which stands on the side of a hill enclosing the vale, is 
beautifully picturesque. In the midst of the valley near to the beck, stands the chapel ; a 
neat, unpretending edifice, a simple rural shrine, every way suitable for the mountain 

" Many a year ago, 
That little dome to God was dedicate ; 
And ever since hath undisturbed peace 
Sat on it, moveless as the brooding dove 

That must not leave her nest." 

• * * * 

" Ah me ! how beautifully silent thou 

Didst smile amid the tempest! O'er thy roof 
Arch'd a fair rainbow, that to me appeared 
A holy shelter to thee in the storm, 
And made thee shine amid the brooding gloom, 
Bright as the morning star. Between the fits 
Of the loud thunder rose the voice of psalms, 
A most soul-moving sound. There unappall'd 
A choir of youths and maidens hymn'd their God, 
With tones that robb'd the thunder of its dread, 
Bidding it rave in vain." 

The Beck is a favourite resort for trout anglers ; the sport is good, and the surrounding 
scenery possesses that picturesque and contemplative character which the disciple of 
Walton deems essentially necessary to enhance his enjoyment. The " summer beauty" 
of this delightful vale, annually desolated by the winter storm, brings to mind that exqui- 
sitely fine passage in Ossian : " The thistle is there on its rock, and shakes its beard to 
the wind. The flower hangs its heavy head, waving, at times, to the gale. ' Why dost 
thou awake me, O gale ?' it seems to say : * I am covered with the drops of heaven. The 
time of my fading is near, the blast that shall scatter my leaves. To-morrow shall the 
traveller come ; he that saw me in my beauty shall come. His eyes will search the field, 
but they will not find me.' " 

The scenery of Troutbeck is exceedingly varied : in some parts the stream is enclosed 
between high and rugged rocks, and in others is beautified with woodlands ; whilst occa- 
sionally its banks spread out into green meadows and pastures. 

" Nature easts forth her gifts with lavish hand, 
And crowns, with fiow'ry luxury, the land." 



Referring to the View, we notice the Troutheck mills standing on the woody declivity that 
confines the stream. In the distance appears the head of Windermere, shining like 
" a burnished silver sea," and adorned with islands, of which the most conspicuous is Belle 
Island. The promontories stretching out into the lake are decorated with Storrs Hall (the 
seat of Colonel Bolton,) the Ferry, and the Station House. The line of mountains on the 
right form part of the boundary of Lancashire. 

A scene, such as is here presented, clothed in all the beauty and magnificence of nature 
gives additional energy to the passionate appeal of the poet : — 

' Lives there a man, with soul so dead, 
Who never to himself hath said — 
This is my own, my native land?" 

Whether " our steps are on the woody hill" that shrouds this vale of peace, when the 
brightness of the sun-beam is streaming round us, or in that more quiet time when " heaven 
burns with all its stars," — 

" With what attractive charms this goodly frame 
Of nature touches the consenting heart 
Of mortal men ! And what the pleasing stores 
That beauteous imitation thence derives, 
To deck the poet's or the painter's toil '." 


Stickle Tarn is discovered when crossing the Pikes from Great Langdale. It is elevated 
about 1700 feet above the level of the sea, and is formed of numerous tributary streams 
flowing from the mountains. This Tarn passes off in a rivulet, which composes the 
picturesque waterfall of Dungeon Gill. 

" This is the solitude that reason loves ! 
Even he who yearns for human sympathies, 
And hears a music in the breath of man 
Dearer than voice of mountain or of flood, 
Might live a hermit here, and mark the sun 
Rising or setting 'mid the beauteous calm, 
Devoutly blending in his happy soul 
Thoughts both of earth and heaven ! " 

The accompanying View is taken from the foot of Pavey Ark, a perpendicular rock, 
appearing in the foreground on the right. Next to it rises the lofty pike called Harrison 
Stickle, having a pile of stones on the top, to which it is customary for every visitor to 
add one. The mountain of Wrynose occupies the centre of the distance. Between 
Stickle Tarn and the first range of hills lies Blea Tarn, of which a view has already been 
given in this work. 


The neighbourhood of these Tama is singularly wild, romantic, and solitary. With 
the exception of the enterprising angler, or the wandering shepherd, little is to be 
that does not indicate utter loneliness. 

" By the lake side, on a stone, 
.Stands the heron all alone, 
Still as an) lifeless tiling ! 
Sloul) moves his laggard wing, 
And cloud-like floating with the gale, 
Leaves at last the quiet vale." 

" When the day hath gathered his legions of light," and hasted away to other lands, an 
air of deep melancholy is cast over this tranquil wilderness : — 

" For the sadness of a fallen throne, 

Reigns when the golden sun hath gone ; 

And the tarn, and the hills, and the misted stream, 

Are shaded away to a mournful dream." 

The solitary character of the scene is powerfully described in the following 

lines : — 

" Never hath the quiet shore 
Echoed the fall of silver oar, 
Nor the waters of that tarn recoil'd 
From the light skill' gliding wild ; 
But the spiritual cloud that lifted 
The quiet moon, and dimly drifted 
Away in tracery of snow, 
Threw its image on the pool below, 
Till it glided to the shaded shore, 
Like a bark beneath the moveless oar." 


The lake of Buttermere, which affords excellent sport for the angler, reposes in the bosom 
of a vale of the same name. This is one of the smallest lakes, extending about a mile and a 
half only in length, and a quarter of a mile in breadth ; of an oblong form, and sweeping at 
one end round a woody promontory. The neighbouring scenery is eminently grand and 
picturesque. Along the western side, an extensive range of mountainous declivity 
stretches from end to end, and, to appearance, every where falls precipitately into the 
water. The eastern side is woody, and forms a rich and beautiful contrast to the other. 
The vale of Buttermere is rather confined in that, part which the lake occupies, but at the 
outlet it opens, and extends to a considerable distance. 

The village of Buttermere is situated on the eastern border of the lake, between it and 
Crummock Water. At a time when the lakes were less frequented, the inhabitants were 


purely rustic ; some of the men found employment in the neighbouring slate (marries, and 
the women occupied themselves in spinning woollen yarn. In the history of Buttermere, 
the beauty and misfortunes of Mary Robinson, better known as " Mary of Buttermere," 
form a very interesting feature. She was the daughter of an innkeeper, and had long lived 
in this sequestered spot; her beauty was celebrated in the shepherd's song, and her 
unsullied virtue was the theme of universal admiration. But, alas ! " All that's bright 
must fade." In 1802, she had the misfortune to bestow her hand on a person of the name 
of Hatfield, an outlaw and a fugitive from justice, who, having long violated the laws of 
his country, eventually (in 1803) suffered death for his oflences. Some time after, she 
re-settled in her native valley, and having married a young man from the neighbourhood 
of Carlisle, undertook the management of the inn, that had formerly been kept by her 
father. "Sorrow," however, to use the beautiful language of Ossian, " sorrow, like a 
cloud on the sun, shaded her soul." 

The point whence the illustrative View is taken, is distant not more than a hundred 
yards from the inn. The distant central hill is Honister Crag, down whose sides the 
ceaseless cataracts are pouring, that assist in forming the lake below. Red Pike mountain 
is seen rising behind the foliage on the right of our View. 


In the valley of Borrowdale, one mile beyond the Bowder Stone, stands the village 
of Rosthwaite, in the midst of an amphitheatre, sheltered by mountains, and arrayed in 
unequalled loveliness and grandeur. This hamlet forms part of the township and chapelry 
of Borrowdale, and is distant rather more than six miles south from Keswick, in the 
parish of Crosthwaite. 

Our View is taken at a point in the road from Watenlath, and discovers the romantic 
valley of Borrowdale, with its lowly and peaceful dwellings, rich meadows, and fertilizing 
streams. The vale is beautified with two winding rivers, which, uniting at a short distance 
from Rosthwaite, form the silver Derwent. On the left, appear Scawfell Pikes, the 
highest points in England, the rolling clouds clinging around them ; and immediately 
beneath, we discern a small white structure, which is the chapel-of-ease belonging to the 
whole township of Borrowdale. Adjoining Scawfell Pikes is seen the hill of Sty Head ; 
and in this neighbourhood are some of the ivad mines, to which the artist is indebted for 
that valuable drawing implement, the black-lead pencil. The hamlet of Rosthwaite is 
denoted by the clustered dwellings standing on the margin of the nearest stream. In this 
Engraving, every object shewn, every accident conceived, it must be admitted, subserve 
the general design ; and even the peat-burners' fire becomes, under the judicious manage- 
ment of the artist, a powerful auxiliary to picturesque effect. 



The remote history of this edifice commences in the year 673 ; when St. Wilfrid, 
under the pious auspices of Etheldreda, wife of King Egfrid, began the erection of a 
church and monastery at Hexham, the beauty and splendour of which were the wonder 
of the age, and the admiration of all historians. This was the fifth stone church built 
in England, and the first which had been constructed with chancel and aisles. In 678, 
Hexham was erected into an episcopal see, and so continued, under the pastoral care of 
twelve successive bishops, till the year 821, when the prelacy gave way before the cruel 
ravages of the Danes ; and at length, in 8/6, the church and town of Hexham were 
completely destroyed by " the terrific sea-kings of the Baltic." 

The diocese of Hexham was, in 1112, appropriated to the formation of a prebendal 
stall in York cathedral ; and in the following year, the archbishop, pro tempore, com- 
menced the restoration of the church, of which, time and the ravages of war had 
left but few remains. In 1296, the Scots invaded Hexham, and destroyed the nave of 
the Abbey ; and this portion of the edifice was never afterwards rebuilt. 

The inhabitants of Hexham, opposing themselves to the innovating principles of the 
Reformation, continued to cherish the ancient faith ; and the surrenders which were 
extorted from the monasteries, so highly provoked their indignation, that they excited 
the principal religious houses to insurrection. This struggle was of short duration : 
fire and sword, the ready weapons of religious zeal, completed the destruction of those 
men who, excited by party strife, could discern in the reformation of religion nothing 
but disappointed avarice, and the reckless licentiousness of a turbulent prince. 

The Abbey Church of Hexham, as it exists in the present day, consists of a transept 
and choir; the former 156 feet, and the latter 70 feet in length. From the centre of the 
edifice rises a scpiare tower, 90 feet in height. For the want of a nave, both the exterior 
and interior of the building are rendered less striking in their appearance than they 
would otherwise have been. 

The principal entrance is by a modern door at the north end of the transept, opening 
at once into this portion of the structure. The spectator beholds " one lofty aisle, open 
on all sides, grand in its pristine nakedness, pleasing in its simplicity, and astonishing 
in the magnitude of its proportions and the unity of its parts. At equal distances 
from the centre, four light and lofty arches spring from as many masses of tall clustered 
columns, supporting the tower, and opening into each division of the edifice. The west 
side is one wall, pierced, however, into galleries, and lighted by many lancets. At the 
north end is the wood work of the large door, above which the gallery is continued 
beneath a long range of pointed windows. With this the south end corresponds, except- 
ing that the place of the gallery is supplied by a huge balcony, and a heavy flight of steps 
connected with the spiral stairs, that lead to the gallery of the choir, to the belfry, and 



the battlements of the tower. Beneath this balcony is the cemetery of the Blackett 
family." A threefold screen, principally remarkable for an antique painting, called 
" Death's Dance," divides the transept from the choir, which is now used as the parish 
church, and consists of one aisle divided into three. It is to be lamented that sufficient 
funds are wanting to render the choir more consistent with the general design and cha- 
racter of the building. The great east window is spacious and well executed, and, before 
its mutilation, was probably very beautiful. Above the entrance to the choir, is the 
organ and choristers' gallery. Standing near the altar, among other relics and memorials 
of ancient time, is the celebrated Freed Stool, to which offenders used to flee for refuge, 
when the privilege of sanctuary, originally procured by St. Wilfrid, was attached to 
the church. 

The illustrative view is taken from the north-west corner of the transept ; and the 
description already given will enable the reader to identify the various features of the edi- 
fice included in the engraving. To describe the emotions under which we survey this lofty 
memorial of olden piety and ancient art, would be a gratuitous undertaking. Some there 
are, who can recognise, in structures of this kind, nothing but a waste of human labour — 
an extravagance of human skill. Yet, wherefore should we cast contumely on those 
ancient shrines which good men consecrated, and which time has hallowed ? Why deprecate 
as vain and futile, all those rites and observances that tend to loosen the mind from 
the thrall of worldly pursuits — to calm and subdue the fluctuations of human passion — 
to draw a holy mystery around the sanctuary ? Whatever unfavourable associations may 
be connected with their long history, — a history embracing the casualties of seven cen- 
turies, and the actions of ten generations of men, — cold is the heart that can enter their 
portals unaffected by feelings of piety and awe ; and more deaf than the adder is that ear, 
which continues listless and wandering, 

When through the long drawn aisle and fretted vault, 
The pealing anthem swells the note of praise." 


During the present century, public Arcades have been erected in the metropolis and 
several of the principal towns of the kingdom ; but in few instances have the useful and 
ornamental been so admirably combined, as in the subject of this plate. Whether we 
regard the architecture of the principal front, or the chaste and elegant decorations of the 
interior, its claims to distinction are admitted by all who have visited the similar estab- 
lishments of other towns. 

The Royal Arcade of Newcastle occupies a commanding situation near the centre of 
the town, and facing the eastern extremity of Mosley street, on the line of the great north 
road from London to Edinburgh. It here presents an imposing front of finely polished 
stone-work, 94 feet in length, and Jh feet high. The basement story is of Grecian Doric 


architecture, two massive pillars of which order adorn the entrance. The entablature, 
surmounted by six Corinthian tinted columns, adorned with beautiful capitals, supports a 
richly carved frieze and entablature. The whole is surmounted with a finely turned 
balustrade, and in the centre is a sculptured group, representing Britannia surrounded 
with emblematical figures. 

From the front, the Arcade extends eastward, and consists of an extensive range of 
cellars, shops, and offices, forming the entire side of Manor-street. At the eastern extre- 
mity is a lofty archway, from which a flight of stone steps, having a richly ornamented 
ceiling above, leads to the Interior of the Arcade, 

The effect produced by the loftiness and splendid decorations of this part of the 
building, is such as cannot fail to excite the highest admiration. It extends in length 
250 feet, and is 20 feet in width ; and the roof, which is 35 feet high, contains eight 
conical lights of very elegant construction, by which a powerful light is thrown on every 
part of the interior. The groining of the arched ceiling, and the capitals of the pilasters, 
are enriched with pure Grecian ornaments, which have a rich and elegant appearance. 
The floor is composed of chequered stone and black marble, the former of which was 
brought from a quarry near Leeds. The front building contains several stately apart- 
ments, occupied by the Joint Stock Bank, the Savings Bank, and other public institutions. 
The interior comprises 16 large shops, elegantly fitted out, and displaying a rich variety 
of useful and ornamental articles. Above these are numerous chambers and offices, 
chiefly occupied by gentlemen in various professional departments, for whom the situa- 
tion is admirably adapted ; the Post Office and a spacious News Room being included in 
the establishment. The eastern part of the Arcade forms a suite of Government offices ; 
namely, the Office of Excise, the Permit Office, &c. Over them is Mr. Small's auction 
mart ; and on the floor above, are splendid show rooms. The principal apartment, mea- 
suring 72 feet in length by 32 feet in width, and presenting at one view a rich display 
of china, cut glass, &c, the beautiful effect of which is exceedingly imposing. The roof 
in this part of the Arcade is intended for a conservatory ; and in the other portions of 
the building, steam and vapour baths are being erected : so that, ultimately, this erection 
will comprise a great variety of useful and ornamental attractions, calculated to render it 
a favourite promenade, and a place of general resort. 

This extensive pile of building was begun in June, 1831, and so rapidly and efficiently 
were the operations proceeded in, that it was opened in May the following year. The 
modification of the design, and the entire execution, were entrusted to the able and unre- 
mitting superintendence of Mr. Grainger, the proprietor. The entire cost of the edifice 
amounts to nearly £45,000. 

In consequence of the great public improvement effected by this and other extensive 
architectural works, brought to completion under the efficient direction of Mr. Grainger, 
a service of plate was recently presented to that gentleman, at a public dinner, by the 
inhabitants of Newcastle ; when the attendance of a numerous and highly respectable 


company, composed of the principal gentry and tradesmen of the town, sufficiently evinced 
the high estimation in which the private character, as well as the professional talent, of 
this enterprising architect is held. 

To persons who have visited the Lowther Arcade in London, the similarity between it 
and tin' Royal Arcade at Newcastle will be obvious ; indeed, the latter is professedly an 
imitation of the metropolitan erection. — Time has been, when Commerce confined herself 
to narrow and inelegant streets, and her exterior wore a stern and uninviting appearance. 
He only who sought accumulation of wealth, lingered in her dwellings ; and her powerful 
influences were wrought unobserved. Not so now : the noblest avenues are her fre- 
quented place ; the most substantial and superb edifice bears on its threshold the impress 
of her foot : seating herself in palaces of Oriental splendour and magnificence, she pro- 
claims, " I am a queen." Our continental neighbours have called us, by way of reproach, 
" a nation of shopkeepers :" be it so ; they cannot deny the synonyme — a wealthy and 
powerful nation, whose friendship is universally conciliated, and whose name is treasured 
as a household word in every land whither the many winds can waft her sails, wherever 
ocean rolls. 


The port of Sunderland obtained the royal favour in 1669, when Charles II. granted 
letters patent to Edward Andrew, Esq., " to build a pier, and erect a light-house or light- 
houses ; to cleanse the harbour of Sunderland, and to raise contributions for that pur- 
pose." Several acts have subsequently been obtained for the preservation and improve- 
ment of the port and river. Of these, the earliest is the Act of 3d Geo. I., which states 
in the preamble, that Sunderland is the residence of rich and able merchants, and pro- 
mises to be of great importance both to his Majesty's service and revenue, and to the 
public benefit of the kingdom. Commissioners were appointed by this Act, to carry its 
several provisions into execution ; and the powers vested in them have been continued 
and extended by subsequent statutes. One considerable object of attention, under all 
these enactments, was the building of the South Pier. 

The harbour of Sunderland is formed by two piers, standing on the north and south 
sides of the river. The latter of these, (the subject of our Illustration,) was completed 
in 1J26, to the extent of three hundred and thirty-three yards, at the cost of nearly 
£20,000. In 1765, not less than £50,000 had been expended ; and the estimated cost of 
its final completion .amounted to as much more. It received considerable damage during 
the great flood in November, 1771 ; but was subsequently repaired, and extended to the 
length of 19,000 feet from the east end of the engineer's house which stands at its 
western extremity. A light-house, or tide-light, is erected on this pier ; whence signals 
of direction are conveyed to the vessels entering and leaving the harbour. 



Dinsdale is a small village lying in a deep retired situation, at the distance of five 
miles south-east by east of Darlington. This, and the adjacent village of Middlcton-one- 
Row, are visited in the summer season by crouds of invalids, who repair thither to enjoy 
the medicinal virtues of the famed sulphureous spring called the Dinsdale Spa. These 
healing waters were discovered on Lord Durham's estate in 1/89, by some workmen 
employed in searching for coal. One of the labourers, who for many years had suffered 
from severe rheumatic affections, was perfectly cured by drinking the spa-water and using 
the bath. From this time till 17^7 it was much resorted to; but principally by the 
neighbouring villagers, for whose use a bath was constructed. Every succeeding year, 
however, brought an increase of visiters ; and it was found necessary to erect a suite 
of hot and cold baths for their accommodation. An hotel, containing twenty apartments, 
built on an eminence in the immediate vicinity of the spring, commands a beautiful and 
extensive prospect of the surrounding country. The spa is nearly enclosed by a noble 
plantation extending about one mile westward, and intersected with shady walks. 

The virtues of the Dinsdale waters are efficacious principally in the removal of 
scorbutic affections. By an analysis of the gaseous fluids, this spa is found to contain 
a mixture of sulphurated hydrogen, carbonic acid, and azote ; and the combination 
of solid matter includes muriate of lime, soda, and magnesia, with carbonate and sulphate 
of lime. 

Dinsdale is not now, however, to be considered the resort of invalids only ; of many 
it certainly may be said, 

" Here from the restless bed of lingering pain 
The languid sufferer seeks the tepid wave, 
And feels returning health and hope again 

Disperse ' the gathering shadows of the grave.' " 

But to a great portion of the visiters, change of scene and delightful converse are the 
principal objects of attraction. 


The south front of Lowther Castle has already been introduced into this work. (See 
page 38.) The north front (exhibited in the present engraving) is entirely different both 
in the character of its architecture, and the nature of its scenic accompaniments. The south 
is a solemn close scene: a beautiful but diminishing lawn soon terminates among the 
loftiest trees; the objects of the eye are bounded, and the imagination is left to wander 
among the recesses of the forest. The prospects from the north front are considerably 
more extensive, and are seen from a terrace of ninety feet in breadth, and about four times 



as much in length. The eye first descends on a lovely and spacious park, rich with trees 
of the finest growth. This park is surrounded by a vast wood, over which, in the distance, 
is seen Penrith Beacon. 

The chief approach to the castle is from the north, where its numerous towers of 
different elevation are seen rising in beautiful proportion; the whole assuming a massy 
appearance, of great magnificence. This front is four hundred and twenty feet in length, 
and is executed in the rich and massive style of architecture which prevailed in the thir- 
teenth and fourteenth centuries. Its numerous towers, different in shape and elevation, 
are crested with battlements, and pierced with slit windows ; and the fresh colour of the 
stone gives an amazing richness to all these harmonious masses of architecture. A lofty 
embattled wall surrounds the court of the castle, which is entered by an arched gateway. 
The central tower is seen by the visiter immediately on entering the castle, and is sup- 
ported by massive clustered columns. The grand staircase, winding round this tower, is 
of a solid and costly construction, harmonizing well with the character of the whole edifice. 
In a corridor at the top of the staircase are several fine pictures by Guercino, Guido, 
Titian, and Tintoretto. 


The lake of Hawes Water is seldom visited by tourists; though the solemn grandeur of 
its rocks and mountains renders it eminently picturesque. The comparative neglect in 
which it has been left, may perhaps in a good measure be attributed to the local habits of 
the guides, who are not accustomed to include it in " the excursions." 

This lake does not exceed three miles in length, and varies in width from half a mile 
to a quarter. On the western side, near the village of Measand, it is divided by a pro- 
montory; and thus consists of two sheets of water, joined by a narrow strait. The second 
expanse of the lake (the subject of our Illustration) discloses a scenery more varied and 
sublime than that of the northern extremity. The south side presents a noble ridge of 
mountains, very bold and prominent down to the water-edge, bulging out in the centre of 
a fine broad head, venerably magnificent; and the view of the first expanse, losing itself 
in the second among hills, rocks, and woods, is beautifully picturesque. The perspective 
of the second sheet of water appears from a distance to be terminated by the huge moun- 
tain called Castle Crag; but as you advance, Harter Fell rears his awful front, impending 
over the water, and confines the scene. Here, amidst rocks, and at the entrance of a glen 
almost choked by fragments from the heights, stands the chapel of Mardale. 

The illustrative view is taken from the side of a mountain, whence issues the waterfall 
of Thwaite-Force. At the foot of this hill stands the village of Measand ; and close at 
hand is the woody promontory which divides the lake. The wood-covered hill on the left, 
projecting into the water, is Wallow Crag, concerning which there is a singular legend : 
" The vulgar believe that the spirit of Sir James Lowther, a gentleman who rendered 


himself remarkable by his penurious habits, is imprisoned in the dark womb of the rock. 
The rustic natives of the valley declare, that when Sir James died he could not rest, — that 
various incantations were tried by the learned vicar of Bampton to lay his ghost, — that the 
reverend gentleman was roughly handled by the refractory spirit, — but that at length, 
having sent for more books, the vicar fairly succeeded in lodging him in Wallow Crag." 

Tourists who visit Hawes Water will find it most advisable to cross from Kentmere, 
and ascend the mountains between Harter Fell and High Street, whence they obtain a 
beautiful view of mountain scenery and a general survey of the lake. 



The village of Grange is situated in the straits of Borrowdale, on the west side of the 
Denvent; and it is here that the grand and savage scenery of the valley commences. The 
mountains and crags on either side approach each other so closely, as to leave a very 
confined entrance to the valley beyond. " Borrowdale appears from this point to be 
choked up with vast rocks and fragments, which lie strown in the wildest disorder, as if 
they had been torn by some great convulsion of nature from the neighbouring mountains, 
and tumbled down into the valley." 

The hospitality of Borrowdale is proverbial; and Mr. Baines, from whose " Com- 
panion to the Lakes" we have frequently extracted much interesting and valuable informa- 
tion, mentions a particular instance of this social virtue which occurred to himself at the 
house of Mr. Thomas Threlkeld, of Grange. " We were received by his wife with a 
simple and hearty welcome, ensconced in huge upright arm-chairs by the fire-side, which 
was of antique dimensions, — fresh wood was heaped upon the blazing hearth, and home- 
made cheese, butter, and bread brought forth, with rich milk, buttermilk, and oat-cake, 
for our refreshment. I was the more pleased, when I found afterwards that Gray had been 
hospitably entertained at the same village." 

Opposite to the village of Grange is a conical hill, which, in the course of time, has 
received a sufficient covering of earth to admit of trees taking root, and is now covered 
with wood. With this exception, the first mile of Borrowdale presents a uniform scene 
of nakedness and desolation. The hill we have named appears on the left of our view. 

Rising precipitously from the river Derwent, is the lofty and peaked mountain called 
Castle Crag, its sides finely mantled with wood. From the summit is obtained a magni- 
ficent view of Derwent-water and Skiddaw, with all their varied beauties on the one side, 
and of Borrowdale, with all its rugged grandeur and mountain ruins, on the other. Castle 
Crag obtains its name from an ancient fortification erected on its summit, most probably 
to command the pass of Borrowdale, and protect the southern parts of the kingdom from 
incursions on the north. 



" the eye can only see 

Broken mass of cold gray stone ; 
Never yet was place so lone ! 
Yet the heart hath many a mood 
That would seek such solitude." 

Proceeding from Keswick, the road to this romantic defile, whence is obtained a close 
and fearful view of Scawfell Pikes, lies through Rossthwaite, Borrowdale, and Seathwaite. 
The latter place is a wretched village, situated nearly at the extremity of the valley of 
Borrowdale. Here cultivation terminates; and the overhanging mountains frown sullenly 
on the passing traveller. " On the hill to the right of the village are the celebrated Wad 
Mines, where the mineral called j)lumbago, or vulgarly black-lead, and on the spot deno- 
minated ivad, is found." These are the only mines of the kind in England; and when 
occasionally discovered in other countries, the mineral is widely inferior in quality. The 
wad is not found without much difficulty, and the workmen are frequently engaged many 
months in seeking for it, without finding any. " It does not lie in veins, but in masses 
or sops, sometimes of a ramified form, like the root of a tree, and its discovery is conse- 
quently accidental." 

From Seathwaite, a deep and winding path marked by a bed of stones, leads across 
Sty-head, which forms a slack between the two mountains of Scawfell and Great Gavel. 
The top of this head is not more than half so high as either of those mountains, and is 
comparatively level for about a mile, so as to form a narrow valley between them. When 
approaching Scawfell Pikes, the road becomes rocky and boggy, and is traversed with 
difficulty. Passing the mountain of Great End. one of the elevations of Scawfell, the 
tourist arrives at the proposed point, and stands on the brink of a precipice, opposite the 
Pikes, and hanging midway between the summit and the base. " Immediately in front of 
us," says Mr. Baines, in his Companion to the Lakes, " that mountain ' reared his mighty 
stature.' We saw him at a single glance, from the verdant tract of Wasdale at his foot, 
to the overhanging precipices, crowned by a conical pile of stones, which indicate the 
head of the Pikes, and the highest summit in England. The side forms one long concave 
sweep, becoming gradually steeper as it ascends, till the highest part rises in perpendi- 
cular crags, like a mountain battlement." There is a simple grandeur in the view, which 
is deeply impressive. 

" Never yet 
Did our forefathers o'er beloved chief 
Fallen in his glory, heap a monument 
Of that prodigious bulk, though every shield 
Was laden for his grave, and every hand 
Toil'd unremitting at the willing work, 
From morn till eve, all the long summer day." 

iff* "". - 



Elterwater, a tributary stream of Windermere, is an elevated lake, or tarn, nearly a 
mile in length, situated in Great Langdale, at the distance of two miles and a half wesl 
from Ambleside. The low meadows on the margin of this tarn are frequently inundated 
by the sudden influx of water from the two Langdales ; and the means which have been 
adopted to obviate this inconvenience have injured the trout fishery, by introducing into the 
lake the destructive pike. Elterwater is surrounded by mountains skirted with verdant 
pasturage, and embosomed in heath ; these, rising up in various forms, discover the lake, 
" seated high in the dimpled breast of one of them, and sending forth a silvery stream 
which joins the Brathay river, and thence forces itself over a succession of little cascades 
to mighty Windermere." 

"What change can seasons bun.; 
Unto so sweet, so calm a spot, 
Where every loud and restless thi 
Is, like a far-off dream, forgot?" 

Of scenes like this, " the reigning spirit may not vary:" solitude and quiet, unbroken 
save by the eagle's scream, the roaring of the torrent, and the mountain echoes, dwell — 
dwell here absolute. 

" O gentlest lake ! from all unhallowed things 
By grandeur guarded in thy loveliness, 
Ne'er may the poet with unwelcome feet 
Press thy soft moss, embathed in flowery dyes, 
And shadowed in thy stillness like the heavens. 
May innocence for ever lead him here, 
To form, amid the silence, high resolves 
For future life ; resolves, that, born in peace, 
Shall live 'mid tumult, and though haply mild 
As infants in their play, when brought to bear 
On the world's business, shall assert their power 
And majesty — and lead him boldly on 
Like giants, conquering in a noble cause." 

On a woody eminence, at the head of Elterwater, stands Elter-Ilall, beyond which rise 
the towering summits of Langdale Pikes : 

" In the majesty of distance now 
Set off, and to our eyes appearing fair, 
And beautified with morning's purple beams." 




This Quarry, the property of Lord Lowther, yields an abundance of fine blue slate, 
and is situated in the mountains adjacent to the Brathay river. 

The geology of the lake districts presents many difficulties to the scientific inquirer ; 
and it still remains in dispute, to what rocks the term primitive, and to which that of 
secondary should be implied. The materials of which the greater part of the mountains are 
composed have been included under the general name of slaty rocks ; though many of 
them shew little or no inclination to that peculiar cleavage or formation. These slate 
rocks have been classed into three divisions. The first division comprehends, among 
others, the mountains of Skiddaw, Saddleback, Grasmoor, and Griesdale Pike. " The 
granite of Skiddaw being considered as a nucleus upon which these rocks are deposited 
in mantle-shaped strata, that which immediately reposes upon it is called gneiss, though 
it is more slaty and granular than the gneiss of some other districts. More distant from 
the granite, the slate becomes less impregnated with mica, and is quarried for flooring 
flags, &c. under the provincial name of whintin. This, again, is succeeded by a softer 
kind of slate. These rocks are of a blackish colour, and divided by natural partings into 
slates of various thickness, which are sometimes curiously bent and waved." The part- 
ings, when very numerous, open by exposure to the weather; and in time, the slate shivers 
into thin flakes unfit for roofing purposes. 

The second division includes the mountains of Borrowdale, Langdale, Grasmere, Mar- 
dale, &c. Most of the rocks in this division are of a pale blue or grey colour ; but they 
do not exhibit any distinct partings similar to the slates of the first division. " The finest 
pale blue roofing slate is found here in beds, (called by the workmen veins,) the most 
natural position of the cleavage of which appears to be vertical, though it is formed in 
various degrees of inclination, both with respect to the horizon and the planes of stratifi- 
cation. The slates are split into various thicknesses, according to their fineness of grain, 
and the discretion of the workmen." 

The third division of strata form inferior elevations, commencing with a bed of dark 
blue limestone, and alternating with a slaty rock of the same colour; the different layers 
of which are, in some places, several feet, and in others only a few inches, thick. 

There are few places in England where slate is worked as a mine under ground. It 
has been suggested, that it might be worked to advantage in subterranean galleries, as in 
the quarries at Charleville, since the quality improves as the depth of the excavation 
increases, and the expense of procuring it by mining would be considerably less than that 
of removing the load of upper rocks and working it in open quarries. 

' ' ' ' ... 


In a cubic foot of Westmorland slate, the specific gravity varies from 2/97 to 2/32 
ounces. It is blasted from the quarry in large masses, and afterwards split with proper 
tools by the workmen. 

The illustrative engraving conveys more information than mere description could give 
of the various labours by which this useful mineral is obtained ; but those who take an 
interest in geological science, or who feel a gratification in tracing the history and origin 
of a great domestic comfort (an elegant and durable covering for their dwellings) will not 
omit in their Lake tour to cast a passing glance at the Slate Quarries. 


Ennerdale water gives name to the village of Ennerdale, and is situated about four 
miles south of Lowes Water. 

The features of this lake, though less striking than those of Windermere or Ullswater, 
are not deficient in beauty; but it is difficult to determine the point whence a good view 
may be obtained. A better station cannot be selected for a general survey of the lake and 
vale of Ennerdale than the neighbourhood of How Hall, which stands at the foot of the 
water. This mansion, now a farm house, was originally the seat of the Patrickson family, 
and was erected, as appears by an inscription over the principal door, in the year 15(56. 

Ennerdale Water is three-quarters of a mile in width, and extends two miles and a 
half in length. " It runs up into the heart of the mountains, and is skirted on each side 
by stern and precipitous hills. Near its foot are the woods of How Hall, but above this 
the scenery becomes barren and sublime; and beyond the head of the lake are seen some 
of the highest mountains in the county, of which the most conspicuous is the Pillar, rising 
to the elevation of 2893 feet." 

The valley of Gillerthwaite, a narrow tract of cultivated land, stands at the head of the 

" Circled by mountains trod but by the feet 
Of venturous shepherd." 

Of this valley, an essayist has observed, that " the genius of Ovid would have transferred 
the most favoured of his heroes into a river, and poured his waters into the channel of the 
Lissa, there to wander by the verdant bounds of Gillerthwaite — the sweet reward of 
patriotism and virtue." A subsequent writer considers this eulogy the very hyperbole of 
praise, and submits, that if the author had sojourned during a few months of the winter 
season in the valley of Gillerthwaite, his raptures would have cooled, and his language 
would have been less glowing; 

" But not alike to every mortal eye 
Is nature's scene unveil'd. 

On this subject, however, fervour of thought and expression may well be justified ; and 

" Man feels as man, the earth is beautiful." 



Watenlath is a narrow upland glen, situated in the chapel ry of Borrowdale, through 
which runs a mountain stream, forming two considerable tarns, and the stupendous 
cataract of Lowdore. 

The valley of Watenlath is adapted for an anchorite's abode. On the borders of the 
tarn are a few cottages of great antiquity, and, these excepted, not a single dwelling can 
be discovered in the neighbourhood. " The children," Mr. Raines remarks, " stare at a 
traveller with wonderment, as if they had never before seen a human being out of their own 
families; and a troop of terrier dogs give mouth, as if a beast of prey were descending into 
the valley." 

The stream of the Lowdore, descending from the tarn, passes over a bed of broken 
rocks, and continues its course a distance of two miles down this elevated valley, before it 
arrives at the spot " whence the torrent is thrown." "Two of our melancholy bards," a 
late writer observes, " breathed out their wishes for an abode in some deep solitude, where 
their feelings might no longer be harassed by the noise, the follies, and the crimes of the 
world. Under this temper of mind, they could not have selected a more suitable spot than 
the vale of Watenlath. Environed on all sides by mountains, no ruder sounds would have 
met their ears, if we except the roaring of winds and cataracts, than the bleating of 
sheep and the melody of the shepherd's lute. They might have lived like Laplanders, in 
gloomy twilight during the winter months." Cowper, one of the bards alluded to, did not 
seek " the lone wilderness," there to cherish a misanthropic hate, and enjoy a loathing of 
his kind ; his were feelings such as these : 

" Among the hills a hundred homes have I ; 
My tahle in the wilderness is spread ; 
In those lone spots a human smile can buy 
Plain fare, kind welcome, and a rushy bed. 
Oh dead to Christian love ! to nature dead, 
Who, when some cottage at the close of day 
Hath o'er his soul its cheerful dimness shed, 
Feels not that God was with him on his way, 
Nor with these simple folks devoutly kneels to pray." 

The other melancholy bard may, or may not, be one who outraged society, before 
he desired the desert for his dwelling-place; and who, after having poisoned the social 
cup apportioned to him, in the bitterness of his soul cursed the fountain at which it was 






The lovers of picturesque scenery have already been gratified with a view of Gras- 
mere Lake and Village, taken from the south. The present illustration exhibits the 
" form and feature" of this lovely spot when surveyed from the east. 

" Ever charming, ever new, 
When will the landscape tire the view ? 
The fountain's fall, the river's flow, 
The woody valley warm and low ; 
The windy summit wild and high, 
Roughly rushing on the sky ; 
The pleasant seat, the sacred tower, 
The naked rock, the shady bower !" 

Natural beauty, unlike to artificial, does not altogether depend for effect on the point 
of view from which it is seen. Under different aspects, the prospect will assume an 
appearance more or less striking ; but from what position soever the spectator may 
survey the scene, he will discover " a glowing beauty," an " untired variety." 

The vale of Grasmere terminates in two upland valleys : one rises with a long ascent 
into a slack, leading to the vale of Wythburn ; and the other runs up into the heart 
of the Langdale Fells. A number of pleasing residences lie at the foot of the hills ; one 
of which was formerly inhabited by Wordsworth — Wordsworth ! a name hallowed by 
piety, by moral worth, by " heavenly minstrelsy !" 

" How beautiful is genius, when combin'd 
With holiness ! Oh ! how divinely sweet 
The tones of earthly harp, whose chords are touched 
By the soft hand of Piety, and hung 
Upon Religion's shrine, there vibrating 
With solemn music in the ear of God." 

" Thou didst despise 
To win the ear of this degenerate age 
By gorgeous epithets, all idly heap'd 
On theme of earthly state, or, idler still, 
By tinkling measures and unchastened lays, 
Warbled to pleasure and her syren train, 
Profaning the best name of poesy." 

The Western boundary of Grasmere is formed by " the rugged hills of Silver How," 
and the lofty range of Fairfield. The single island of this beautiful lake, covered with 
verdure, and partially wooded, is a prominent feature in our view. 




The town of Kirkby-Lonsdale is pleasantly situated on the west bank of the Lune, 
fifteen miles north-north-east of Lancaster. 

The singular construction of this bridge renders it an object of great curiosity ; and 
when viewed in connexion with the river and valley of the Lune, it forms one of the most 
romantic prospects on which the eye can dwell. It is composed of three beautifully 
ribbed arches ; the centre one rising to the height of thirty-six feet above the stream. 
Antiquity has cast her veil over this erection, and a consequent obscurity envelopes its 
history. If, however, we may rely on popular tradition, the building is to be ascribed to 
an unmentionable personage ; of whom it is said, " that he built the bridge one windy- 
night, and that, in fetching the stones from a distance, he let fall the last apron-full as 
he flew over a fell hard by." This historical fact accounts for the huge blocks of stone 
found in various parts of the neighbouring moors. 

" The bridge is a long, firm, and handsome structure, but so narrow as almost 
to deserve the taunt cast upon the " auld brig of Ayr" — 

"Where twa wheelbarrows trembled when they met:" 

at least, no two carriages of a larger size can pass each other ; but, for the security of 
foot passengers, there are angular recesses in the battlements, corresponding with the 
projecting piers." 

The river Lune, which is here of considerable width, winds through the bottom of 
the valley, and is overshadowed by the trees that grow upon its banks. The current 
passes over a rocky bed ; and huge blocks, overgrown with moss, rise up in the midst 
of the stream. The Mater is clear to a great depth, and is plentifully stocked with trout 
and salmon. In this rich and lonely seclusion, the angler may sit and watch the gilded 
fly with a devotion worthy of Davy or Walton. 


Naworth Castle, the baronial mansion of the barony of Gilsland, seated amidst lofty 
trees, in a verdant park, on the south side of the Irthing, is distant two miles and a half, 
east by north, from Brampton. 

This unique specimen of feudal architecture consists of two lofty towers, connected 
by masses of masonry, enclosing a quadrangular court ; and retains the character which 
distinguished it when occupied by Lord William Howard, celebrated in the " Lay of the 
Last Minstrel," as "Belted Will." His apartments and furniture, together with his 



library, oratory, and armoury, are shewn to visitants, " and convey a strong impression 
of the solitary grandeur and inconvenient magnificence of the border feudal lord." The 
private rooms communicate by secret passages with the dungeons ; so that he was 
enabled, whether in his library or at the confessional, to overlook his prisoners and their 
guards. The grand hall, a large and lofty, room, is adorned with paintings, including 
portraits of the Scottish monarchs. The dining and drawing rooms are hung with 
tapestry, and ornamented with paintings, one of which exhibits a full-length portrait 
of Mary, Queen of England. A considerable display of ancient armour is seen in the 
chapel ; and on the panelled ceiling and altar-screen are portraits of the patriarchs, and 
of the kings of Israel and Judah. 

When this structure was first erected does not appear; but it is first noticed in the 
9th year of Edward III., when Ralph Lord Dacre obtained royal permission to castellate 
the building. The castle is now the property of the Earl of Carlisle, of whose good taste in 
preserving its pristine character, it affords a striking instance. The south front of the 
edifice is fortified by an embrasured curtain wall and gateway; and the north side reposes 
on the brink of lofty cliffs, impending over the torrents of a stream which flows into the 
Irthing. The windows are narrow and grated ; and the doors, which are nearly all eased 
with iron, have bolts of amazing strength, and move on ponderous binges. 

In the illustrative view, the artist has imparted additional interest to his subject, by 
introducing a well-told " tale of other days." 


" The warder looked from the old gray tower, 
A ad thus to his lord he said : — 
' The moss troop comes with a fearful power. 
And a chieftain at their head. 

" ' Now, by my sword,' spake that gallant lord, 
' We will meet them in the field ; 
Let each valiant knight equip for the light, 
And traitors be they who yield." 

*' Of horse and foot, five hundred strong 
Went forth upon that morn, 
To chase the border troop along, 
With spear, and hound, and horn. 

" They drove them from fair Cumberland 
And some were prisoners ta'en ; 
And some by the hand of that knightly band, 
On the battle field were slain. 

" And better were they, who on that day 
Had fallen in the strife, 
Than the remnant left, of all hope bereft, 
To live through a captive life. 


" Galled by the chain, in the victor's train, 
They walked for a weary hour j 
Then pass'd from their sight the cheering sun light, 
In the dungeons of Naworth tower." 

The ancient borderers, or moss-troopers, retained in their wild forests and mountains 
the manners and laws of the ancient Britons. They were divided into clans, each com- 
manded by a border chief, at the sound of whose war-cry they were speedily gathered 
together. Amongst these free-booters were included both English and Scotch ; and it 
was matter of indifference to either, whether they preyed on the opposing frontier, or on 
the property of their own countrymen. In the time of Edward I., rapine and bloodshed 
occurred to so alarming an extent, that officers were created under the title of Lords 
Wardens of the Marches, by whom the moss-troopers were pursued by the hot-trod, 
" which was maintained with a lighted piece of turf carried on a spear, with hue and cry, 
bugle horn, and blood hound, and all who heard the alarm, were compelled to join in the 


Leaving the romantic and desolate valley of Borrowdale, the tourist arrives in sight of 
Lake Derwent Water, whose ample breadth and meadow scenery contrast powerfully with 
the narrow and ruinous vale in his rear. The bridge crossing the Derwent at Grange 
forms a pleasing object in the view; while the village itself, and the scattered residences 
lying on the declivity of the hills, add greatly to the beauty of the prospect. The lake, 
diversified with islands, and circled by " hills whose tops reach heaven," is hence seen 
under an aspect peculiarly favourable to picturesque effect. 

" On its smooth breast, the shadows seem 
Like objects in a morning dream, 
What time the slumberer is aware 
He sleeps, and all the vision's air." 

Loftiest among the distant hills, rises Skiddaw. The poet Wilson has addressed a 
powerful sonnet to this "mountain monarch." 

" It was a dreadful day, when late I pass'd 
O'er thy dim vastness, Skiddaw ! Mist and cloud 
Each subject Fell obscured, and rushing blast 
To thee made darling music, wild and loud, 
Thou mountain monarch !" 



On this Illustration it is unnecessary to dilate. For beauty of composition it justly 
claims to be included among the picturesque gems of Westmorland ; but its topog 
and history afford few materials for an extended description. The Bridge House is a 
rude edifice, erected on a bridge of one arch, which crosses the Stockgill, in the neighbour- 
hood of Ambleside, and formerly belonged to Ambleside Hall, long the seat of the ancient 
family of Braithwaite. 

Since our View was taken, a carriage- road, leading to Keswick, has been formed in the 
neighbourhood; and a bridge erected directly in front of this picturesque house. The 
Illustration is therefore now only a record of the past. 


Ambleside, a small market-town, situated in the vale of the Rothay, one mile north 
of Windermere, " is built in pleasing irregularity on the side of a hill, commanding 
charming prospects of the parks of Rydal and Brathay, and the extensive lake of Winder- 
mere." Excellent accommodations are here provided for tourists, at the Salutation and 
White-Lion inns ; and as the town is in the neighbourhood of many very interesting 
excursions, visitors to the lakes usually make it their head-quarters. Ambleside Mas 
formerly a Roman station, and some slight traces of a fortress are said to be perceptible 
in a field at the bead of Windermere. During the last fifty years, the town has been 
nearly rebuilt throughout, and its present aspect is consequently of modern character. 
A weekly market is held on Wednesday ; and it has three annual fairs. The Chapel, 
which was rebuilt in 1812, stands at the north end of the town ; and near to it is the 
richly-endowed Grammar-school, which is free to all the boys in the township, whose 
parents choose to avail themselves of the charity. 

In 1J96, a new Market-house was erected on the site of the old one, which was sup- 
ported on pillars, and surrounded by a gallery. The following year, a large woollen-mill 
was built for the manufacture of linsey and coarse woollen goods. Near this building is a 
tannery and corn-mill. Some of the inhabitants of Ambleside find employment at the 
slate-quarries, and in working up the coppice-wood into comes, and other baskets called 
swills. An extensive exhibition of Prints and Drawings, begun by a Mr. Green, and con- 
tinued by different members of his family, claim the visitor's attention ; and a Circulating 
Library is established in the town, for the tourist's literary recreation. 

The illustrative View shews the entrance into Ambleside from the south, which is 
rendered peculiarly striking by the lofty trees overhanging the road on the right-hand. 
A pack of subscription-hounds, kennelled at Ambleside, forms a lively and characteristic 
feature in the engraving, on which the sportsman will look with much satisfaction : in the 
ecstacy of the moment, perchance, he may issue a hasty summons for his groom, and bid 
him " saddle white Surrey for the field to-morrow." 




Dallam Tower, the seat of George Wilson, Esq., is situated within a short distance 
south-west of Milnthorp. This elegant mansion was erected in the year 1720, about which 
time the extensive park was also formed. The latter, which has been greatly improved, 
includes several undulating and fertile hills, interspersed with venerable and lofty trees, 
the immemorial abode of a numerous rookery, and contains an abundance of deer. The 
site of this edifice is truly delightful : behind the Tower rises a steep hill, clothed to the 
summit in rich and clustering foliage ; and in front of the building spreads the ample 
extent of the park, on the side of which the river Belo meanders in its course, crossed by 
a stone bridge of one arch, erected to divert the high-road, which formerly passed directly 
in front of the house, from the park grounds. This stream affords good angling, and 
contains a variety of fish, with occasionally salmon and trout : it falls at length into the 
estuary of the Kent river, which passes through the bay of Morecambe into the Irish sea. 
Along the opposite banks of the Kent extends a line of mountains, including Lyth Fell 
and Whitbarrow Scar. 

The neighbourhood of Dallam Tower is eminently picturesque, and well worthy the 
attention of visitors. Near to the grounds is a good bathing station, most advantageously 
situated, which has latterly become a place of very general resort, owing, perhaps in a great 
measure, to the good society which is to be met with in Milnthorp and its neighbourhood. 

The thriving village of Milnthorp, consisting principally of one long street, stands 
seven miles and a half south-by- west of Kendal, and is a dependent sea-port under Lan- 
caster. In the town and neighbourhood are extensive cotton and flax-mills ; and large 
quantities of twine and linen-thread are here spun. On the river Belo, southward of the 
town, are several paper-mills. 


The ancient town of Brough, called BroKgh-under-Stanemore, to distinguish it from 
other places of the same name, was formerly a station of the Romans, who, in the decline 
of their empire, had a captain, with a band of Directores, at this place. The town is 
divided into two parts : the northern portion being called Market Brough, and that on 
the south, Church Brough. In the latter stands the Church, a spacious ancient fabric, 
the pulpit of which is formed out of one entire stone. 

In the neighbourhood of the Church, on a lofty eminence above the Swindale rivulet, 
stand the venerable ruins of Brough Castle. This structure is supposed to occupy the 
site of the Roman fortress, and to have been built shortly after the Norman conquest. 
A large stone, removed from the gate-way of the edifice about fifty years since, and placed 
under the water-fall at Brougham Mill, bears the following inscription : — " This castle of 
Brough-under-Stanemore, and the great tower of it, was repaired by Lady Ann Clifford, 


Countess Dowager of Pembroke, Dorset, and Montgomery, Baroness Clifford, Westmor- 
land, and Vesey ; High Sheriff by inheritance of the county of Westmorland, and Lady of 
the Honour of Skipton-in-Craven, in the year of our Lord God 1(559; so as she came to 
lie in it herself for a little while in September, 1601, after it had been ruinous, without 
timber or any covering, ever since the year 1521, when it was burnt by a casual lire. ' 

The walls of the great square tower, called Caesar's Tower, stood perfect till 1792, when 
the lower part of the south-east corner gave way, and left the upper part suspended, with 
no other support than the cement of the parallel wall. About forty years since, an urn, 
containing a large quantity of Roman silver coins, was found while digging the foundation 
of a house in the vicinity of the castle. The most of these were in a high state of preserva- 
tion ; one especially, bearing on the obverse a line impression of the head of Titus Vespasian, 
and on the reverse the figure of a female weeping, allusive, it is supposed, to the destruc- 
tion of Jerusalem by that emperor. Latterly, the ruins have suffered less from the ravages 
of time, than from the vandal indifference with which the materials have been taken and 
applied to ordinary building purposes. Sufficient, however, remains, and we trust will 
remain, to identify a spot rife with interesting associations— the site of ancient record and 
traditionary lore. 

Whether the following brief history has any foundation in fact, or whether it is " the 
very coinage of the brain," let the curious reader inquire and determine : it embodies 
incidents which might or might not occur in the infancy of our national history, when the 
arms of Italy had overthrown the principalities of Britain, and " the pomp and circum- 
stance" of a Roman encampment occupied the_ ground where now stand the ruins of 
Brough Castle, 

Marcus Festus, a centurion of great merit, who had rendered important services to the 
emperor Vespasian during the siege of Jerusalem, was appointed to a government in 
Britain. Arriving in the kingdom of the Brigantes, he fixed his station in Westmorland ; 
and there, aided by a legion from Eboracum, (York,) constructed a camp and fortress. 
This encampment, named Verterae, occupied a central position on the Maiden- way, between 
Lavatrae (Bowes, in Yorkshire) and Brovacum, (Brougham, in Westmorland,) and added 
considerably to the Roman power in this part of Britain. Here, with his century or band 
of one hundred men, Festus took up his residence ; and endeavoured, by lenity of conduct 
towards the Britons, to quench all animosity against the imperial power, and direct their 
attention to the improvement of their condition, and the arts of civilized life. 

Festa, the daughter and only child of Festus, accompanied her father to Britain ; and 
the winning beauties and graces of the maid, more prevailed with the Brigantes, than the 
terrors of a Roman cohort. The Britons had already departed, in a good measure, from 
their wild and barbarous character, from having observed the more refined manners of their 
invaders; and neither the rude costume in which they were clad, nor the still ruder dwell- 
ings they inhabited, could veil the manly bearing and virtues of a race, whose posterity 
should outvie, in the arts of civilization, even Rome itself. 


Among the British youth, whom Festus treated with peculiar regard, was Cathlou, son 
i chief of the Brigantes ; and the centurion's favour was the more directed towards him, 
from the circumstance of his father having fallen by the Roman arms, in a skirmish which 
took place shortly after his arrival in the country. Frequent intercourse with his patron 
had raised the young Briton to an equality with him : all the learning in which the youth 
of Rome were accustomed to be instructed, had been imparted to him ; and his newly- 
acquired mental endowments gave dignity to his actions, and added beauty to his 
countenance. Festa, a Roman maid, the daughter of a centurion, beheld and loved 

The Lupercalia, or feast of purification, which had been restored in all its solemnities 
Augustus, was now held in great veneration by the Romans ; and during the month of 
February, (which derives its name from februo, to purify,) this sacred rite was accustomed 
to be celebrated. As the period approached, Festus prepared for his journey to Eboracum, 
at which place, being a head-quarters of the Roman forces, the Luperci would perform 
the ceremony. 

The departure of Festus reanimated the hopes of that portion of the Britons disaffected 
towards the imperial government ; and secret consultation was held, to determine what 
measures should be taken to shake off the invader's yoke. It was agreed, that Cathlon 
should be made the instrument of vengeance, as he was permitted unrestrained ingress and 
egress to and from the garrison. The gods of his country were invoked in his presence, 
to aid the overthrow of the Romans ; his father's spirit was summoned, to require a son's 
1 cvenge on his murderer ; and every means used that could excite his youthful impetuosity 
and ardour, and induce him to undertake the fatal enterprise. Cathlon, at length subdued, 
yielded himself to the wishes of the conspirators : he forgot all the kindness of Festus — 
he remembered no more the love of Festa. 

Various plans were proposed by the disaffected Britons for the accomplishment of their 
purpose, but all appeared to present obstacles and difficulties insurmountable ; and the 
return of Festus was daily expected, ere any scheme had been contrived that gave a promise 
of success. At length, an aged chieftain advised that the reservoir which supplied the 
whole camp with water should be poisoned. The proposition was instantly acceded to ; 
and the performance of the fearful task entrusted to Cathlon. He was left, in the manage- 
ment of this enterprise, to the guidance of a druid, who had acquired the most perfect 
control over him, and who possessed great skill in the preparation of deadly poisons. 
When he had conducted his pupil to the Roman encampment, the druid left him, having 
first placed the vase of poison in his hands, and bound him by solemn oath to fulfil the 
duty imposed. Cathlon then passed uninterrupted through the garrison, and proceeded 
to the reservoir. He stood for a moment trembling, and with infirmity of purpose ; 
but the druid had commanded him, in the event of his resolution faltering, to utter the 
name of his father. The spell was potent : Cathlon dashed the contents of the vase 
into the cistern. 

.- .. omgH . ,^. ., 


At this instant, the conclamation of the Roman soldiers announced the return of Festus 
and his daughter ; and Cathlon could by no means quit the fortress without encountering 
them. Festus, indeed, had already perceived him, and beckoned his approach : with 
an abashed look, the young Briton advanced, and welcomed the centurion and his daughter's 
return. Mutual inquiry and conversation had thrown a momentary forgetfulness over the 
deed of death, and Cathlon stood with all a lover's fondness by the side of Festa. Suddenly 
the maid commanded her attendant to fill a vase with water from the reservoir. " The 
reservoir is poisoned," shrieked Cathlon : the words were utterly involuntarily, and could 
not be recalled. "Poisoned! and by whom?" sternly demanded the centurion : "Byrne, 
by Cathlon, whose father fell by the Roman sword !" 

Few words suffice for the rest : Cathlon perished by the lictor's axe ; and Festa 
withered in her father's hall. No long time after, Festus returned to Rome, and presented 
himself at the court of Trajan. " I come," said he to the emperor, " from among a people 
who will never forget that they have been free, and I bring thence nothing save this small 
urn, containing the ashes of a beloved daughter." 


Loweswater gives name to a hamlet, situated near the foot of the lake, at the distance 
of seven miles south from Cockermouth. 

The mountains surrounding the lower end of Loweswater are high and rocky ; in many 
points of view they appear of a conical form, and rise from their base so abruptly that it is 
impossible to ascend them. These declivities, however, are not unfrequently clothed with 
brushwood and a few trees, which render them exceedingly picturesque in themselves, and 
impart a pleasing variety to the surrounding prospect. The lake, scarcely exceeding 
a mile in length, discharges itself into Crummock-water, distant about two miles. 

The illustrative View is taken from the north-east, on the road leading to Crummock- 
water ; and includes the mountains of Blake-fell, Melbreak, and Red Pike. 

" Look where you may, a tranquillizing soul 
Breathes forth a life-like pleasure o'er the whole. 
The shadows settling on the mountain's breast, 
Recline, as conscious of the hour of rest ; 
Stedfast, as objects in a peaceful dream, 
The sleepy trees are bending o'er the stream ; 
The stream, half-veil'd in snowy vapour, flows 
With sound like silence, motion like repose." 

" The village of Loweswater is charmingly situated close to the lake, under the lofty 
Melbreak." Excepting in this direction, however, there are few habitations near it; and 
a consequent air of solitude pervades the scene. " Nothing exceeds in composition the 
parts of this landscape. They are all great, and lie in fine order of perspective. The 
genius of the greatest adepts might here improve in taste and judgment; and the most 
enthusiastic ardour for pastoral poetry and painting will here find an inexhaustible source 
of scenes and images." '■• 



Honister Crag, situated at the head of Buttermere, overlooks the valley of Borrowdale. 
This stupendous mountain, though it may yield to others in height, is by far the most 
striking and picturesque rock in Cumberland. "The total elevation is 1700 feet; and it 
rises from Gatesgarth-dale in a single precipice of 1500 feet." Honister Crag forms with 
Yew Crag a wild and solitary defile, which, during the existence of the Border clans, was 
frequently the scene of deadly feuds and contentions. 

The nature of the Illustration obliges us to summon forth " far-forgotten things," 
referring, as it does, to a desperate struggle between two rival clans of border free- 

Late in the evening, at the autumnal season of a year, over which passing centuries 
have thrown a darkening veil, the weary and harassed borderers of Borrowdale were sum- 
moned together by the sound of the slugan, or war-cry of their band. The scouts who 
had been sent forth in different directions, to give timely notice of any hostile approaches, 
returned to their chief, who sat ruminating by his watch-fire on a neighbouring mountain, 
and reported the sudden irruption of a Scottish clan, that had swept before them a rich 
booty of cattle, lying at the foot of Borrowdale hawse. By passing in small companies 
through well-reconnoitred passes of the mountains, the Scots had contrived to elude the 
observation of the night-guard, till their whole force had again united ; they then divided 
into two companies, one of which drove their booty towards the frontier, and the other 
remained to protect the rear, and baffle their opponents, if they attempted pursuit. The 
war-shout of the despoiled clan rung through the mountains, and the Cumberland men 
repaired one and all to their chief, each one mounted on his pricker, a name applied to 
their small horses, which were both fleet and sufficiently spirited to overcome a laborious 
ascent into the hills. 

Among the Scottish freebooters, none were found possessed of greater skill and daring, 
in the management of their predatory excursions, than the Grcemes. This clan it was 
who had undertaken and accomplished the capture at Borrowdale, which, even in those 
days of enterprise, was looked upon as an astonishing instance of successful temerity. 
These troopers were commanded by the younger Grceme, a bold hardy chieftain ; and his 
aged father, the Ossian of the clan, followed in all their expeditions, to infuse warlike 
feeling into their hearts, by reciting " the tale of other times," and the bold enterprises of 
his past days, when the feebleness of age had not arrived. 

All the border clans cherished feelings of deadly animosity against each other; and 
this hereditary hate was even greater than their desire for plunder. When the division of 
the highland band, under the direction of the two Grcemes, had succeeded in diverting the 
enemy from the track which their comrades had taken, they separated among the hills, 
there to wait the signal, when a favourable opportunity should present for rushing down 


in all their strength upon the Cumberland men, and working out the measure of their 
hatred against them. 

After fruitless attempts to recover the spoils which had been wrested from them, the 
English borderers resolved to retaliate on the Scottish frontier, and, accordingly, collecting 
all their power, commenced their inarch through the desolate region of Borrowdale. 
Information was spedily conveyed to the younger Groeme, that the enemy were approach- 
in"- ; the appointed signal was then given, and the Highlanders once more crowded round 
their leader. The Scottish chief determined to suspend his attack till the enemy should 
arrive in the defile between Honister Crag and Yew Crag, when his followers would 
have the advantage of assailing their foe from the overhanging precipices. They passed 
along in single rank, through the passes of the mountains, towards the appointed 

The March. 

Sons of the mountain chief, on to the battle field ! 
Clansmen and highlanders, grasp ye the sword and shield ; 
On the rock or in defile, we'll not be ensnared, 
When the foe is waiting, are we not prepared > 

On, let us meet them, our bucklers shall cover us ; 
Our refuge the hills, and heaven's vault over us : 
O'er the steep of the crag, down the side of the scar, 
Let us rush on the foe, in the thunder of war. 

Their bugle sounds cheerly : Behold them advancing ! 
With waving of plumes, and their chargers all prancing; 
Yet the mountains that ring, to their proud horses' tread, 
They shall echo ere long, to the fall of the dead ! 

The highlanders concealed themselves behind the rocky fragments strown on the side 
of Yew Crag, till the English troopers, advancing at a rapid rate, had reached the point in 
Gatesgarth-dale, which lay directly opposite to their ambuscade. Young Grceme sprung 
on his feet, and waved his claymore towards the enemy : the signal was answered by a 
volley of musketry from the hill ; and instantly several horses, without riders, flew through 
the defile. The elder Grceme singled forth the English leader. Sinking on one knee, he 
raised his musket with deadly certainty, and ere the sound of the death-shot could reach 
his victim, the white steed that bore him was left unfettered by the rein. Furious at the 
loss of their leader, the troopers wheeled their horses round the precipice, on which the 
Grcemes and a few of their followers were stationed; and, before the remainder of the 
highland band could afford succour, the younger Grosme, together with several of his clan, 
had met the death of heroes. The English then dashed forward on their expedition, not 
caring to continue the battle under the disadvantages of their position. 

The highlanders gathered round their fallen leader, and raised loud lament for the 
warrior, whose blood was streaming in their view. The old chieftain gazed wildly on his 
son ; and his frame, which seventy winters had not palsied, shook with tremor. The body 


m;i.s laid in an opening on the hill side, and every clansman brought a fragment of rock, 
to raise a rude memorial of his chief. On the summit of the pile they placed his 
bonnet, shield, and claymore, that neither friend nor foe should thereafter pass it with 


This structure, which has long been in ruins, stands in the township of Dunstan, on an 
eminence above the sea, six miles and a half north-east of Alnwick. The only existing 
remains of this edifice are the out-works on the west and south sides, which, with the 
cliffs, enclose a square area nine acres in extent. On the north side the rocks rise in a 
columnar form to the height of thirty feet perpendicular. Towards the north-west is 
a high square tower, with exploratory turrets at each corner, which is considered the most 
modern part of the building. Nigh to the eastern tower are the remains of a chapel, and 
beneath it is a frightful chasm, where, in boisterous weather, the sea makes a dreadful 
inset. This spot has obtained the name of the Rumble Churn. 

Dunstanburgh Castle, it is conjectured, was originally a fortress of the ancient Britons, 
and afterwards a Roman castellum ; but history makes no mention of the edifice till the 
fourteenth century, when it was rebuilt by Thomas, Earl of Lancaster. In 1642, it was 
dismantled by Edward IV., and has ever since remained in a state of ruin. 


The Sand Hill is an area of triangular form, situated on the east side of the Tyne 
bridge ; and includes the Exchange, Guildhall, Merchants' Court, and Fish Market. It 
derives its name from having formerly been, at low-water, a hill of sand, deposited by the 
Tyne, where the inhabitants of Newcactle used to assemble for recreation, previous to 
the erection of the Quay. The east and north sides are occupied by lofty and commodious 
buildings, many of which, until lately, retained all the heavy characteristics of their 
original erection. The projections and balconies which disfigured these edifices are now 
removed, and the whole range has assumed a more modern and elegant appearance ; yet 
the old houses still exhibit some antiquated features, the entire front of the apartments in 
the upper stories being, in many instances, occupied by windows. Our grandsires, who 
delighted to grope their uncouth way in the palpable obscure of their age and generation, 
studiously contrived these overhanging windows, to shut out the sun-light, and spread the 
gloom of perpetual twilight over the lower parts of their dwellings. " New lights" (some 
of which might well be dispensed with) have dawned on the world; and the opaque masses 
of wood-work which formerly took the name of windows, are now exchanged for sash- 
frames, in which a certain transparent body, called glass, is deemed the first requisite. 
In the rear of these houses are spacious granaries and cellars for depositing corn and 
merchandise. The Savings Bank, and Saint Thomas's Chapel, are situated at the entrance 
to the Tyne bridge. 




Brcnckburn Priory, distant ten miles north-north-west from Morpeth, is situated within 
a curvature of the river Coquet, by which it is surrounded on all sides except the north. 
A portion of this ancient edifice has been demolished. The church, which was built in the 
cathedral form, is nearly entire, consisting of the square tower, the nave, the two transepts, 
the aisle, and a side aisle, to the north : one spire still stands, which, with the noble pillars 
and arches, and the remains of the dormitory, authenticate its former extent and magni- 
ficence. The windows of this structure exhibit the circular and pointed arch ; and the 
north and south doors are richly ornamented in the Saxon and Norman styles of archi- 
tecture. Mutilated urns, and other relics of antiquity, having been discovered in various 
parts of the buildings, it has been conjectured that a Roman station once existed here, 
and that " Brenckburn Grove" echoed the ravings of pagan superstition long before a 
Christian priesthood had chosen it for their abode. On a hill adjacent to the Priory are 
evident traces of a Roman villa, and of a military way, on which are the foundations of 
many houses running regularly in streets. When the water is low, the piers of a Roman 
bridge are distinctly seen in the bed of the river. According to the opinion of some, 
Brenckburn, or Brencaburgh, carries back its origin to a period even more remote than 
the Roman invasion. Probably it is the same with Brunenburgh, near to which king 
Athelstan, in the year 938, gained the celebrated victory known by that name : the battle, 
it is known, was fought in this neighbourhood. 

The Priory was founded in the reign of Henry I., by William de Bertram, Baron of 
Mitford, who dedicated it to St. Peter, and placed therein a brotherhood of black canons, 
of the order of St. Benedick. By this nobleman and his son, the Priory was endowed with 
extensive possessions, and invested with many and important privileges. At the time of 
the dissolution, ten canons were resident here ; and the annual revenue of the institution 
was estimated at nearly eighty pounds, a large revenue in those days. The building, toge- 
ther with its demesnes, ultimately descended to Major Hodgson, of Moorhouse Hall, in 
the county of Cumberland ; and was by him sold to Ward Cadogan, Esq. ; by whose 
recent decease, the property of Brenckburn Priory has devolved on Major Hodgson 
Cadogan, " son of the former proprietor, who married the only daughter of this 

The proprietary mansion stands near the south-west angle of the church, and was 
built on the walls of the monastic edifice. The situation is highly romantic and 
picturesque : the river Coquet winds round the grounds, giving them a peninsular 
situation ; and the stream is overhung by rocks and woods, presenting together a picture 
of exquisite beauty. The Priory itself presents many objects of great interest to the 

2 A 



A general description of the Castle, at Newcastle, has been given at page 32 of this 
work ; we shall, therefore, only add some few particulars, to render that brief survey 
more complete. 

The liberties and privileges of the Castle extended northward to the Tweed, and 
southward to the river Tees. After the union of England and Scotland, this structure, 
which had till then served as a check against the inroads of our northern neighbours, was 
abandoned by the crown, and afterwards held by the incorporated company of tailors, at 
t lie annual rent of one pound; a portion of the keep only being retained as a prison. 
From the year 1605 to 1616, this seat of " olden revelry," the gathering-place of " knights 
and barons bold," was the farmed property of the corporate board above-mentioned, who 
here threaded their arguments, and took their measures. In 1618, James I. granted the 
castle to the page of his bed-chamber, for a yearly rent of forty shillings. In 1652, 
the corporation of Newcastle obtained it by purchase, and James II. confirmed it to them 
by letters patent. This grant was, however, in 1734, revoked; and the property, after 
having passed successively through the hands of Colonel Liddle, Henry Lord Ravensworth, 
and others, was once more, in 1812, purchased by the corporation for six hundred guineas, 
and to them it now belongs. 

This noble fortress was for a length of time tenanted by a currier, and the chapel used 
as the beer-cellar of a tavern ! Afterwards, the Castle was repaired, and its appearance 
considerably improved : the top of the keep was arched and flagged, and a flag-tower 
erected ; the battlements were embrasured ; and the stairs and interior apartments 
carefully restored. Twelve carronades were also mounted, to fire salutes on days of 
public rejoicing. 

The County Court, or Moot Hall, forming one feature in our Engraving, is a massive 
stone building, universally allowed to be one of the finest specimens of Grecian archi- 
tecture in the north of England. It stands on the south side of the Castle-garth, and was 
erected under the superintendence of Mr. Stokoe, architect. The foundation-stone was 
laid on the 22d of July, 1810, and in 1812 the edifice reached completion. This magni- 
ficent building is of an oblong form, and measures one hundred and forty-four feet by 
seventy-two ; the north and south sides being ornamented with elegant porticoes, the 
Grecian Doric pillars of which are twenty-eight feet in height, and five feet in diameter. 
The whole fabric is surrounded partly by walls and buildings, and partly by iron palisades. 

On the right of the entrance-hall is the crown court, and on the left the nisi prius 
court; and the wings include convenient apartments for the judge, and the inferior 
attendants of the court. Above these, are the gaoler's apartments. The prison occupies 
the lower part of the building, and consists of a great number of cells, which are dry, well 
lighted and ventilated, and furnished with fire-places. 

This structure is one of the principal architectural ornaments of Newcastle. 



Norham Castle was built by Bishop Flambard, in 1121, for the protection of the see 
of Durham against the inroads of the Scots. It is " situated on the top of a high steep 
rock, impending over the Tweed." Bishop Tunstal found it necessary to repair the 
edifice ; and Pudsey, a subsequent prelate, built the great tower, which still exists, and is 
seventy feet in height. Near to the river, the ruins hang upon the verge of the precipice, 
and part of them have been washed away by the encroachments of the stream. The 
materials of which the building is composed is a soft red freestone. 

In early times, this fortress was, when sufficiently garrisoned, almost impregnable. 
It was taken, and partly destroyed, by David I., of Scotland, in 1138; but was afterwards 
restored to its former strength by Bishop Pudsey. King John besieged the Castle, in 
consequence of the Northumbrian barons having yielded homage to Alexander II. ; so 
obstinate, however, was the defence, that in forty days he was obliged to raise the siege. 
Various attempts were afterwards made by the Scots to obtain possession of this fortress, 
but with no great success. A short time previous to the memorable battle of Flodden 
Field, it was assaulted by James IV., of Scotland, who effected an entrance, through the 
advice and assistance of a deserter from the garrison. 

The Tkaitor's Gcerdon. 

Silence, interrupted only by the measured paces of the sentinels, had taken place of the 
tumult which, a few hours before, rung throughout Norham Castle. James had retired, 
with the Earls of Huntley, Lennox, and Argyle, to the state-room. Seating himself in an 
antique chair at the upper end of the apartment, the Scottish monarch welcomed his 
nobles to Norham. 

" Why, Huntley," exclaimed the affable James, " the wine-cup of Norham brings a blush 
into thy face; dost think we have not earned our cheer ?" 

" Dearly earned it, sire," replied Huntley : " these English fight bravely, and do not 
yield on slight pretence." 

" There are traitors among them, Huntley," rejoined the king. " Did you notice the 
dark-looking churl, that craved our ear last night ?" 

" I did, sire, and marvelled your majesty should grant him private audience." 

" I'll tell thee, Huntley : I saw the traitor lurking in his face, and guessed his errand 
was to sell his countrymen. He offered me entrance to the Castle : I bargained with the 
craven, and instructed him, on a certain signal being given, to admit me and my followers. 
This morning, therefore, I gave thee charge to press the assault with vigour, that the 
resources of the besieged might all be collected at one point; and before they had disco- 
vered the stratagem, I was in possession of their fortress." 

" And what guerdon did your majesty bestow on the traitor?" 

" He has not yet received his reward," replied James. " I appointed to-night for the 
payment of the sum demanded, and 'tis some wonder that he is not here already." 


The door of the apartment opened, and an attendant entered, to inquire whether it 
was his majesty's pleasure that a stranger should be admitted to his presence. 

" Conduct him hither," replied the king. 

The door again opened, and admitted a tall muscular man, whose face (the very index 
of his mind) exhibited a strange mixture of effrontery and cowardice. He advanced with 
long slovenly strides to the king's chair, and, resting his arm on one of the supporters, 
briefly explained the motive for his visit. — " I come for my hire," said he. 

'•' I bade you come for your reward," answered James. 

The man's countenance betrayed considerable anxiety ; but his apprehensions appeared 
to subside on seeing the stipulated sum counted over on the table, and all his former 
assurance returned when the Earl of Huntley had given the price of treason into his hands. 
With a slight obeisance, he prepared to leave the presence. 

" Stay, traitor !" exclaimed James : " thou hast thine hire, but not thy reward." Then 
summoning his guard, " Seize this caitiff," said the king, " and hang him on the outer 

battlement." It was the utter hopelessness of life, probably, that inspired the prisoner 

with courage, while, with a look of daring and contempt, he replied — " James of Scot- 
land, thou hast sealed thy own death." The monarch waved his hand, and the traitor 
was led away to execution. 

Not long after this occurrence, was fought the memorable battle of Flodden Field, in 
which James, with a great portion of his army, perished. It was currently reported, that 
several letters, in the hand- writing of James, had reached the English court; and that on 
them the latter had acted, in all its movements, against the Scottish monarch. When, at 
length, the decayed body of the traitor fell through the chains which suspended it, another 
letter, in the same character, was found in an envelop of his dress : a sufficient evidence 
that he had conveyed the manuscripts to the English court; and that he, in fact, had 
sealed the death of James. 


Twysill is a township, ten miles south-west of Berwick. The Castle, the property of 
Sir Francis Blake, Bart., stands in this township, on the brink of a rocky precipice, east 
of the river Till, and at no great distance from Tilmouth House. This magnificent castel- 
lated structure is built of white freestone, and the scenery by which it is surrounded is of 
the most romantic and picturesque description. 

The manor of Twysill was anciently held in soccage tenure of the barons of Mitford, 
and has passed successively through several distinguished families to theBlakes, its present 
possessors. This last-named family is of great antiquity, and of British extraction, being 
traditionally derived from Ap Luke, one of the knights of the celebrated Round Table. 

At Twysill, the river Till is crossed by a stone bridge, consisting of one magnificent 
arch, spanning upwards of ninety feet. The junction of the Till with the Tweed is shewn 
in the illustrative View. 

I . I B i 



Highcup Gill is situated between the lofty elevation of Murton Pike and Roman Fell. 
Through the middle of this romantic valley runs a mountain stream which, after a winding 
course of some miles, at length effects a junction with the river Eden. The Gill presents 
a most remarkable appearance ; and might be compared to the tumultuous heavings of a 
troubled sea, suddenly arrested by a petrifying power. The elevation of this spot may be 
assumed from the distance to which the spectator can extend his view. The intervening 
space between it and Appleby appears inconsiderable ; but the diminution of objects, and 
the aerial tint that veils them, sufficiently indicate " the stretch of vision" which may be 
here enjoyed. 


The venerable ruins of Brougham Castle are situated in the immediate neighbourhood 
of Brougham Hall, the seat of the present Lord Chancellor, near the junction of the 
rivers Eamont and Lowther, and within half a mile south-east of Penrith. Some traces 
of an ancient encampment are still visible, and many coins and other remains of the Roman 
era have from time to time been discovered. The present ruins attest a Norman origin, 
and the first recorded possessor was John de Veteripont ; but considerable additions were 
made to the structure by the first Roger Lord Clifford, and his descendant. 

In 1412, Brougham Castle suffered considerably from the Scots; and no mention of it 
occurs in history from that period till 1617, when James I., on his return from Scotland, 
was here hospitably entertained by Francis, Earl of Cumberland. An inscription on the 
edifice states, that in 1651 it was repaired by the Countess Dowager Pembroke, " after it 
had lain ruinous ever since 161/." No renovations appear to have been afterwards made; and 
the pile has gradually sunk beneath the all-subduing influence of time: yet, even at the pre- 
sent day, the ruins retain an air of grandeur, to mock and to attest its former magnificence. 

The entrance to the Castle is by a gateway and tower, leading through a short covered 
way to the inner gateway. The keep is situated in the middle of the area : the masonry 
in this portion of the building is admirable ; but all the interior apartments, with the 
exception of one vault, are destroyed. The roof of this chamber consists of groined arches, 
supported in the centre by an octagonal pillar ; and the whole is finished with elaborate 
chisel-work and grotesque sculptures. Of the out-works, scarcely any vestige remains. 
The gateways are vaulted, and they had each a portcullis to protect the entrance. 

Situated on a woody eminence, these ruins present a striking and picturesque object 
to the tourist, from whatever point the view may be obtained. Near the Castle is a lofty 
and handsome pillar, adorned with coats of arms and other embellishments, called the 
Countess's Pillar. It was erected in 1656, by Ann, Countess Dowager of Pembroke, as 
the inscription states, " for a memorial of her last parting in this place with her good and 
pious mother, Margaret, Countess Dowager of Cumberland." 



With Whinfell Park, in the neighbourhood of Brougham, the following improbable 
narration is connected : — During a visit of Edward Baliol, King of Scotland, to Robert de 
Clifford, in 1333, it is said, " they ran a stag by a single greyhound out of Whinfell Park 
to lied Kirk, in Scotland, and back to this place ; where, being both spent, the stag leaped 
over the pales, but died on the other side, and the greyhound attempting the same leap, 
fell, and died on the contrary side." 


Hexham is a town of great antiquity, pleasantly situated on an eminence south of the 
Tyne river, at the distance of twenty miles west from Newcastle. The soil in this neigh- 
bourhood varies considerably : the valleys are rich, and in a fine state of cultivation, while 
the higher lands require all the efforts of skill and industry to render them fertile. Of the 
vale of Hexham it is said, " its harvests are the earliest, its trees have the richest foliage, 
and its landscape is the most diversified and interesting of any in Northumberland." 

The site of the town, in the immediate neighbourhood of Hadrian's Wall, and several im- 
portant Roman stations, affords testimony that an encampment formerly occupied this place ; 
though antiquaries differ much in opinion on this subject. The dignity and celebrity of 
Hexham is derived from the ancient church, the building of which by St. Wilfrid was un- 
doubtedly the first inducement to erect domestic habitations in the vicinity. To this holy per- 
sonage, king Egfrid granted the whole territory of Hexhamshire, and to his zeal and ability 
the town was indebted for that high character which rendered it the envy and admiration of 
the age. He introduced into it the most skilful artists from France and Italy ; and the first 
use of glass windows in the north of England is ascribed to him. He is represented as having 
been " elegant in person, accomplished and affable in demeanour, popular in manners, and, 
though extremely ambitious, was eminent for the virtues of charity and liberality. The 
sons of princes were his pupils, and princes themselves were his familiar intimates." 

The ecclesiastical buildings, and the whole neighbourhood of Hexham, suffered severely 
from the Scots ; and a short time previous to the battle of Nevill's Cross, David, king of 
Scotland, with an army of forty thousand men, halted here three days, and converted the 
place into a depdt for military stores and provisions. The next event of importance was 
the battle of Hexham Levels, in which Henry VI., of the house of Lancaster, suffered a 
final defeat by the Yorkists. — The romantic incidents attending the escape of Margaret and 
prince Edward, will form an episode in this brief history. 

The "Queen's Cave." 

After the defeat at Hedgeley Moor, the Lancastrians concentrated their forces on the 
plain of Hexham Levels, and there waited the advance of the Yorkists, resolving to place 
on the issue of the expected contest their final overthrow or triumph. The result of this 
battle is well known : the army of Henry was completely routed, and even the high cap of 
state, with its two rich crowns, fell into the hands of the Duke of York, who shortly after 
ascended the throne of England by the title of Edward IV. Henry fled from the field ; 


and Margaret, his queen, with the young prince Edward, escaped into an adjoining forest. 
They had scarcely entered within its intricacies, when they were seized by a band of ruffians 
who had there located themselves. Regardless of her rank, sex, or situation, they stripped 
the queen of her jewels, and were proceeding to greater indignities, when a quarrel arose 
between them about the distribution of the spoil. Seizing this favourable opportunity for 
escape, the prince and his mother fled into the interior recesses of the forest. 

As the royal fugitives were pursuing their toilsome journey through this wilderness, a 
rustling of the trees forewarned them of approaching danger ; but before they could reach 
concealment, a robber confronted them in their path. 

" Ruffian," exclaimed the queen, assuming the dignity and haughtiness of carriage 
familiar to her, " thou hast tarried over long : thy comrades have been before thee, and 
have despoiled us of our treasures." 

"Truly," answered the robber; "their chief will find but worthless prey in what they 
left you. You may pass : 'twere better that you take the right-hand path, its windings 
lead to an opening of the forest." 

" Stay, man," said Margaret, " though a desperate outlaw, there yet may be some 
spark of pity in thee, some reverence for a kingly name." 

" Pity and reverence are terms alike unknown to me," replied the man ; " and kingly 
power is but an idle sound to him who owns no sway — respects no laws." 

"Yet will I trust thee," answered the queen, " for fortune leaves us little choice of 
friends. Behold this boy — the son of Henry of Lancaster, your king." 

Whether surprise overpowered him, or a latent nobleness of mind forbade him to offer 
insult to fallen majesty, the robber chief uncovered his head, and proffered his assistance 
to the wanderers. 

" What service," said he, " can I render to you and the prince your son ?' 

" Provide us with a place of concealment," eagerly rejoined the queen, " and effect our 
escape beyond the reach of York." 

" Concealment," said the robber, " is not difficult ; and what more T can do, I will do : 
for the present, follow me to a cave hard by, where you may repose in safety, and wait a 
favourable opportunity of rejoining your friends."— He led the way through an unfre- 
quented path, and brought them to "a wretched but secure asylum" in the forest, which, 
in memory of the unfortunate queen, still retains the name of the " Queen's Cave." 

During the civil wars, the inhabitants of Hexham maintained their loyalty ; and, in 
the rebellions of 1715 and 1745, they manifested the strongest attachment to the house of 
Stuart. The reorganization of the northern militia in 1761, occasioned a "direful com- 
motion, called Hexham Riot," in which a considerable number of the miners were killed 
and wounded by the military. Martial law having been proclaimed, the country was 
patrolled by an excited soldiery, who inspired terror wherever they appeared, and succeeded 
in dragging the ringleaders of the riot from their places of concealment to the scaffold. 

In common with most ancient towns, Hexham is irregularly built. The market-place 


is spacious ; and on the principal day of business (Tuesday) a plentiful supply of corn, 
provisions, &c. is brought for sale. A market of less consequence is held every Saturday. 
Two annual fairs take place in August and November ; and " three hirings," in the months 
of March, May, and November. Hexham does not enjoy an inland navigation; but its 
manufactures of leather, gloves, stuff-hats, and worsted articles, are very considerable. 
Vast quantities of vegetables are supplied by Hexham for the Newcastle markets. 

After several ineffectual attempts to erect a bridge, the present one was constructed 
under the direction of Mr. Myne, architect. This beautiful structure consists of nine 
principal arches, and three smaller ones on the south side. The Abbey Church is the 
parochial place of worship at Hexham ; besides which, there are several buildings for 
the use of the Presbyterians, Catholics, and other dissenting congregations. Amongst the 
public buildings may be enumerated a Mechanics' Institute, a Dispensary, and a Savings' 
Bank. — Hexham is the birth-place of several eminent men; of whom the learned Stack- 
house, sometime master of the Grammar-school, is not the least distinguished. 


The picturesque village of Bywell is pleasantly seated on the north side of the Tyne, 
at the distance of eight miles east by south from Hexham. It was formerly a place of 
greater importance than it is at the present time, and was famous for the manufacture 
of stirrups, bits, curbs, buckles, and a variety of other articles. In 1569, the commis- 
sioners of queen Elizabeth make mention in their report of its flourishing condition. 

In Bywell are two parochial churches, dedicated to St. Andrew and St. Peter ; " one 
of which is said to have been built in consequence of a quarrel for precedency between two 
sisters, one of whom founded a church of her own, where she reigned lady paramount, to 
the exclusion of the other." The church of St. Peter is a large ancient edifice, with a 
square tower ; the vicarage of which is in the patronage of the Dean and Chapter of 
Durham. This edifice occupies a central position in our View. The structure dedicated 
to St. Andrew is smaller, and surmounted with a lofty steeple : the living is a discharged 
vicarage, in the gift of T. W. Beaumont, Esq. These two ecclesiastical buildings are at 
no great distance from each other, and between them stands an ancient stone cross. 
Two stone piers, the remains of an old bridge, whose history does not exist even in 
" dim tradition," are still standing. 

Westward of the village, are the ruins of the ancient baronial Castle, which was 
formerly a strong and extensive fortress. The barony was held in capite by Hugh de 
Baliol, whose ancestors had enjoyed possession from the time of Rufus. In the reign of 
Richard II., it was vested in the Nevils, Lords of Raby, and subsequently Earls of West- 
morland, by whom it was forfeited in 1571. It is now the property of Thomas Wentworth 
Beaumont, Esq. Bywell Hall, in the neighbourhood, the elegant mansion of the present 
possessor of the barony, stands in a beautiful lawn, skirted on the south by the river Tyne, 
and adorned by forest trees. 

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Netherby, the magnificent seat of the Right Hon. Sir James Graham, Baronet, 
First Lord of the Admiralty, and M.P. for Cumberland, is seated on an eminence in a 
beautiful and spacious park, within the township of the same name. The site of this 
edifice was anciently occupied by a Roman city, and the sea is supposed to have approached 
very near to its walls. Leland remarks, that " men alyve have sene rynges and staples 
yn the walles, as yt had bene stayes or holdes for shyppes." Dr. Graham, who erected 
this mansion, discovered many curious and interesting remains of antiquity, while 
forming the pleasure-grounds in the vicinage of the house. These consist of a fine 
hypocaust or bath, several altars, inscriptions, coins, and domestic utensils. From an 
inscription on one of the altars, it appears that the Romans were located here in the reign 
of Adrian. The Esk river, and its adjacent fertile plains, give variety to the scenery of 
Netherby ; and the gardens and pleasure-ground attached to the mansion, are disposed 
with great taste. The interior of the edifice is magnificently furnished, and includes an 
excellent library. 

The Netherby estate became, in the reign of King John, the property of the Stutevilles, 
whose male issue failed in the time of Henry III. The possession then passed by marriage 
to Hugh de Wake, and by a descendant of this house it was at length annexed to the 
crown. Shortly after his accession, James 1. granted the manor to George Clifford, Earl 
of Cumberland, of whose successor it was purchased by Sir Richard Graham, ancestor of 
the present distinguished proprietor. 

This demesne is said to owe its importance to Dr. Graham. When it came into his 
possession, the lands were entirely uncultivated, and the people had scarcely emerged from 
feudal ignorance and barbarity. To the latter he taught industry by his own example ; 
and the wild tract of ground soon assumed, under his management, the form of verdant 
meadows and fruitful corn fields. As one means of improving his estate, he erected houses 
for his tenants ; and, attaching to each a few acres of ground, suffered the occupants to 
live free of rent, till the productiveness of the soil enabled them to pay it. He also estab- 
lished schools for the children of his tenantry ; " and, in a few years, had the satisfaction 
of seeing upwards of five hundred young persons constantly instructed at them." 

Considerable additions are now being made to the manorial house ; and our artist has 
been furnished with the means of introducing the most important one into the present view. 
This is the elevated building in the centre of the edifice, ornamented with lantern turrets. 
The picturesque structure on the right forms an interesting object in the approach to 
the park. 

At the distance of two miles from Netherby, are the remains of a strong entrenchment, 
called Liddal's Strength, situated on a lofty cliff, and commanding an extensive view of 
the surrounding country. 




Naworth Castle has already formed a subject for our Illustrations ; and the description 
by which the former view was accompanied, comprises in brief all that can be said respect- 
ing the structure. The quadrangular court is here shewn, and the peculiar architecture of 
this unique feudal residence effectively developed. 

The Bridal of Naworth. 

The manor of Gilsland, which had descended in the ancient family of Beuth from a 
period antecedent to the Conquest, was wrested from the rightful heirs in the time of 
Henry I., and by that monarch confirmed to Hubert de Vallibus and his posterity, " to 
hold by the service of two knight's fees." To Hubert succeeded Robert de Vallibus, his 
son, whose claims to the barony were disputed by Gilles Bueth. Robert, adopting the 
ruthless and barbarous policy of a feudal age, removed his rival by assassination, and thus 
established an undisputed right to the manorial possessions. 

Mirth and revelry ushered in the day appointed for the nuptials of Robert, lord of 
Gilsland. He had chosen for his bride Ada, a lady of gentle birth, and heiress of right 
noble possessions : the contracts had been formally sealed and delivered, and due prepara- 
tion made for the solemnization of the marriage. The bridal morn beheld a goodly 
company assembled in the great hall of the castle : knights and dames of high degree ; 
pages, and men at arms ; together with all the vassals of the barony. In this numerous 
assembly, the lady Ada was received with acclamations, as the elect bride of Robert de 
Vallibus. The retainers, who stood at respectful distance, at the lower end of the hall, 
pledged the wine-cup freely, and acknowledged the munificent largess of the baron, with 
shouts that echoed through the castle. The sun-beams gilded the frowning battlements 
of Naworth, as the bridal procession passed through the court-yard to the chapel. Then, 
at the altar, the lady Ada plighted her troth to the lord of Gilsland. While yet the holy 
brotherhood were chanting their service, and ere the benediction had hallowed the marriage 
rite, De Vallibus, whose countenance had assumed a ghastly paleness, uttered a loud cry 
of terror, and rushed forth from the chapel. Surprise and consternation seized the whole 
assembly : the choral services were suspended, and the venerable prior stood with uplifted 
hands, hesitating to pronounce a blessing on a union so strangely interrupted. The bride 
of De Vallibus was removed insensible in the arms of her attendants, and the rest of the 
company retreated from the altar with confused and hasty steps. 

The baron's confessor had been summoned to the oratory. When the holy father 
entered, he discovered his lord lying prostrate and insensible at the foot of the crucifix. 
He raised him from the ground, and endeavoured to recall his wandering faculties ; but 
De Vallibus gave no sign of recognition, and his eyes threw a wild and vacant glance on 
objects long familiar to his sight. Cordials and restoratives at length succeeded in remov- 
ing the death-like stupor which bound his senses ; but the approaches of consciousness 
were more terrible than the pale and ghastly expression of benumbed reason. He seized 


a* n 
9a t 


the father's hand with a convulsive grasp, while his whole frame trembled beneath the 
influence of some dreadful excitement. 

" Benedicite, my son," at length exclaimed the monk. 
" What, Ranulph, is it you ?" began the baron. "A dream, a fearful terrible dream, 

"My son, 'tis time that I recall you to yourself. It is no dream has troubled you. 
Within these two hours past, you fled the altar, leaving your nuptial rites unfinished ; 
since when, your frame has been convulsed and agonized, your tongue has uttered 
words of guilty meaning. Confess, confess, my son, and let my counsel comfort and 
assure you." 

" It is no dream then ?" wildly exclaimed the baron, " and I have seen him." 

"Him? whom?" 

" Tell me, father— can the sepulchre cast forth its dead, to mock us with a semblance 
of the life, to stand before us in our very path, and blanch our cheeks to whiteness like 
their own?" 

" Why this inquiry ?" 

" Gilles fieuth ! he stood this day between me and the altar !" 

* * * * * * 

Whether remorse and penitence prevailed for the blood-guiltiness of the baron, is not 
for us to say : certain it is, that, after he had founded the priory of Lanercost, as an atone- 
ment, the church absolved him from his crime ; and when he approached the altar a 
second time with the lady Ada, either the spirit of Gilles Beuth had been appeased, or the 
phantasies of a guilty mind had been dispelled by the influence of religion. 


Wynyard, the elegant seat of the Marquis of Londonderry, is distant about four 
miles and a half north by west from Stockton. Within the last few years, the park has 
been considerably enlarged, and the present house erected on the site of the old mansion, 
from a beautiful Grecian design by P. W. Wyatt, Esq. It is difficult to say which is most 
worthy of admiration — the dignified simplicity exhibited in the exterior of the building, or 
the judicious arrangements in the interior, which combine the majesty of a palace with 
the comforts and conveniences of a domestic dwelling. The walks and pleasure-grounds 
in the vicinage of the edifice harmonize well with the chaste design of the architect ; 
artificial decoration, and superb ornament, give place to the softer features of nature. 
A small rivulet, forming a beautiful canal, margined with wood and shady walks, meanders 
with easy curvatures through the park, and gives a delightful finish to the scene. 

The property of Wynyard has been held by a long succession of distinguished families. 
The inheritance was conveyed in marriage with Lady Frances, daughter of Sir Henry Vane 
Tempest, to the Marquis of Londonderry in Ireland, who, in 1823, was created Earl 
Vane, of the United Kingdom of Great Britain. 



Stockton- upon-Tees is a handsome market-town, situated near the confluence of the 
Tees with the German Ocean, at the distance of twenty miles south-south-east from 
Durham. * 

The early history of this town is involved in considerable obscurity. A castle formerly 
existed here, but whether the site of this edifice was ever occupied by the Romans, is 
doubtful; a small coin of Claudius Caesar, who invaded Britain about the year 44, 
being the only testimony to support the conjecture. Stockton formed part of the posses- 
sions annexed to the see of Durham, and contributed to extend the jurisdiction of the 
bishop from the river Tyne to the Tees. Several of the prelates had residences in the 
town ; and many of its privileges and immunities were directly or indirectly conferred by 
them. So early as 1310, Bishop Bek granted a charter for holding a market and fair, 
which was afterwards renewed in the 44th of Elizabeth. 

In 159J, the town was partly consumed by fire; and in the reign of Edward II., 
according to ancient record, it was destroyed by the Scots. " The castle did not fall a 
sacrifice to the ravages of time, but to the distracted state of the kingdom during the 
common-wealth ; the order of parliament for the sale of the bishop's lands, brought it 
into the hands of private persons, who appear to have demolished it for the sale of 
materials, with which some of the stone houses in the town are said to have been built." 
Subsequent to the great rebellion, a large extent of common and undivided lands were 
enclosed, and a spirit of improvement created in the town, which led to an extension of 
trade and an increase of the population. 

This town is corporate by prescription, such as London and many other places, " which 
have existed as corporations from time whereof the memory of man runneth not to the 
contrary; and therefore are looked upon in law to be well created." It is under the 
authority of a mayor, recorder, and a court of aldermen. As a commercial station, Stockton 
enjoys great advantages, and its trade with Holland and the ports of the Baltic is con- 
siderable. " At the Reformation, it was a village so despicable that the best house in it 
could scarcely boast of any thing better than clay walls and a thatched roof; and yet, near 
fifty years ago, there came in one year to the port of London, as appears from the Custom- 
house books, seventy-five vessels from thence;" and the trade has been progressively 
increasing ever since. Considerable quantities of salt provisions, corn, flour, lead, allum, 
&c. are sent coast-wise to London ; and large supplies of hams, pork, and leather are 
shipped at this port for the metropolitan market. The fisheries in the Tees river are very 
productive, particularly that of salmon, which is protected by an act passed in the first 
year of George I. " The commerce of Stockton has been materially increased and facili- 
tated by the formation of a cut, or canal, two hundred and twenty yards long, at Portrack, 
a little below the town, across a narrow neck of land, by which a circuit of almost three 


miles is saved in the navigation of the river ; and ships can now cross the bar, and come 
up to the quays, in one tide." 

In 1/6/, a navigable canal was projected, to pass from Stockton to the extensive inland 
collieries of Etherly and Witton Park ; but, for reasons not explained, the undertaking 
was abandoned. The desired communication has, however, been effected by a rail-way, or 
tram-road, extending a considerable distance, and having several branches to Yarm and 
other places. The original work was completed in 1825, under the authority of an act of 
parliament, and is the joint property of a number of shareholders. Coaches, drawn by 
horses, travel daily over this road, from Stockton to Darlington, at the rate of about nine 
miles an hour. Locomotive engines are employed for the transit of coal, lime, lead, &c. ; and 
other engines are stationed on the line, to assist the loaded waggons in their passage across 
the elevated portions of the road. The utility of this communication is evidenced by 
the number of carriages which are constantly traversing it, laden with passengers and 

The public buildings and institutions in Stockton are too numerous for particular 
mention in this brief sketch. The town-hall is a handsome and commodious structure, 
standing in the centre of High-street, and presenting a noble facade towards the north. 
The parochial church is a handsome-built edifice, which was consecrated to divine uses 
in 1712. The Custom-house, situated on the quay, at the foot of Finkle-street, was 
erected by the corporation in 1/30, on the site of the old one, then in a ruinous and 
decayed condition. The exterior presents nothing remarkable, but the interior arrange 
nients are commodious and judicious. 

Annual races are held on the Carrs, on the Yorkshire side of the Tees, commencing 
the Thursday in the first week after York August Meeting. The race-course, with its 
attendant " pomp and circumstance," is shewn in the illustrative View : the church 
tower, and the light and beautiful spire of the town-hall, are also seen rising above the 
surrounding mass of buildings. 


The small lake of Rydal Water lies within the valley of Grasmere, at the distance of 
two miles north-west from Ambleside. The spirit of repose that broods over it, and the 
luxuriance of its borders, give a pleasing relief to the stern grandeur and barrenness of the 
neighbouring mountains. It scarcely exceeds a mile in length, and the water is appa- 
rently shallow. Two small islands rise above the surface of the lake ; on one of which a 
heronry has been established. A few ancient trees decorate its banks on one side, and the 
other is skirted by hoary rocks, with woods vegetating from their fissures. Rydal Water 
has an outlet in the Rothay river, which, after a course of two miles, enters the lake of 
Windermere. On the right of our view is Ivy Cottage, the beautiful and romantic residence 
of the Rev. Samuel Tilbrook, D.D. 



At a short distance north-east from the lake, stands Rydal Hall, the seat of the 
Fleming family. It is situated on a gentle eminence, at the junction of two valleys, and 
is sheltered by waving woods, which cover the surrounding heights. In the rear of the 
Hall, is the mountain of Rydal Head, covered with a soft herbage, occasionally relieved 
by rugged masses of rock. The ascent to this hill is laborious and difficult, but the pros- 
pect thence obtained is an ample compensation for the toil. Hence are seen Grasmere 
and Rydal Water, extending like beautiful mirrors far beneath the feet ; the eye looks 
down upon them almost perpendicularly, and every creek and bay in the line of shore is 
distinctly perceptible. 

Rydal Water is the property of the Flemings of Rydal Hall. 


The Second Reach of Ullswater presents a scene of natural grandeur and sublimity 
that can scarcely be exceeded ; and when beheld, as our artist has shewn it, under a 
moon-light effect, it affords objects for contemplation, on which the eye rests with 
astonishment, and the mind with awful and devotional feeling. This reach of the lake 
extends about four miles in length, and lies between the lofty and precipitous acclivities 
of Hallan-fell, Birk-fell, and Place-fell on the south, and the undulating copse of Gow- 
barrow Park on the north. " The characteristics of the left shore are grandeur and 
immensity ; its cliffs are vast and broken, and rise immediately from the stream, and often 
shoot their masses over it." Among the fells enclosing this shore, are Holling-fell, and 
Swarth-fell, " shewing huge walls of naked rocks, and scars which many torrents have 
inflicted." The mighty Helvellyn, scowling over all, adds dignity to this alpine 

Referring to the scenery in the neighbourhood of the second reach, Mr. Hutchinson 
says, " We now doubled a woody promontory, and passing by the foot of Gowbarrow 
Park, ascended into the narrow part of the lake, leaving the grassy margins and scattered 
copse, which had bordered the water as we passed by Water Mellock. All around was 
one scene of mountains, which hemmed us in, arising with awful and precipitate fronts. 
Here the white cliffs raised their pointed heads ; there the shaken and rifted rocks were 
split and cavated into vast shelves, chasms, and dreary cells, which yawned upon the 
shadowed lake ; while other steeps, less rugged, were decked with shrubs, which grew 
on every plain and chink, their summits being embrowned with sun-parched moss and 
scanty herbage. 

" Gowbarrow Park," Mr. Baines remarks, " is far more interesting, and more accord- 
ant to the rest of the scenery, with its neglected woods, its aged oaks and thorns, and its 
rough carpet of grass and fern, than if all the elegance of art had been lavished upon it. 


Nature, and what is almost as good as nature, antiquity, are the ideas it impresses on the 
mind. In beholding it, you think of ancient baronial times, and a pleasing melancholy, 
mingled with reverence, comes over you. The impression is heightened by the plain gray 
building, called Lyulph's Tower, standing on the edge of a wood, and whose battlements 
lead you to suppose it a fortification. It is, however, merely a hunting-box, erected in 
imitation of an old mansion. A fine blood-hound, kennelled near the door of the tower, is 
another characteristic appendage to the residence of a feudal baron." 

From Lyulph's Tower, the lake of Ullswater is seen to make one of its boldest 
expanses. The view up this reach, towards the south and east, includes all the fells and 
curvatures of Gowbarrow Park ; while to the west, a dark angle discovers a glimpse of the 
solemn alps assembled round the base of Helvellyn. 

Lyulph's Tower is situated on the left of our view. It was a hunting-seat of the 
late Duke of Norfolk, and was by him bequeathed to Mr. Howard, of Corby Castle. It is 
a square, rugged edifice, with four towers, battlements, and gothic windows ; was 
erected, in a good measure, to form an interesting object in the surrounding scenery; and 
is supposed to have been denominated from Lyulphus, an Anglo-Saxon of distinction, the 
first baron of Greystock, who received the grant shortly after the Conquest, and thus 
became the proprietor of Ullswater. Lyulph was murdered during the disturbances 
occasioned by the intrusion of the Normans into this country; and his monument, it is 
said, still remains in the church at Chester-le-Street, near Durham. " The park, within 
which the tower is situated, contains upwards of eighteen hundred acres, and is pastured 
by a vast number of deer, besides sheep and black cattle." 

On the right of our view, the shattered mountain of Birk-fell is seen stretching itself 
into the lake ; and down the sides, the hill torrent-rushes on in its long-accustomed 
channel. A scene like the one here presented, must be actually witnessed, to be 
adequately felt and understood. Even the pencil cannot do every thing ; and mere 
description can give but a very faint and imperfect idea of a solitude so desolate on the 
one hand, and so richly wooded on the other — so awful and majestic, yet so calm and 


The site of Tynemouth Abbey, or Priory, is said to have been a strong fortress of the 
Romans. The advantages of its position, added to the anarchy of ancient times, induced 
the monks and their patrons to render it a defensive structure ; to which end, they sur- 
rounded it with fortifications. It is mentioned as being, in 13/9, " a certain fortified and 
walled place, to resist the malice of the enemies of the kingdom." And, in the reign of 
Queen Elizabeth, Camden testifies, that it " gloried in a noble and strong castle." The 
history of the Priory and Castle of Tynemouth are blended with each other ; and for 
further description, we must refer the reader to page 31 of this work. 


The commanding situation of this fortress is advantageously shewn in our view. A 
lofty and precipitous cliff defends it towards the sea, and a massive wall entirely 
surrounds it. Commencing at the left hand, we notice successively the extensive 
barracks, the ruins of the priory, and the light-house erected on the north-east side 
of the castle. 

Tynemouth is a place of fashionable resort during the bathing season ; at which times 
the inns and lodging-houses are usually filled with company. The station, exhibited in 
the view, called the Prior's Haven, is sheltered by an amphitheatre of lofty rocks, and 
forms a fine bay for the recreation of visitors. Here are commodious and elegant baths ; 
and a number of covered boats are provided, for the accommodation of those who wish 
to bathe in the open sea. There is another fine station on the north side of the priory, 
called Percy's Bay. 

The trade connected with the Tyne constitutes one of the great nurseries for British 
seamen ; a circumstance thus alluded to by the poet : — 

" Ne'er from the lap of luxury and ease 
Shall spring, the hardy warrior of the seas ; 
A toilsome youth the mariner must form, 
Nurs'd on the wave, and cradled in the storm. 
These nurseries have trained the daring crew, 
Through storms and war our glory to pursue ; 
These have our leaders train'd, — and naval Fame 
Reads in their rolls her Cook's immortal uame." 


Jesniond (a corruption of Jesus-mount) is a beautifully picturesque township, lying 
between the Ouse-burn rivulet and the Newcastle Town-moor. It contains several elegant 
mansions, belonging to the gentry and merchants of Newcastle ; and the romantic Dean 
forms a pleasurable rendezvous for the whole country round. On the eminence to the 
right, are the remains of the chapel and hospital, dedicated to St. Mary ; and near to them 
is St. Mary's Well, which is approached by as many steps as there are articles in the 
creed. The road from Stote's Hall to West Jesmond commands a beautiful and extensive 
view of the most picturesque scenery imaginable. Gateshead-fell is situated in the dis- 
tance, on the right; and the grounds of Sir Matthew White Ridley lie remotely in the 
centre. Within the latter, still exists the temporary concealment of Bishop Ridley, the 
victim of bigotry and religious rancour. The Ouse-burn stream is seen winding its course 
through the wooded valley. 

There are public gardens in Jesmond, for the accommodation and refreshment of the 
numerous parties that visit the neighberhood. 



The small lake of Brothers' Water, though extremely interesting, and surrounded by 
scenery of the most enchanting and sublime description, is scarcely larger than a 
mountain tarn. Mr. Baines, junior, in his Companion to the Lakes, recommends the 
tourist to approach it from the Kirkstone side, in his route from Ambleside, as in that 
case " it is the beginning of beauties." Mr. B. accompanies his advice with these judi- 
cious observations :—" It may seem in speculation to be a matter of indifference at 
which end you begin, as, going over the same ground, you will have all the beauties, 
first or last ; but it is found by actual observation, that a great difference is produced 
by the way in which objects present themselves ; much depends on the first impres- 
sion, and much on the order of improvement or of deterioration in which the views 

are seen." 

This lake is said to have obtained its name from the circumstance of two brothers 
having been drowned here. Such an event did actually occur in the year 1785 ; and 
tradition speaks of a similar one having taken place, at a period considerably more remote ; 
but as the ancient name of the lake was Broader Water, it becomes matter of speculation 
whether the appellation has been gradually corrupted, or suddenly changed on account of 
the incidents before-mentioned. 

The road from Patterdale to this lake is pleasant and easy, winding through level 
meadows, skirted by hanging woods and lofty mountains, down whose sides " a hundred 
torrents rend their furious way." The sound of these streams is occasionally driven full 
on the ear ; while at other times it is scarcely audible, unless re-echoed from the opposite 
side. It is no unusual circumstance for one part of the mountains to be wrapped in shade, 
while the other exhibits all the glowing variety of colour which the rays of the declining 
sun can impart. The road from Brothers' Water to Ambleside lies through a rugged pass, 
truly alpine in its character, and winds along a contracted valley, with a lofty and naked 
mountain impending on the left. A steep and difficult path, leading to the heights of 
Kirkstone, encounters the deafening tumult of a raging torrent, tumbling and foaming 
over its rocky channel. 

The meadows, spreading out to a considerable distance beyond the lake, present a 
surface as level as that of the pool itself; and Mr. Baines conjectures, " that they were 
once covered with water, and that an alluvial deposit, or the accumulation of vegetable 
matter at the shallow bottom of the lake, or the widening of the passage by which 
the water flows out of it, has converted this considerable extent from a pool into a 

The huge mountains of Place Fell and Grisdale Pikes terminate the view of Brothers' 
Water, as seen from Kirkstone Foot. 




The village of Patterdale is situated at the upper end of lake Ullswater, and the 
lowly dwellings of this quiet abiding-place, shrowded with trees and sheltered by 
scowling mountains, repose in a rocky nook, with corn and meadow land sloping 
gently in front to the lake. The bridge, which crosses one of the tributary streams of 
Ullswater, forms a picturesque object in the neighbouring scenery. 

The vales of Patterdale lie embosomed in the midst of lofty and barren mountains, and 
are watered by springs and streams descending from the hills. The brightness of their 
verdure contrasts effectively with the rugged sterility of the adjacent heights. Here and 
there appears a neat white edifice, built beneath the shelter of a hill, and partly shadowed 
with foliage ; its size insignificant, by comparison with the colossal magnificence that 
surrounds it. 

At the head of Ullswater, and near the village, stands Patterdale Hall, the seat of 
Mr. William Marshall, and formerly the residence of John Mounsey, Esq., whose ancestors 
for many ages bore the title of kings of Patterdale. This mansion is surrounded by 
thriving plantations, which, with the lofty mountains behind, shelter it from cold and 
inclement winds. At the end is a delightful shrubbery, through which, in the approach 
to the house, a lovely garden is discovered ; and in front of this is a lawn, gradually 
sloping to the road. 

The church of Patterdale is an ancient white structure, furnished with oaken benches, 
and exhibiting a simplicity far more suitable to religious services, and the awful grandeur 
that environs its site, than the too tasteful and elaborate erections of modern times. The 
eye cannot glance on an object more sublime, than a village church in a mountain country. 
The hallowed associations connected with the sacred pile, can but appeal forcibly to the 
mind, when the road to its portal lies over hill and vale, where the very footsteps of Deity are 
discernible, and the majesty of Omnipotence is so awfully displayed ! In the church-yard 
is a venerable yew-tree, of amazing circumference, and still retaining a good portion of 
vigour : it stands a chronicler of departed days ; and is viewed with interest by the senior 
inhabitants, as a pleasing reminiscence of early life, when they rested in its shade, and 
when their eyes had not become dim through age. Neither " storied urn, nor animated 
bust," nor indeed a single grave-stone, can be found in this church-yard. The lowly 
inhabitants of the village are content to be gathered to their fathers, with no other cover- 
ing over their last resting-place than the green mound :— 

" In our church-yard, 

Is neither epitaph nor monument, 
Tombstone nor name; only^he turf we tread, 
And a few natural graves." — 

^»7 ■- J , ,-,)'■' ■ 


A few remarkable particulars arc recorded of the Rev. Mattinson, formerly curate 

of Fatterdale. He buried his mother ; married and buried his father ; published his own 
marriage-banns ; and christened and married his four children, in this church, over which 
he had presided sixty years, when at the age of ninety-six he departed the present life. 
His stipend, as curate, did not at first exceed twelve pounds per annum, and it never 
reached twenty pounds ; yet, by astonishing frugality and industry, he was enabled to 
support himself and his family with comfort, and to save a thousand pounds ! 


The village of Bamborough, once a royal burgh, and, during the heptarchy, a seat of 
the Northumbrian nionarchs, stands in a healthy and commanding situation, at the distance 
of nearly five miles east by north from Belford. 

The remains of the Castle stand eastward of the village, and form with their demesnes 
a separate township. The ruins occupy the summit of a triangular rock, one corner of 
which projects into the sea, whence it rises perpendicularly to the height of one hundred 
and fifty feet above low-water mark. A great portion of the buildings stand on the very 
brink of the rocks on the land side, and in this quarter is a venerable circular tower. 
Towards the south-east, the only accessible part of the precipice, is the old gateway, 
strengthened by a round tower on each side, and formerly defended by a ditch. Within 
a short distance of this is another and more modern entrance, with a portcullis ; and farther 
on, a very ancient round tower, seated on a lofty point of the rock, and commanding the 
pass. The keep is a lofty square structure, of Norman architecture, built of stone, sup- 
posed to have been obtained at North Sunderland. The front walls of the edifice are eleven 
feet in thickness, but the others only nine. In 1/7^? tbe removal of a considerable 
quantity of sand discovered the remains of the ancient church, built by king Oswald. The 
altar and font were both found ; the latter of which is richly carved, and is now preserved 
in the keep. Ida, the first Saxon king of Northumbria, is said to have fortified the rock 
on which Bamborough Castle stands; but others contend that the Romans first occupied 
the fort, and attribute its foundation to Julius Agricola. 

This ancient fortress has been the scene of great contentions. Penda, king of the 
Mercians, so early as the year 642, laid siege to it, and attempted its destruction by fire ; 
but the shifting of the wind drove the burning faggots into his own camp, whence he fled 
with great loss. The arms of king Oswald, who thus triumphed over his pagan enemy, 
were preserved in the church which he had built, and are said to have remained uninjured 
by time during a lapse of many centuries. Frequent were the contests that took place 
between the petty rulers of the heptarchy for the possession of this fortress. About 933, 
it was seized and nearly destroyed by the Danes; and again, in 1015, after it had been 
restored, and many new works had been added, it was pillaged by these northern invaders. 
In the reign of William Rufus, Robert Mowbray, who had defeated and slain Malcolm, king 
of Scotland, thinking his services neglected by his sovereign, entered into a conspiracy 


with other noblemen, for the purpose of dethroning him. William being at length apprised 
of hi> designs, marched into Northumberland, and found Mowbray in possession of Bam- 
borough Castle; the king, after endeavouring in vain to reduce it by siege, blockaded the 
place, and prevented the garrison from receiving necessary supplies. Mowbray being thus 
pressed, fled to the convent of Tynemouth, whence he was brought prisoner to William. 
The king, having threatened his captive with loss of sight, unless the fortress was forthwith 
delivered up, the wife of Mowbray prevailed with the governor to surrender the Castle. 

During the strife between Stephen and the Empress Matilda, the Castle was besieged by 
David, king of Scotland, who, however, found himself unahle to reduce the fortress. 
Amidst the contentions of the two houses of York and Lancaster, Bamborough Castle was 
governed by one or the other party, as either obtained a temporary ascendancy. In the 
time of Elizabeth, the building, with its demesnes, was possessed by the crown ; but it 
was afterwards granted by James I. to a descendant of a former governor. Eventually the 
property was purchased by Lord Crewe, Bishop of Durham, who directed by his will that 
the ample revenues should be applied to charitable uses. The munificent institutions 
connected with Bamborough Castle, in consequence of this bequest, deserve particular 

The Library of the Castle, which was founded by Lord Crewe's trustees in 1778, is 
very extensive and valuable. It is opened every Saturday, from ten in the morning till 
one in the afternoon ; and, during this interval, books for perusal may be obtained gratui- 
tously by every well-known housekeeper, residing within twenty miles of Bamborough ; 
and by the members of the church, and all dissenting ministers who officiate within the 
limits, though they may not be housekeepers. 

The Free-schools of the Castle, for both sexes, admit an unlimited number of pupils, 
who are gratuitously supplied with all school requisites ; and thirty of the poorest girls 
are maintained in the house till the age of sixteen, when they are placed out at service. 
These seminaries are now conducted on Dr. Bell's system. 

The upper part of the great tower is made a depository for grain, whence, in seasons 
of scarceness, the poor are supplied on liberal terms. Meal, and grocery articles, are sold 
on Tuesdays and Fridays, to the indigent inhabitants at a very reduced price. Annually, 
at Christmas, a plentiful supply of beef is distributed. 

A number of apartments in the Castle are fitted up for the accommodation of ship- 
wrecked sailors ; and so watchful are the trustees in the fulfilment of the sacred charity 
bequeathed, that a patrol is kept on stormy nights, and a premium given to the 
person who first brings information of a ship in distress. During winter, a party is 
stationed on the Observatory, to see if any vessels are in danger ; and, in foggy weather, 
various signals are given, to direct the movements of the shipping. 

It has been well remarked, that " this ancient Castle, which was, in former times, so 
often the scene of war and tumult, is now the abode of munificent charity, where the poor, 
the afflicted, and the ship-wrecked never call in vain for relief." 



To give a detailed account of this ancient town, for so many ages a cause of contention 
between the rival kingdoms of England and Scotland, is far beyond the limits of our brief 
page, we must therefore confine ourselves to a few notices of its present condition and 
character. Since the Union, great improvements have taken place in Berwick, some of 
which are of very recent date. The streets, though irregularly built, are in several quarters 
spacious ; and the principal shops are well stocked, and fitted up with much elegance. 

The ancient Castle at Berwick is little more than a confused heap of ruins, and is sup- 
posed to have been erected in the time of the Anglo-Saxons. The remains stand on an 
elevated mount on the north bank of the Tweed. The modern fortress is a place of great 
strength, and the barracks department is capable of accommodating a very considerable 
military force. There were formerly no less than ten religious houses in Berwick, all of 
which shared the general fate at the dissolution. 

The Parish Church of Berwick was completed in 1652, and dedicated to the Holy 
Trinity; the interior is handsome, and is provided with an excellent organ, and an altar- 
piece of exquisite workmanship. Churches and chapels for the use of Dissenters and 
others, exist in different parts of the town. In addition to the Grammar-school, there are 
several well-endowed free-schools for the education of the humbler portion of the com- 
munity. A Dispensary has been established, for the purpose of affording medical and 
surgical aid to the afflicted ; besides which, numerous benefactions and institutions are in 
operation for the assistance and relief of the poor. The Town-hall, a stately pile of modern 
architecture, standing at the foot of High-street, affords ample convenience for market 
purposes, and includes a variety of offices and apartments for judicial business. The 
principal places of public amusement in Berwick, are the Theatre and the Public Library. 
The Bridge, a spacious and elegant structure, completed in 1634, crosses the Tweed by 
fifteen arches ; and measures 11G4 feet in length by 17 feet in breadth. The Union Chain- 
bridge crosses the river at New Waterford, about six miles from Berwick, and was the 
first suspension-bridge of the kind erected in Great Britain. The building of the New 
Pier was begun in 1810, and completed at an expense of £40,000. 

A weekly market is held in Berwick every Saturday, and an annual fair on the Friday 
in Trinity week ; besides which, there are, in the course of the year, three High Markets, 
for the sale of horses and cattle, and for the hiring of servants. The commercial import- 
ance of Berwick is of long standing: so early as 1156, it was distinguished for having 
many ships, and more commerce than any port in Scotland. The staple articles of the 
maritime trade are grain, salmon, herrings, &c. 

The illustrative View exhibits the river Tweed, and its union with the German Ocean. 
On the left, the river determines the boundary of Northumberland; and on the right bank 
are seen the castle, quay, and town of Berwick. 




The town and castle of Barnard Castle have been described at page 58 of this work, to 
which the reader is referred. The present View will be accompanied with some brief 
notices of the picturesque scenery of the Tees river. 

The river Tees rises in the mountain of Cross Fell, in Cumberland, whence it passes 
along the southern shore of the county of Durham, till it discharges itself into the German 
Ocean. In the course of its windings, it traverses a district of between sixty and seventy- 
miles, and imparts a rich beauty to the romantic and picturesque country through which 
it flows. The venerable ruins of Barnard Castle, situated on a cliff, and overhanging the 
river; the tranquillity of the scene in the neighbourhood of Egglestone Abbey; the walks 
of Rokeby, at the confluence of the Greta with the Tecs ; the hanging woods and 
precipices at Winston and Gainford ; and the beauties of Hurworth and Dinsdale, present 
a series of interesting objects, of which the pencil only can convey an adequate idea. 

The channel of the Tees being for the most part rocky and shallow, this river is of no 
great utility as respects navigation. The tide reaches only to Worsal, about three miles 
above Yarm, and twenty miles from the sea. In its approach to Stockton, the shore of the 
Tees becomes very low, and the stream winding ; but as it approximates to the ocean, 
the river spreads itself forth into an extensive bay, about three miles across. The mouth 
of the estuary is contracted by a tongue of land, called Seaton Snook, whence a bar of sand 
extends to the Cleveland coast. During the spring tides, from ten to twelve feet of water is 
the depth on the bar at low-water, and from twenty-six to twenty-eight feet at high-water ; 
while, in the neap-tides, the depth is twelve feet at low-water, and twenty-two feet at 
high-water. The bay of the Tees is a convenient shelter for shipping in stormy weather. 


The cataracts of the Tees equal in magnificence any that are to be found in the 
kingdom ; and of these, Caldron Snout is one of the most remarkable. 

In the neighbourhood of Harwood Common, the Tees expands into a kind of lake, called 
the Weel, whence it rushes over a rocky bed, and forms innumerable cascades. About a 
mile below the Weel is the waterfall named Caldron Snout. Here " the madden'dTees with 
maniac fury foams;" and a tremulous motion is communicated to the adjacent rocks by 
the rushing of the torrent. It requires some nerve and intrepidity to pass the rudely- 
constructed bridge which crosses the fall : the roaring of the waters beneath, and the 
apparently unstedfast footing of the structure whereon he stands, excites a feeling of 
anxiety and fear in the heart of the tourist. 

The scenery in the vicinity of Caldron Snout is more wild and romantic than that 
of any other part of Durham. Several lead mines are situated near; and lofty- 
ranges of basalt extend from the fall, down the south side of the Tees. 




The Ferry House is situated on the west side of Windermere Lake, about one mile 
.south from Bowness. The approach to it from Curwen's Island is particularly striking. 
The waters spread out into a magnificent expanse : on the right, is a noble bay, running 
up to the foot of a steep hill opposite Bowness ; and on the left, a corresponding indent- 
ation of the shore is formed by the lake. Beyond the Ferry, there is a majestic sweep 
of about a mile to the promontory of Storrs, where stands the elegant mansion of 
Colonel Bolton. 

Behind the Ferry House is a small observatory, built on the top of a wooded rock, 
whence is seen the whole extent of the lake, from Newby Bridge almost up to Ambleside. 
" A richer landscape of wood and water cannot be pictured by the imagination of man. 
The glassy lake returns the heaven and the mountains, enriched by the reflection. The 
islands, the promontories, the hills, are all covered with wood ; yet endlessly varied, from 
the natural thicket which feathers the islet, and the regular grove that environs the man- 
sions on the shore, to the solemn forest of larch and fir, with which the hills are mantled. 
Southward, the landscape is graceful without boldness ; but the head of the lake is sur- 
rounded by lofty mountains, which are sufficiently near to impart magnificence to the view." 

The illustrative View exhibits the appearance presented by the lake of Windermere on 
the occasion of a Regatta, when the Ferry House is crowded with distinguished visitors 
from all parts of the empire, and the neighbouring country in particular. To describe the 
ravishing delights incident to this festivity, would be gratuitous information to those 
who have had the pleasure of witnessing it, and could give no idea to those who have 
not, of the gratifying spectacle it displays. Suffice it to say, that all the senti- 
mentality and quixotism of "the song and oar of Hadria's gondolier," shrink from 
comparison with it. 

In connexion with the present subject, it may not be amiss to institute an inquiry, 
why foreign scenery should be sought out with such eagerness, and the, at least, not less 
lovely pictures presented in our native land disregarded. Is the former visited with 
less inconvenience ? Are the facilities for enjoyment greater abroad ? Is continental 
scenery so "beautiful exceedingly," that all natural loveliness beside must fade before it? 
We will see. Italy is the gathering-place of connoisseurs in the sublime and beautiful : 
let us follow the tourist to this " bright spot of earth," and judge of his enjoyments. 
First, the conveniences of travelling. The visitor to Italy must produce his passport at 
almost every trifling village he passes through, and submit it to the inspection of a demi- 
military turnpike-keeper, who will expect a gratuity for his gentlemanly forbearance, in 
not emptying the traveller's trunks, and scattering his wardrobe to the winds. Moreover, 
he may be detained an hour or two on his journey, to allow sufficiency of time for the 
official examination. Then there are the exorbitant charges, and the cringing devotions, 
of the inn-keepers to mi lor Anglais. Added to these, the annoyances which occur every 


time you puss from one petty state into another, the attendant losses in exchange of money, 
the swarms of filthy la/.ars that beset the unfortunate tourist at every turn, the miry or dusty 
roads, the unpaved streets, the pestilential effluvia that poisons the air of the towns, &c. — 
Secondly, the facilities for enjoyment. Begin with bugs, fleas, gnats, musquitos, and 
scorpions, who seem in classic land to have a marvellous predilection for English blood. 
Then the pleasurable emotions excited by the sudden appearance of a brigand : however, 
we will pass this over slightly ; there is something so romantic and interesting in a tete- 
a-tete with an Italian robber, that we have perhaps no right to call the tourist's enjoyment 
in question ; besides, if in the sequel he should be shot, or his throat should be cut, 
immortality is obtained at once. — Thirdly, the surpassing beauty of Italian scenery. On 
this head, listen to the observations of a writer in the Literary Gazette, to whose sensible 
remarks we are indebted for the present expose. " The mountains of the Appenines are less 
varied and romantic than some of our mountains in North Wales. The almost inter- 
minable levels and marshes in Italy, may find a parallel in Lincolnshire; but their 
plantations, their palaces and villas, jutting out from open fields unadorned by the graceful 
investiture of pleasure-gardens, are not to be compared with the rich, verdant, and various 
scenery of England." Let the tourist, then, assure himself of this : he will meet, in his 
own country, with picturesque beauty yet more magnificent than that of Italy ; while in 
the articles of cleanliness, domestic comfort, excellent provisions, moderate charges, and 
all the inter alia requisites for convenience and enjoyment, Italy will bear no comparison 
with England. Let him pause, then, " before he quits a land in which the beauties of 
nature and the refinements of comfort abound, and undertakes a journey of a thousand 
miles, to sojourn in a country which is, at least, a hundred years behind his own in all 
that regards the substantial enjoyments and the decorums of life ; and before he lavishes 
that wealth which is drawn from the industry of his countrymen, among foreigners, who 
dislike him for every thing but his money." 


Storrs Hall, the magnificent residence of Colonel Bolton, stands on a promontory 
of Windermere Lake, in the midst of ornamental groves. At the farthest point of land, is 
a small naval temple, erected by the former proprietor of the mansion, Sir John Legard, 
Bart., and for which an elegant poetical apology has been written by Wilson. The lake 
here spreads out into a beautiful expanse, smooth and translucent as a mirror; and every 
object on its shores is reflected in the waters in natural strength. The Hall was partly 
built by Sir John Legard, but was finished by Colonel Bolton ; and all the pleasing 
adjuncts to this delightful residence were planned and executed by the latter gentleman. 

Colonel Bolton was the intimate friend of the Right Hon. George Canning, and also 
of the Right Hon. William Huskisson ; and to the hospitable mansion of Storrs these 
statesmen frequently retired, to recreate both body and mind, after the severe and 
harassing occupations of a parliamentary session. 

■ ;.%, 

™ , UIVmO ' < /.' 



The position whence the present view is taken, is distant not more than one hundred 
yards from the high road between Ambleside and Keswick. Tourists generally content 
themselves with a survey of Thirlmere from the road itself; but those who have leisure at 
command, and whose object it is to search out the picturesque, will find their trouble 
amply compensated, if they contemplate its varied features from different stations in the 
grounds near Dalehead House ; and still more interesting views are obtained from the 
opposite side of the water. This lake is intersected by several rocky promontories ; and 
is crossed at a strait by a wooden bridge which leads to Armboth House. It reposes 
in quiet majesty at the foot of "the mighty Helvellyn," upon the highest level of any of 
the lakes, being elevated nearly five hundred feet above the sea. This mountain forms the 
eastern boundary of the valley of Wythburn. Its form is rugged and precipitous ; and, in 
many parts, the naked crags rise up perpendicularly to a great elevation ; while below 
them are strewn vast quantities of loose stones and shingle, which are detached from the 
mountain by frosts, and slide down the acclivity. The sides are worn into deep ravines 
by the perpetual descent of inconsiderable torrents, which, however, in a rainy season, 
assume the grandeur of beautiful cascades. 

As we have two views of Thirlmere brought into juxtaposition, we shall at present 
notice only the peculiar features of the one before us. The bridge, which forms a 
prominent object in this view, is a rude structure, wherein we discover little of what the 
professed architect would call beautiful in design, or scientific in principle ; but its remote 
distance from elaborate and fanciful construction is, in its present position, the greatest 
recommendation : the sublimities of human art must retire from those scenes, where 
" Nature, working with a master's hand," erects her mountain thrones, or they sink into 
insignificance, — perhaps mar the beauty to which they have not interest sufficient to add 
one charm. 

On the left of our view is seen the huge promontory of Raven Crag, rising near the 
foot of the lake, and forming a striking object in the landscape for many miles round. It 
derives a romantic interest from its resemblance to a gigantic round tower, blackened and 
shattered by exposure to many a storm, and by the lapse of many ages. The distant 
central mountain is Skiddaw, which, rising in avast conical form from the vale of Keswick, 
elevates its summit to the height of six miles, and commands the most astonishing 
prospects "over hill, and over plain." The view terminates on the right with a range 
of mountains that connect witli Helvellyn. Between those lofty acclivities and the water, 
are seen picturesque and wood-clothed promontories adorning the north-east margin of 
the lake. 




This view of Thirlmere is taken from the low ground at the foot of Raven Crag, and 
consequently continues the prospect of this lake, as far as the eye can reach, in the 
opposite direction to the former survey. The west edge of the lake, which now lies imme- 
diately in the foreground, swells into a little promontory, decorated with a neat manor 
house, shrouded in trees. The beauties of Thirlmere are seen to most advantage from the 
west side, from a road which is passable only by horsemen, or on foot, and which leads 
along the shore of the lake for nearly three miles. This road is, in some parts, steep ; in 
others, where there is a declivity, rivulets flow across it ; and sometimes it proceeds along 
the margin of the water, from which it is occasionally excluded by intervening rocks. 
Throughout its whole length it is completely overhung by part of the stupendous falls of 
Borrowdale ; and on the left of the road are scattered fragments of rock, which had been 
precipitated from the mountains by repeated storms. 

The bridge which made so conspicuous a figure in the former view, is here reduced to 
a waving line — "so little, distant objects seem." The peculiar feature of Thirlmere, and 
that which distinguishes it from all the other lakes in Cumberland and Westmorland, is 
exhibited in the scene before us ; that is, its separation into two distinct lakes by the 
advancing promontories, between which the bridge forms a communication. " About the 
middle of the lake, the land projects upwards of one hundred feet, till the shores on each 
side nearly unite, and contract the water into a small river, which is rapid, but not very 
deep. Over the lake, at this narrow peninsula, an alpine bridge of three arches (the bridge 
before mentioned) has been thrown, consisting only of one or two strong oaken planks, 
with a hand-rail for the security of passengers. The approach to this bridge is over a 
rude causeway of rough stones, upon which the arches are fixed ; and immediately beyond 
these the lake resumes its former breadth." 

The grand feature in the view is Helvellyn, which appears on the left, rising in peerless 
majesty — " losing the vales, and stealing to the skies." Its summit, on which is a pile of 
stones, can only be seen at a considerable distance. The view from the top of this vast 
eminence comprehends the mountains of Wales and Scotland, and the expanse of the 
Irish sea. 

" His proud heart, this aery mountain hides 
Among the clouds ; his shoulders and his sides 
A shady mantle clothes ; his curled brows 
Frown on the gentle stream, which calmly flows; 
While winds and storms his lofty forehead beat, 
The common lot of all that's high and great." 


On eacli side, the hills close the prospect of Thirlmere in the direction of our view. 

" As Alpine hills, they o'er the clouds arise, 
And rear their heads amidst contiguous skies, 
Enjoy serene, uninterrupted day, 
And floating tempests all beneath survey : 
Their lofty peaks no threatening meteors wear, 
Nor ponderous fogs, which cloud inferior air: 
The stedfast heaps the raging winds defy, 
So deep they fix their roots, and raise their heads so high." 

The artist has chosen to invest the scene with all the glories of a sun-rise : the mists 
of night are melting away — " a flood of glory bursts from all the skies"- 

" For now the sun, with all-revealing ray, 
Flames in the front of heaven, and gives the day." 


The Cathedral of Durham excels all other sacred edifices in this kingdom, both in the 
beauty of its situation, and in the riches of its revenues ; and, though not so large as 
some of them, its magnificence is not surpassed by any. 

The interior of this majestic building corresponds with its external grandeur; the 
connexion between Saxon and Norman architecture may be distinctly traced, and the 
latter in its highest stage of perfection : a similar comparison may also be made with the 
English or pointed styles ; the chapel of the nine altars, partaking in its general enrich- 
ments and proportions of the architectural character of Salisbury cathedral, forms, by its 
singular and light appearance, a striking contrast with the massive Norman work which 
prevails in other parts of the building, where the pillars are twenty-three feet in circum- 
ference, adorned with zig-zag and lozenge-shaped furrows. The arches which spring from 
these pillars are semicircular, and ornamented with zig-zags ; above them are two rows 
of galleries, with small arches or openings ; a row of small pilasters run round the sides 
of the church, with rounded arches intersecting each other ; the windows are obtusely 

On the door within the porch which forms the principal entrance to the cathedral, is 
a curious metallic ring, or knocker, sculptured with a terrific visage in bold relief, and 
well executed, with which persons claiming sanctuary were accustomed to alarm the 
inmates. Offenders of every description were admitted at any hour of the night by 
persons who lodged in two chambers over the north door for that purpose. On the 
admission of every offender, the Galilee bell was instantly tolled, " that whosoever heard 
it might know that some person had taken sanctuary." 


Near the west end, in the middle of the nave, is the font, an elegant marble basin, 
adorned with tabernacle work ; and a little eastward of this, a long cross of blue marble in 
the pavement, denotes the nearest approach allowed for females to St. Cuthbert's shrine. 

The exclusion of women from this shrine is accounted for by an ancient writer : — 
" Blessed St. Cuthbert, for a long time, led a solitary life, in the borders of the Picts, at 
which place great concourse of people daily used to visit him, and from whom they never 
returned without great comfort. At this time it happened, that the king's daughter, having 
acted indiscreetly, accused St. Cuthbert of violence towards her ; whereupon the king, her 
father, repaired to his cell, and reproached him — for that, under the colour of religion, he 
profaned the temple and sanctuary of God. St. Cuthbert appealed to heaven for proof of 
innocence ; and, having done so, the earth, making a hissing noise, presently opened, and 
swallowed up the damsel, in the presence of all the spectators. Afterwards, at her father's 
entreaty, the saint recovered her to life, on condition that no woman should ever be per- 
mitted to approach him." 

The south aisle, which is enclosed within a screen of wood, is used for the early 
morning prayers. The front of the choir, which was formerly decorated with effigies of 
the saints and early patrons of the church, is now entered by an oak screen, curiously 
carved with festoons of fruits and flowers ; the ascent to the choir is by two marble steps, 
and over the entrance is a lai'ge and fine-toned organ, beautifully painted and decorated. 
The stalls for the bishop, dean, prebendaries, &c. are richly ornamented with tabernacle 
work. At the end of the stalls the pavement rises one step, and on the right side stands 
the episcopal throne or chair, an elegant structure erected about the year 1370. The 
choir has four pillars on each side, two of them clustered, and two round ; and the roof 
is of elegant gothic work, elaborately finished. Near the choir is the chapel called the 
Feretory, where the gorgeous shrine of St. Cuthbert was anciently situated ; and the deep 
impressions on the pavement, worn by the feet of the numerous pilgrims who resorted 
hither, are still visible. The commissioners of Henry VIII. who visited Durham at the 
suppression of the monasteries, found the body of Saint Cuthbert whole and uncorrupted, 
with the vestments in which it was wrapped, whole and undecayed. These persons 
plundered the shrine of all its treasures and jewels, by order of their royal master ; and 
this act of sacrilegious daring strongly excited the indignation of the multitude. 

" Before them lay a glittering store, 
The abbey's plundered wealth, 
The garment of cost, and the bowl embost, 
And the wassail cup of health : 

And riches still from St. Cuthbert's shrine, 

The chalice, the alm'ry and pix, 
The image where gold and where ivory twine, 

And the shattered crucifix. 

And the visitors three, with wicked glee, 

Sit feasting full and high ; 
And still as they drink, they sit and think 

Of the devil and king He-vcr-y." 



These interesting ruins arc situated in Holy Island, near that part of the county of 
Durham which forms the northern boundary of Northumberland. This island was 
called hy the ancient Britons /mi's Medicante, also Lindisfarn, the latter of which is a 
compound of Lindis, the name of the rivulet that runs into the sea from the opposite 
land, and Faliren, a Celtic word, signifying a recess. Subsequently, on account of its 
being made the habitation of a religious fraternity, it obtained the name of Holy Island. 

The antique ruins of the abbey and cathedral church of Lindisfarn, though they 
have been frequently plundered for the erection of houses in the village, are yet mag- 
nificent, and bespeak the former grandeur and importance of the holy place, where 
episcopacy and Christianity were first permanently established in Northumbria. The 
ancient church was in the form of a cross, the body and chancel of which are vet 
standing ; but the other parts are greatly decayed, and in some places levelled with the 
ground. The greater part of the structure is in the rude and heavy style of early 
Saxon architecture, though it appears to have been built at different periods. The arches 
are many of them circular, and the columns very massive, much resembling those of 
Durham Cathedral, but richer. The walls are very thick, and every part displays a 
gloomy and sombre appearance. The south wall of the middle tower is still standing, 
and is about fifty feet high. The dome of the structure is separated from the aisles 
by a double row of ponderous columns, with richly ornamented shafts, twelve feet high, 
and five feet in circumference. The length of the building is about 138 feet, anil 
its breadth 3G feet. The central tower has been supported by two large arches, standing 
diagonally, but only one of them now remains, richly ornamented in the Saxon style. 

The monastery of Lindisfarn, some authors assert, was built by St. Cuthbert in a 
plain humble style, and enclosed with a high wall, to prevent outward objects from 
attracting the attention of the recluse from divine contemplation. Shortly after 
Lindisfarn was deserted by its bishops and monks, A.D. 832, the monastery was totally 
destroyed, and the church reduced to a ruin. Subsequently, however, a cell of 
Benedictine monks, subordinate to Durham Priory, was established there, and its annual 
revenues were valued by Dugdale, in the time of Henry VHI. at nearly fifty pounds 
sterling, a sum by no means inconsiderable at that period. In the thirty-third year 
of the same reign, the possessions of this institution were granted to the dean and 
chapter of Durham. 

Nothing now remains of Lindisfarn abbey but some faint reminiscences of its former 
greatness; the papal power which founded and upheld it has long been overthrown 
in this country ; and the cowl and the cloister are things known to us only as the 
common-place materiel of romance and legendary history : 

'No bells are ringing, — no monks are singing. 
When the moonlight falls around." 




Houghton Castle, the property of William Smith, Esq., is situated in the neighbour- 
hood of Chollerton, on the west bank of the north Tyne, at the distance of nine miles 
from Hexham. It was formerly a large strong building, the entrance to which was by a 
flight of steps : its situation, on a commanding eminence, must have rendered it an 
advantageous position in feudal times, when there was scarcely any protection beyond 
what a defensive building could assure. The acclivity on which it stands is enriched 
with wood, whose summer foliage renders the site of the castle eminently picturesque. 

History is nearly silent respecting the origin of this structure ; but the favourable 
position it occupies, and the disturbed state of Northumberland in the early ages, would 
lead to the supposition that it was founded at a very remote period. The village of 
Chollerton itself, is remarkable for a victory obtained by Oswald, king of Northumberland, 
over the British usurper, Cedwall, who had slain his apostate brother, Anfred, king of 
Bernicia. This victory is commemorated by a cross, erected near the field of battle, and 
still retaining the name of Oswald's cross. 

The glassy surface of the north Tyne river appears in the centre of the view, margined 
with wooded eminences ; and on the right bank, nearly shrouded in foliage, stands a water 
mill. The road along the foreground may be noticed as that by which the numerous 
droves of cattle pass from the " north countrie" to the markets of the rich south. 

The portly man whose countenance is turned towards us, is no less a personage than 
the schoolmaster of Chollerton, a worthy yet eccentric individual, whose time is divided 
between the varied occupations of fly-fishing, and teaching " the young idea how to 
shoot." How many might envy the situation of this village Mentor ! vested with supreme 
authority over his infant realm, he glories in the promulgation of those laws instituted for 
the good of his subjects : Propria quce tnaribus, As in praesenti, and Verhum personate 
concordat, are themes on which he can be ever eloquent — of which he never tires. (?) 
His fame is not, however, confined to rules and genders : he is an angler of great repute, 
the best trout-fisher in the neighbourhood ; and the skill and dexterity with which he 
manages his tackle, induces a wish on our part, 

" That when he next doth cast a line, 
May we be there to see." 


The township of Corbridge stands on the north bank of the river Tyne, at the 
distance of seventeen miles, west, from Newcastle. 

This place is of great antiquity, for Leland speaks of having discovered the old Roman 
foundations ; and king John was so impressed with the idea that it must have been a 


large and populous city, which could only have been ruined by an earthquake, or some 
sudden and terrible invasion, when, in either case, the inhabitants would have been unable 
to remove their wealth, that he caused his officers to make a diligent search for the 
treasures which were supposed to lie buried in the ruins. This monarch, in the sixtli 
year of his reign, granted the manor of Corbridge to Robert de Clavering, baron of 
Warkworth, with the privilege of a weekly market, and an annual fair on the eve, day. 
and day after, the festival of St. John the Baptist. The last Baron Clavering granted the 
reversion of his Northumberland estates to the crown in the time of Edward I., and they 
were afterwards given by Edward III. to Henry Percy, in whose " right noble line" the 
possession has continued to the present day. 

The parish church of Corbridge is dedicated to St. Andrew, and bears marks of great 
antiquity, having been constructed out of the ruins of old Corchester, the Roman station 
in the vicinage of Corbridge. The interior presents a neat and handsome appearance. 
The various classes of dissenters have each a place of worship, to which are attached 
several Sunday-schools. At the north-east corner of the market-place is an old square 
tower, that was formerly used as a prison, and which Camden describes as "a little turret 
built and inhabited by the vicars." It is thirty-three feet high, and the walls are upwards 
of four feet in thickness. The Duke of Northumberland, some years ago, caused the 
dungeon to be cleansed, and fitted up for its original purpose. The bridge which crosses 
the Tyne at this place consists of seven very wide arches, with outlets at every pillar. It 
was erected in 1674, and the strength of the structure was fully tried by the destructive 
flood of 1771, which swept away in its furious progress every other bridge on the river. 
The old market and fair of Corbridge have long been obsolete, but three large fairs for 
cattle, &c, are annually held at Stagshaw Bank, about two miles from Corbridge, at the 
junction of this parish with that of St. John Lee. This eminence is shewn in the distance 
of the present view. 

" About the year 1660, when the banks of the Cor (the brook or rivulet from which 
the town derives its name,) had been worn away by some impetuous land-flood, a 
skeleton, supposed to be that of a man of a very extraordinary and prodigious size, was 
discovered. The length of the thigh-bone was nearly six feet, and the skull, teeth, and 
other parts proportionately monstrous, so that the length of the whole body was com- 
puted at twenty-one feet. It is conjectured, by the more enlightened men of modern 
times, that these strange bones belonged to some large animal that had been sacrificed by 
the Romans at the altar dedicated to Hercules, which was found here some years ago. 
Notwithstanding that the superstition of our forefathers has lost nearly all its credit and 
influence, a singularly large bone found here is now exhibited in the Keswick Museum as 
the rib of the giant Cor." 

The view is taken from the road leading from Carlisle. 



Birker Force, sometimes named Stanley Cell, is situated in Eskdale, at the distance 
of about seven miles east by north from Ravenglass. Dale-Garth Hall, in the imme- 
diate neighbourhood, now a farm-house, was formerly the manorial residence. The 
present proprietor of the manor is Edward Stanley, Esq., of Ponsonby Hall, to whose 
judicious efforts the tourist is under much obligation, for improving the beauty of the 
Birker Cascade, and opening approaches to it, whence its peculiar character is most 
effectively displayed. The visitor traverses the plantations in the vicinity of this 
torrent, and discovers in his road several picturesque falls before he arrives at the one 
under review. After crossing the bridge, a road opens through the plantation, leading 
to a platform, whence a full view of the fall is obtained. The height of the fall is 
comparatively inconsiderable ; but the characteristic features of the scene it presents, 
differ so remarkably from those of any other in this neighbourhood, that the tourist 
will be highly gratified with the spectacle. The rocks in which it is situated, assume 
a pointed and glacier-like appearance; and the fir and larch trees which cluster round 
their bases, unite with them in producing a truly Alpine effect. Indeed, such another 
scene is not to be met with in the lake district, wherein the most admired features of 
the continental picturesque are blended with the rich and varied forms that compose 
an English landscape. 


Barrow fall is situated two miles south from Keswick, and from an eminence at 
its summit, the lake and vale of Derwentwater are seen in fine perspective. This fall 
is in the rear of Barrow House, the seat of Joseph Pocklington, Esq., and is approached 
through the grounds of that gentleman, who is the proprietor. The descent of the 
stream is more perpendicular than that of Lowdore, and a smaller quantity of water 
is consequently displayed to greater advantage in the former. The total depth of the 
fall is about one hundred and twenty-two feet. It is interrupted in its descent by a 
ledge of rocks, whence a second fall carries the waters to the bottom of the precipice, 
and through a wooded glen to the lake of Derwentwater. The same stream that feeds 
the Lowdore cataract provides a supply for this cascade. A pathway leads round 
the foot of the torrent to a flight of steps, by which the visitor ascends to a romantic 
summer-house, and thence continues to the summit of the fall. 



The highly celebrated sulphuretted and chalybeate spas of Gilsland arc situated in the 
romantic and picturesque vale of the Irthing, two miles north of the great road leading 
from Carlisle to Newcastle. This delightful spot has been the favourite and fashionable 
resort of the votaries of Hygea for nearly a century. Hither the valetudinarian repairs, 
to re-establish his declining health : hither the votaries of pleasure come, to enjoy the 
delights of beautiful scenery, and refined society. The man of science also has 
peculiar inducements to visit the healing waters : within a short distance of the Spa, 
is the site of the famous Roman wall which extended from the Tyne to the Solway ; 
and numerous remains of Roman, Saxon, and Gothic architecture exist in the immediate 
neighbourhood. The student in geology and botany will find ample scope for indulgence 
in his favourite pursuits : rare plants and beautiful specimens of mineral organization 
are found in the shades of Gilsland, and in the mountainous domain contiguous. 

Two well-conducted and elegantly furnished hotels afford ample accommodation to 
visitors. Every luxury for the table, and every amusement for the gratification of leisure 
hours, is obtained at moderate expense. The charges for board and lodging are seven 
shillings, four shillings and sixpence, and two shillings and sixpence, per diem for each 
person in the three classes of visitors. Two or three nights each week these three grades 
mingle together in the assembly rooms, where social feeling pervades without inter- 
ruption, and exclusive notions are allowed to have no influence. Billiard tables, libraries, 
news-rooms, concerts, angling, and a long et cetera of delightful recreations, are provided, 
to prevent the possibility of that odious monster, Ennui, ever intruding his presence at 
the gay and mirthful scene. The inns, walks, and scenery of Gilsland were much 
improved by Major Mounsey, who, in 1815, built a handsome cottage for his summer 
residence near the Shaws Hotel. 


The cathedral of Carlisle occupies an elevated situation, and is necessarily a pro- 
minent object in every view of the city. The erection of the building was commenced 
before the foundation of the bishopric, it being intended for the conventual church of the 
richly endowed priory. Those portions of the edifice that have withstood the ravages 
of fire and spoliation, exhibit two different styles of architecture ; the choir, aisles 
and transept being of a richly ornamented Gothic, while the remaining part of the nave 
is a fine specimen of the plain and massive Norman-Saxon style of building. The edifice 
suffered considerably by fire in 1292; and the choir was rebuilt in the reign of Edward 
the Third. Great part of the nave, and most of the conventual buildings, were taken 
down during the civil wars, to furnish materials for the erection and reparation of 



military offices. The remaining portion of the nave was then walled up, and is now 
used as the parish church of St. Mary. In its pristine grandeur, the structure must 
have presented a nohle and imposing appearance, being upwards of three hundred feet 
in length, and built in the usual manner, in the form of a cross. 

The chancel, which is one hundred and thirty-seven feet long, is fitted up in a very 
elegant manner for the cathedral service. The stalls are executed in rich tabernacle 
work ; and the organ, both for size and richness of tone, is allowed to be one of the 
finest in the kingdom. The roof, windows, and supporting pillars are in the light 
Gothic style, and the open gates leading to the aisles, though much defaced, exhibit 
some fine specimens of light and ornamental tracery work. The circular arches and 
massive round columns which exist in the west limb and transept of the cathedral are 
of the heaviest order of Saxon architecture. Nearly the whole of this noble edifice is 
constructed of red free-stone ; and its turrets were former' y ornamented with statues, 
which, together with many other external decorations, are now in a state of decay. 

In the side aisles are several curious legendary paintings, and a few monuments ; 
of the latter, we shall name that only of the learned Arcndeacon Paley. The paintings 
on the screens in the aisles illustrate the history of St. Anthony, St. Cuthbert, and 
St. Augustine. The devices are outre and barbarous, and some of them, if judged by 
the present standard of moral decorum, are sadly deficient in delicacy. 


The village of Eamont-Bridge is situated one mile south by east from Penrith, and 
forms a joint township with Yanwath, excepting a few houses on the north side of the 
river, which are in Cumberland. The river Eamont is the boundary between the counties 
of Westmorland and Cumberland ; and along this stream, delightfully picturesque roads 
lead through the Lowther grounds. 

Many interesting traditions, i-eferring to the poetical history of Britain, are connected 
with the site of this village. On the south bank of the Eamont, within a short distance of 
Penrith, is King Arthur's round table, a trenched amphitheatre, where the brave of other 
days wrought deeds of high emprise, and vindicated the honour of knighthood by achieve- 
ments in arms. In the immediate neighbourhood of this romantic sight, is Mayburgh, a 
" mysterious structure," generally supposed to have been the Gymnasium, where the 
humbler classes sought to distinguish themselves, and obtain a rude renown by the athletic 
exercises of wrestling, racing, casting the quoit, &c. 

On the north side of the river Eamont are two singular excavations in a perpendicular 
rock, called the Giant's Caves, or Ms Parlis. The only approach to them is along narrow 
ledges of the cliff; and the visitor is obliged to cling firmly to the shrubs which vegetate 
on its rugged side. The first cave is little more than a narrow recess ; but the other is 
capable of holding a great number of people ; and it appears to have had, formerly, a door 



and a window. A massive column, still retaining marks of iron grating and hinges, is yet 
existing, though the opening is much altered in appearance by the falling in of some of the 
upper stones. The whole presents an aspect far from pleasing, if disconnected from the 
traditional history that clings to it: the interior is miserably dark and damp, and the roof 
hangs in a shaken and tremendous form. A popular legend states, that this secluded 
cavern was once the residence of Isis, a giant, who, like Cacus of old, seized men and cattle, 
and drew them into his den, to devour them. By some authors, it has been called the cave 
of Tarquin ; and they have applied to it the old ballad of Sir Launcelot de Lake, a famous 
knight of king Arthur's Round Table. 

Altogether, there is not, perhaps, a more interesting spot to be found in the lake 
district than Eamont Bridge. In addition to the picturesque beauty of the scenery, the 
localities and traditions connected with the neighbourhood, render it, in some measure, 
classic ground. The history of " Jack the Giant-killer," and the records of king Arthur's 
achievements, are not the mere garrulities of grandmothers and nurses ; they are as much 
the poetical history of Britain, as the Iliad is that of the Greeks. The sword of sharpness, 
the invisible coat, and the shoes of swiftness, by which the renowned Jack was enabled to 
overcome in all perils, are but so many figurative expressions, indicating the bravery, 
dexterity, and great activity of " the valiant Cornish man." When history was orally 
transmitted from one generation to another, it was found necessary to clothe simple facts 
in poetical language, and decorate them with fable, — to give them, in short, a mysterious 
and extraordinary character, that should prevent their being " washed in Lethe, and for- 
gotten." It is true that distant times can gather only a faint idea of the fact intended to 
be perpetuated ; and had not fiction imparted an intense interest to the memorial, it Mould 
never have survived the lapse of so many centuries. 


The present view exhibits the valley of Patterdale, from the road leading from Brothers 
Water to the lake of Ulls water. This vale extends southward six miles from Gowbarrow 
Park, along the highest and most sublime reach of Ullswater, to the source of the Gold 
Rill, which flows to the lake from Brotherswater, Hayswater, and Angle-tarn. Other 
glens branch off to the east and west, and have each their mountain stream, graced with 
the wildest beauties of nature, mellowed at intervals by art, with rising plantations and 
graceful villas. 

Amongst the diversified scenery of Ullswater, the valley of Patterdale is eminently 
worthy of notice. The phalanx of mountains that rise at the head of the lake, overshadow 
this lowland tract ; and the curling mists that roll down their sides, career across the val( 
like the winged chariots of presiding genii. The sublime echoes produced by discharging 
a cannon at the head of Ullswater have been already noticed : in the vale of Patterdale, 
these reverberations strike the ear with wonderful effect. Successive discharges, at tin 


interval of a few seconds between each, cause a combination of awful sounds, — a deafening 
and terrific tumult, that nearly overwhelms the mind. The effect of the first explosion is 
not over when the echoes of the second, the third, and perhaps the fourth, begin. Such 
a variety of sounds, mixing and commixing, and, at the same time, heard from all sides, 
produce an impression that the foundations of every rock are giving way, and a general 
convulsion of nature is about to scatter the universe in ruins. Another species of echo, 
scarcely less astonishing, yet more pleasing, arises from the music of French horns, key- 
bugles, clarionets, and other wind instruments. The ear is not equal to their innumerable 
combinations. It listens to a symphony dying away at a distance, when other melodious 
sounds arise near at hand. Every rock is vocal, and every hill may be deemed a residence 
of aerial beings. The auditor listens " with bated breath," and the sublime language of 
Milton imbodies the ideas that crowd into his mind : 

" How often from the steep 
Of echoing hills, or thickets, have we heard 
Celestial voices to the midnight air, 
Sole or responsive each to other's note, 
Singing their great Creator ! Oft in bands, 
While they keep watch, or nightly rounding walk, 
Willi heavenly touch of instrumental sounds 
In full harmonic numbers joined, their songs 
Divide the night, and lift our thoughts to heaven." 


Near the town of Middleton, in Teesdale, is a dangerous ford into Yorkshire, called 
Stepends ; and two miles beyond this stands Winch Bridge. This erection is of wood, and 
is suspended across the Tees on two iron chains, which reach from side to side, and are 
securely fastened in the rocks to prevent the structure from vibrating. Notwithstanding 
this precaution, the traveller experiences all the tremulous motion of the chains ; and finds 
himself suspended over a terrific and roaring gulf, across which but few strangers dare 
trust themselves to pass. The dimensions of the bridge are seventy feet in length, by not 
more than two feet in breadth ; and its height above the river measures fifty feet. 

From Winch Bridge, the waters of the Tees pursue their course over a rocky bed, and 
form repeated cascades in their progress : 

" Still gathering, as they pour along, 
A voice more loud, a rush more strong." 

At the distance of three miles above the bridge, they discharge themselves over a huge 
rock of black marble, upwards of eighty feet in height, and form the sublime cataract of 
High Force, a view of which will hereafter be given ; and four miles beyond this torrent 
is Caldron Snout, of which a description has already appeared. 




The scenery of the Tecs, in the neighbourhood of the bridge, is exceedingly diversified 
and picturesque. The waters boiling in their passage over a stony channel ; the rocky 
promontories, that on each side extend into the river, and give a serpentine figure to the 
stream ; the rich foliage, occasionally relieving the line of shore ; the adjacent and the more 
distant hills that form a massive back-ground to the view ;— all these are blended, and 
combined by nature, with " a grace beyond the reach of art," and with an effect that the 
pencil may portray, yet cannot improve. 


The city of Durham is nearly encompassed by the Wear, it can therefore be surveyed 
from many points of view, with the advantageous accompaniments of river scenery. The 
inequalities of the ground on which it stands, and the picturesque character of its remark- 
able buildings, contribute also to produce a novelty and beauty of effect from what situation 
soever the scenery may be taken. Two views of this city have already been given : yet no 
apology is necessary for the introduction of a third,— the delineations are scarcely less 
diversified in their features, than if they had been portraitures of perfectly distinct 

The appearance of the city of Durham from the north and north-east, is strikingly 
romantic and picturesque. It appears to be scattered over a multitude of irregular hills, 
the ground by which it is approached being thrown up into circular mounts, various parts 
of the city are seen through several valleys in one point of view, and appear like so many 
distinct places. The hollow passes among the hills on the north-west of the town, afford the 
most beautiful prospects. From the north-east, the aspect under which the city is surveyed 
in the present illustration, the cathedral appears to great advantage ; its northern and 
eastern fronts, " like the mitre which binds the temple of its prelate, giving the noblest 
supreme ornament to the capital of the principality." Elvet Bridge here receives the 
stream, and intercepts, for some distance, a further view of the progress of the river ; 
over it, tier above tier, rise the buildings of Sadler- street, and, more to the right, the battle- 
ments and tower of the castle, — " the trophies of civil jurisprudence wearing the aspect of 
secular authority, and the frowns of feudal power." Elvet Bridge, consisting of eight 
arches, was built by Bishop Pudsey, about the year 1170, and afterwards repaired by 
Bishop Fox, who granted an indulgence of the Church to all who contributed towards 
defraying the expense of the undertaking. So recently as 1806, it underwent great altera- 
tions, being widened to twice its former width. 

The ancient church of St. Nicholas forms an interesting object in our view,— the distant 
building on the left, emerging from the foliage. This structure consists of a nave and 
side aisles, with a square tower standing at the angle of the west end. The exterior 
underwent renovation in 1708, when a large new window was inserted at the west-end, and 



considerable repairs were effected in the interior. The foundation of the building is sup- 
posed to be contemporary with the first settlement of the Saxons in this city. 

The public walks of Durham, which were formed, and continue to be kept in repair by 
the Dean and Chapter, are noticed in the foreground of the illustration. "These cele- 
brated walks," a biographer has remarked, "accompany the winding of the stream, and its 
august ornaments, the castle and cathedral. The banks, rocky and abrupt on one hand, 
and sloping to the river on the other, darkened by a solemn depth of shade, sequestered 
and retired, in the immediate neighbourhood of a busy scene of society, afford a retreat of 
the most agreeable nature." The combination of foliage and buildings, water and rocks, 
home sylvan scenery, and extensive picturesque distance, is, in these walks, at once beautiful 
and grand. 


Alnwick Abbey was founded in 1147 by Eustace Fitz-John, who, by his marriage with 
Beatrix, the daughter and heiress of Ivo de Vesey, became Lords of Alnwick. It was 
dedicated by the founder " to St. James and the Blessed Virgin," and amply endowed out 
of his baronial possessions. His gift comprehended the village of Hincliff, with its 
demesnes, wastes, and the service of half the tenants ; two parts of the tithe arising out 
of the lordships of Tugall, Alnham, Heysend, and Chatton ; one moiety of the tithes of 
Wooler, Longhoughton, and Lesbury ; the priory and church of Gysnes, with all 
their privileges and endowments; a moiety of the tithes, and two bovates of land 
at Gyson, the church of Halgh or Haugh, the lands of Ridley and Morewick Haugh, 
together with the liberty of erecting a corn-mill on the river Coquet, and of raising as 
much corn on the wastes there as the convent could plough, with liberty to grind at the 
pander's mill, mulcture free. He also gave the canons, for the support of their table, the 
tenth part of all the venison and pork killed in his parks and forests, and of all fish taken in 
his fishery by his order, together with a salt-work at Warkworth. In addition to these 
rich endowments, William de Vesey, son of Eustace, granted three churches to this abbey, 
conveying to the convent the churches of Chatton, Chillingham, and Alnham, with all their 
appurtenances, in free and perpetual alms. The abbot of Alnwick held also the advowsons 
and appropriations of St. Dunstan's, Fleet-street, London, and of Sakenfield, in Yorkshire; 
together with lands at Chatton, Fallowdown, Edlingham, and at Yerlesset, near Lemington ; 
and four tenements and a garden at Newcastle. The annual revenue of the priory was 
estimated, at the dissolution of religious houses, at nearly two hundred pounds sterling, 
a princely income, if the comparative value of money be duly considered. 

The abbot of Alnwick was summoned to successive parliaments, in the reigns of Edward I. 
and Edward II. Edward the Sixth, in the fourth year of his reign, granted the site of the 
abbey to Ralph Sadler and Lawrence Wilmington. It was afterwards sold, with the neiglr 


bouring demesnes, to Sir Francis Brandling, knight; of whose descendants it was pur- 
chased by the family of Doublcdays. Subsequently, in 1/98, it was again sold, and divided 
into three portions, one of which became the property of the Duke of Northumberland. 

The only remains of the abbatical structure are a gateway and tower, of excellent 
masonry, which, judging from the architecture, and the armorial sculptures that adorn the 
building, appear to be of a more modern date than the foundation of the house. The 
abbey gardens and orchard now form part of the Duke of Northumberland's pleasure 
grounds, and, the noble gateway having been preserved and repaired, the interior is fitted 
up for the accommodation of a porter. Time, which destroys the records of the past, has 
left no vestige to denote the exact site of the abbey church, or of its cemetery, where many 
of the Percy family are said to have been interred. The existing remains stand within a 
short distance of the castle, near the margin of the Aln river, whose stream glides past in 
gentle murmurs, its banks shadowed with overhanging woods. 


The " Side" is that part of Newcastle, extending from the north angle of the Sand-Hill 
to the church of St. Nicholas. The lower portion was formerly divided by the rivulet 
called the Lork-Burn, which was arched over in 1696, and hid from the public eye. 
From the foot of the "Side," a street, chiefly inhabited by butchers, from which circum- 
stance it is called the Butcher Sank, winds round a steep acclivity to the church of 
All Saints. At the bottom of this avenue was the Scale Cross, so called from the town 
scales which used to be kept here for the purpose of weighing all butter that came 
into the town. It was a stone building, supported by six pillars, and surmounted by 
the figures of two lions couchant. The structure having been pulled down, the lions 
were removed to the seat of Sir M. Ridley, at Blagdon. 

Of the church of St. Nicholas, an interior view has been given, accompanied by such 
notices of the structure as were deemed likely to interest the general reader. The 
introduction of the edifice into the present illustration offers a convenient opportunity 
to make mention of the Public Library attached thereto. Previous to 1661, the col- 
lection was small, and consisted of a few choice books, chained to the shelves, to secure 
them from being stolen ; in that year, however, the catalogue was augmented by one 
hundred folio and quarto volumes, bequeathed by Alderman John Cousins. In 1/34 
Sir William Blackett caused a handsome fabric to be constructed over the vestry of 
St. Nicholas' Church, and endowed it with a rent charge of twenty-five pounds a year 
to be paid to a librarian. Further additions were made to the collection by Dr. Tom- 
linson, who having deposited, during his life-time, sixteen hundred books in the new 
library room, at his death bequeathed the residue of his literary property to its use ; 
and also left by will a rent-charge of five pounds per annum, as a perpetual fund, for the 


purchase of new books. Amongst the ancient books, is a curious and beautifully illu- 
minated manuscript, executed in the early part of the thirteenth century, which formerly 
belonged to Hexham Church. The library hours are from ten to twelve o'clock, 
during which time any person can have access to this really valuable literary depository. 

The word chare, which is peculiar to Newcastle, and is used to signify a narrow 
street, lane, or alley, is worthy of notice, on account of a laughable incident to which 
it gave birth. In an assize case tried at Newcastle, one of the witnesses swore, that 
he saw three men come out of the font of a chare. "Gentlemen of the jury," exclaimed 
the judge, "you must pay no credit to that man's evidence: he must be insane." 
But the foreman, smiling, assured his lordship that they understood the witness perfectly 
well, and that he spoke the words of truth and soberness. 

Charles I, after his escape from Oxford, at that time besieged by the parliamentarian 
army, placed himself under the protection of the Scots, by whom he was conducted to 
Newcastle. During his stay at this latter place, the king regularly attended the Scotch 
places of worship, which the preachers, in accordance with the spirit of the times, had 
well nigh converted into news-rooms, and places for political debate. On one occa- 
asion, when the king was present, the minister delivered a sermon full of rancorous 
allusion to the monarch, and at its close called for the fifty-second psalm, which opens 
thus : — 

" Why dost thou, tyrant, boast abroad, 
Thy wicked works to praise?" 

The king, moved by the bitter persecuting spirit of the preacher, immediately stood up, 

and called for the fifty-sixth psalm, which commences with these words : — 

" Have mercy, Lord, on me, I pray, 
For man would me devour." 

The congregation, either from commiseration for the reverses of royalty, or from disgust 
at the indecorous personality of their zealous minister, shewed so great deference to the 
king, as to sing the psalm for which he called. 

As we are in the vein for culling anecdotes, we will append another to the present 
article. English mysteries, or Miracle Plays, were anciently performed by the trading 
companies of Newcastle, on the festival of Corpus Christi. These theatrical exhibitions 
were not very delicate; for instance, in the representation of Adam and Eve, such strict 
attention was paid to fidelity of costume, that the performers appeared in a state of 
nudity. In Brand's History of Newcastle, a description is given of " the play or dirge 
called Noah's Ark," as performed by the shipwrights of this port. In this " mystery," 
the characters are God, an Angel, Noah and his Wife, and the Devil. A modern manager 
would experience some difficulty in casting such a dramatis personce ; but then, no doubt ? 
the worthy shipwrights of Newcastle had a " Bottom the weaver" amongst them. 



Thirlwall Castle occupies that part of the Roman wall which crosses the Tippel, near 
the Irthing, on the borders of Cumberland. 

The famous barrier named the Picts' wall, was erected by the Romans to restrain 
the incursions of the Caledonians, and was at first composed of ramparts of earth thrown 
up to a considerable elevation. These proving insufficient to repel the attacks of the 
North Britons, Severus, the emperor, built up in their place a wall of stone, extending 
from Tynemouth, in Northumberland, to Solway Frith, and thus divided the kingdom 
from sea to sea. Castles or towers were erected at intervals along the line of the 
wall, as a further protection, and as a means of conveying information from one part 
of the rampart to another. This barrier was erected by the legionary soldiers of Rome, 
and the extent of the work may, even in the present day, be traced through a distance of 
seventy miles. 

The original of Thirlwall Castle may, no doubt, be referred to one of the old Roman 
towers above mentioned. It was here that the Scots forced their way through the 
barrier, after the departure of the Romans. Having collected their forces, they made 
openings with their mattocks and pickaxes, and from these gaps or breaches the site 
obtained the name of Thirl-wall, which signifies, in the Saxon language, a perforated or 
broken wall. The remains of the castle stand close by the north side of the wall. The floor 
of one of the apartments was lately cleared, and discovered to be of singular construction, 
consisting of three tiers of flags, laid upon sand. The only light admitted is seen 
through narrow apertures in the walls ; and the whole aspect presents the appearance of 
a gloomy and terrific dungeon. 


Wastdale Head is a narrow vale, in the vicinity of Wastwater, where the primitive 
simplicity of pastoral life remains seemingly undisturbed. Its inhabitants are chiefly 
shepherds, residing beneath the shelter of stupendous mountains, by which they may 
be said to be " disjoined from all the world beside." Their limited intercourse with 
the rest of mankind necessarily preserves them from many vices which disfigure society; 
but on the other hand it deprives them of the great advantages resulting from social life. 
Hospitality forms a distinguishing feature in their character. 



On a cultivated spot in the neighbourhood of Wastwater stands Wastdale Hall, the 
seat of Stanfield Ravvson, Esq. The advantages accruing to the peasantry of a wild and 
romantic neighbourhood, from the occasional residence of wealthy, liberal, and public- 
spirited gentlemen amongst them, are of the first importance. By them, improvements 
are projected, labour directed to useful ends, and the resources and comforts of the com- 
munity, by consequence, greatly increased. 

The lake of Wastwater is about three miles in length by three quarters of a mile 
in breadth. The neighbouring scenery, which includes the lofty mountain of Scawfell, 
has been portrayed with equal beauty and accuracy by Wilson, in his "Isle of Palms." 
The poet first surveys it in its stormy aspect : — 

" There is a lake far hid among the hills, 
That roves around the throne of solitude, 
Not fed by gentle streams, or playful rills, 
But headlong cataract and rushing flood. 
There gleam no lovely hues of hanging wood, 
No spots of sunshine light her sullen side ; 
For horror shaped the wild in wrathful mood, 
And o'er the tempest heaved the mountain's pride. 
If thou art one, in dark presumption blind, 
Who vainly deem'st no spirit like to thine, 
That lofty genius deifies thy mind, 
Fall prostrate here at Nature's stormy shrine, 
And as the thunderous scene disturbs thy heart, 
Lift thy changed eye, and own how low thou art." 

The widely different appearance presented by the lake in its " calm hour of sunshine, * 
enables the poet to draw an effective contrast to this fearful scene : — 

" Is this the Lake, the cradle of the storms, 
Where silence never tames the mountain roar, 
Where poets fear their self-created forms, 
Or, sunk in trance severe, their God adore ? 
Is this the Lake, for ever dark and loud 
With wave and tempest, cataract and cloud ! 
Wondrous, O Nature ! is thy sovereign power, 
That gives to horror hours of peaceful mirth ; 
For here might beauty build her summer bower. 
Lo ! where yon rainbow spans the smiling earth, 
And, clothed in glory, through a silent shower 
The mighty Sun comes forth, a godlike birth, 
While, 'neath his loving eye, the gentle Lake 
Lies like a sleeping child too blest to wake." 



Luniley Castle, the property of the Earl of Scarborough, stands majestically on a 
fine elevated situation in the township of Little Luniley ; near the south bank of the river 
Wear, one mile east from Chester-le-Street. This princely mansion is built in a quad- 
rangular form, with an area in the centre, and at each angle are projecting turrets of an 
octangular shape, which overhang each square of the base. The whole is constructed of 
yellow free-stone, that gives it a bright and beautiful tint, when viewed from a distance. 
The east front retains its ancient form, and has a most august appearance : it ascends 
from the brow of a deep and thickly wooded valley, through which Lumley Beck winds 
to the river Wear. The west front forms the principal entrance, and is approached by 
a double flight of steps, and a platform filling the whole space between the towers. 
The south front is altogether modern ; and that to the north is partially obscured by 
offices. Above the projecting gallery of the east gateway are six shields, with armorial 
bearings and crests, which have existed since 1389, when Sir Richard Lumley obtained 
license to castellate the edifice, that had been erected by his ancestors in the reign of 
Edward I The apartments of the castle have all mullioned windows, guarded with iron, 
and command an extensive and beautiful prospect, in which the spire of Chester church, 
the village of Great Lumley, and several hamlets, &c, are conspicuous objects. At 
the bottom of one of the avenues leading to the castle, is a fine basin of water, a salmon 
lock, a fisherman's cottage, and a public ferry over the river Wear. 

The great hall of the castle measures ninety feet in length, and is ornamented with a 
music gallery. It exhibits also the most striking features of ancient times, feudal 
performances, and old English manners. Amongst the decorations of the apartment are 
imaginary portraits of the remote ancestors of this house. The great dining-room, in the 
south-west tower, has an elegant vaulted roof; and the view from the windows in one 
direction comprises the adjacent meadows, the banks of the Wear, and the canal formed 
by the curvature of the stream; while in another the avenue prospect presents itself, 
enriched with the town of Chester and an assemblage of picturesque objects. 

The antiquity of the Luniley family is very great : according to Camden, Dugdale, 
and other writers, it has descended from Liulph, a nobleman of high rank in the time 
of Edward the Confessor. King James being once on a visit at the castle, a relation of the 
house proceeded to give his majesty a genealogical detail of Lord Liunlcy's progenitors, 
and attempted to deduce their origin from a period so remote as to exceed all credibility- 
The king, whose patience was quite exhausted, stopped short the genealogist by saying, 
" O mon, gang no farther ; let me digest this knowledge I ha' gained ; for, by my saul, 
I did no ken that Adam's name was Lumley." 

The motto of the house of Luniley is worthy of a race of undoubtedly remote descent : 
Mums (Eneus conscientia sana ; — a guileless conscience is a wall of brass. 



Chester-le-Stveet is an ancient town and parish, pleasantly situated in a valley, west 
of the river Wear, at the distance of eight miles south from Newcastle. 

Camden supposes Chester-le-Street to be identical with the Roman Condercum, and 
that the first wing of the Astures was located here ; but the conjecture is wholly 
unsupported by any inscriptions or other data, yet discovered. The Saxons called it 
(unceastre, and, under that name, it became the episcopal see of Durham. Eardulph, 
the bishop, fled hither about the year 882, to avoid the cruelty of the Danes, who had 
pillaged and laid waste Holy Island. After erecting a church of wood, for the reception of 
St. Cuthbert's body, the see was fixed here, where it continued for a hundred and thirteen 
years, till its removal to Durham. Chester-le-Street, being in a good measure deprived 
of its state and authority by the translation of the see, became a mere parochial rectory, 
till Bishop Bek made the church collegiate, and established a dean, with seven preben- 
daries, and other inferior officers ; thus it continued till the dissolution of collegiate 
churches and chantries in the first year of Edward VI. 

The wooden church, wherein the remains of St. Cuthbert had been deposited for 
upwards of a century, was taken down by Egelric, the fourth bishop of Durham, who 
erected in its place a magnificent fabric of stone, in honour of the patron saint. In 
digging the foundation, Egelric discovered such a large sum of money, that he resigned 
the bishopric, and returned to the monastery of Peterborough, of which he had formerly 
been abbot, taking with him this treasure-trove as his own property. 

The present edifice is a handsome stone building, dedicated to St. Mary and St. Cuthbert; 
and consists of a nave, side aisles, and a tower surmounted by an elegant spire, admitted 
to be the handsomest in the north of England. The interior of the church is extremely 
neat, and presents a singular arrangement of monuments bearing effigies of the deceased 
ancestry of the Lumley family from the time of Liulphus to the reign of Queen Elizabeth. 

'Tis meet that in the cloister'd gloom 

Their resting place should be, 
With sculptur'd hatchment on the tomb, 

A sacred panoply. 
'Tis meet that in the holy place, 

Where pious men have trod, 
A warlike and a noble race 

Should have their last abode. 
They sleep the sleep that sealeth fast 

The lustre-beaming eye ; 
All but the memory hath pass'd, 

Of deeds that will not die. 
With mail, and glaive, and helmed brow, 

Each knight hath lain him down ; 
Yet even in their death they show 

A prowess like their own. 

:EjE v 



The village of Chillingham is situated four miles and a half east hy south of Wooler. 
In the chancel of the church, at the north-east corner, is a beautiful tomb of alabaster, 
bearing effigies of a member of the Grey family and his lady. 

The park and castle of Chillingham stand at a short distance south of the village. 
We blend in one description our notices of both. 

Chillingham Park is exceedingly rich in sylvan scenery, being tastefully skirted 
with thriving plantations. The castle is embosomed in massive foliage, and forms a 
beautiful object in the view. The eminences in the grounds command extensive 
prospects, stretching over a considerable tract of country, and bounded by an undu- 
lating line of hills. " In the park may still be seen an uncontaminated breed of 
wild cattle, called the white Scottish bison, the beef of which is finely marbled, and of 
excellent flavour." These animals are of a middle size, have very long legs, and the cows 
are finely horned : the orbit of the eye, as well as the tip of the nose, is black ; but the 
bulls have lost their manes, the distinctive characteristic attributed to them by Boethius. 
They are swift, untameable, and savage in their disposition : it is only in the severity of 
the winter season that they will venture to explore the neighbourhood of the outhouses 
in search of food. Our illustration gives permanency to an incident which occurred, 
fortunately with no disastrous consequences, to the son of the noble proprietor, Earl 
Tankerville. Lord Ossulston being out on a sporting excursion with some friends, one 
of the furious animals above-mentioned assailed his Lordship with such determined rage, 
that, though well-mounted, he would probably, but for his own presence of mind and the 
assistance rendered by a gentleman of his party and the attendants, have fallen a victim 
to its fury. 

On a rocky eminence, at the east side of Chillingham Park, is a curious double 
entrenchment, called Ros Castle, which is supposed to have been a fortress of the 
ancient Britons. 

The castle of Chillingham is characterized as a square massive structure, of four 
stories in the wings, and three in the centre, of the order of architecture which prevailed 
in the reign of Elizabeth. An ascent of steps leads from the centre area into a balustrade, 
decorated with effigies of distinguished British warriors. Some portraits of excellent 
character adorn the rooms ; amongst which are those of Lord Chancellor Bacon, Lord 
Treasurer Burleigh, Duke of Buckingham, King Charles, and James the First. An 
extremely remarkable natural curiosity is exhibited in the marble chimney-piece of one of 
the apartments. In sawing asunder the block from which it was carved, a large living 
toad, " as large as a hat crown," was found imbedded in the mass of stone. The cavity 



wherein the animal had been lodged, perhaps for upwards of a thousand years, has been 
filled up with cement, yet is still visible. A painting exists in the castle, which details 
all the appearances presented by this strange phenomenon at the time of the discovery. 

The manor of Chillingham was anciently held of the Vesey barony, by Walter de 
Hentercombe; but it afterwards became the seat and property of the distinguished 
family of Grey, descended from Sir Thomas Grey of Hetton, one of whose descendants, 
Sir William Grey, was created a Baronet in 1619, and raised to the peerage in 1623, 
by the style and title of Lord Grey of Wark. This nobleman was lieutenant of the 
parliamentarian army, under Fairfax, and was committed to the tower for disobedience 
in refusing to go over to Scotland to solicit the assistance of that nation ; but was 
afterwards restored to favour, and held several distinguished offices. He died in 16/4, 
and was succeeded by his son Lord Grey, who was created Viscount Glendale, and 
Earl of Tankerville in 1695, all of which titles became extinct in 1701, through the death 
of his Lordship, and the failure of male issue. His only daughter married Charles 
Bennet Lord Ossulston, in whom the title of Earl of Tankerville was revived in 1714. 
The castle manor still remains in the noble family of Bennet, which is supposed to be oi 
Italian extraction, and to have been located in England during the reign of King John. 


The township of Kentmere forms a narrow valley, two miles in length, inclosed by 
lofty fells, and distant nine miles north-west by north from Kendal. It is watered by the 
river Kent, which rises on the south side of the mountain, High Street ; and thence pro- 
ceeds, collecting the trubutary streams in its course, to the estuary of Morecambe Bay. 
This river feeds a small mere or lake, one mile in length, whence the valley of Kentmere 
takes its name. Near the foot of one of the broken crags that overhang the vale, stands 
Kentmere Hall, which is now in the occupation of a farmer. The chapel is situated within 
a short distance of the hall and lake; the ancient salary attached to the curacy being only 
six pounds per annum. " The head of Kentmere," Mr. Baines observes, " is remarkably 
grand, from the amazing height of the mountain walls which stand round it. Along the 
side and over the summit of Hill Bell and High Street a green road may be traced, which 
is believed to be the line of an old Roman road from Kendal to Penrith. An annual 
meeting of the shepherds formerly took place on High Street, which is centrally situated 
between several valleys ; they gave each other information concerning the sheep that might 
have strayed, and the meeting was cheered by a merry-making, when races and other 
sports took place on the broad summit of the mountain, at an elevation of 2700 feet above 
the level of the sea." C. Wilson, Esq. is the present owner of the lake and park of the 



township of Kentmere. Twelve generations of the Gilpin family are known to have 
flourished at the hall. Bernard Gilpin, born in 151/, attained so great a celebrity as a 
preacher, that he was styled — " the Apostle of the North." He was arrested in the reign 
of Mary, by Bonner, and had nearly fallen a sacrifice to the bigoted superstitions of the 
times. On the accession of Elizabeth he was released from confinement, and had the 
bishopric of Carlisle offered to him, which he peremptorily declined. 

A traditional account has been given of a barbarian of the name of Herd, but vulgarly 
called the Cork-lad of Kentmere. His mother is reported to have been an ejected nun of 
Furness, with whom he begged through the neighbouring country, and drew to a hovel in 
Troutbeck Park ; which being granted by the crown, the Cork-lad refused the grantee 
possession, and was therefore summoned to London, where, by facetious expressions and 
feats of strength before the king, he obtained a grant of his cottage, and a paddock behind 
it, with other privileges. When Kentmere Hall was building, he lifted the chimney beam 
of the kitchen into its place, six feet from the earth, which still remains, and is thirty feet 
long, and thirteen inches by twelve and a half thick. At the age of forty-two years he 
killed himself with the Herculean employment of tearing up trees by their roots. 


A brief notice of the town and castle of Kendal was given at page 2/; our present 
description will therefore be confined to a few interesting particulars connected with its 
history. Abbot Hall stands near the church, and, before the dissolution of religious 
houses, it was the occasional residence of the abbot of St. Mary's, York. Its lawns and 
pleasure grounds, intersected with fine gravelled walks, and planted with a great variety 
of trees and shrubs, extend along the western bank of the river. Dockwray Hall, at the 
north end of Kendal, was formerly the seat of a family whence it takes its name. 

The manufactures and population of Kendal have so greatly increased in importance 
and numbers, that the framers of the Reform Bill, in disfranchising Appleby, raised this 
town to the rank of a borough, with the right of electing one parliamentary representative. 
The inhabitants, who in 1821 were scarcely nine thousand souls, exceed, at present, ten 

The church stands in that part of the parish called Kirkland. This edifice is one 
hundred and eighty feet in length, by ninety-nine in breadth. It contains five aisles ; the 
roof is supported by four rows of pillars, eight in each row; it is elegantly furnished with 
oak, and has spacious galleries. On each side of the altar-table are two aisles or oratories, 
all used as sepulchres of distinguished families who have located in the neighbourhood. 


A singular epitaph still exists in the choir of the church, composed for himself by 
Mr. Ralph Tyrer, vicar of Kendal, who died in 162/. This specimen of funereal verse is 
worthy of perusal, both on account of its quaintness and the uncommon precision with 
which it details the history of the deceased: — 

" London bred mee, — Westminster fed mee, 
Cambridge sped mee, — My sister wed mee, 
Study taught mee, — Living sought mee, 
Learning brought mee, — Kendal caught mee, 
Labour pressed mee, — Sickness distressed mee, 
Death oppressed mee, — The grave possessed mee, 
God first gave mee, — Christ did save mee, 
Earth did crave mee, — And heaven would have mee." 

On the west side of Kendal, opposite the castle, is Castle-how-hill, or Castle-law-hill. 
It consists of a circular mount of gravel and earth thrown upon a rock, and near thirty 
feet high. Round the base is a deep fosse, strengthened with two bastions on the east. 
The top is flat, and has been defended by a breastwork of earth and ditches. Dr. Stukeley 
is of opinion that it owed its origin to the Saxons, and was one of those hills called 
laws, where, in ancient times, distributive justice was administered. In 1788 the inha- 
bitants of Kendal erected a handsome obelisk on this spot, in commemoration of the 
Revolution of 1688. Immediately below the obelisk is " Battle plain." 

Within the distance of a mile from Kendal, is Water Crook, the site of the Concangium 
of the Romans. A watch was stationed here for the security of the Roman posts at 
Ambleside and Overborough. The line of the fosse may still be traced by a persevering 
antiquary. Altars, coins, inscriptions, and other remains have been discovered here; and 
very lately an inscribed stone existed in the wall of a barn, on the very area of the station, 
perpetuating the memory of two freemen, and invoking vengeance on him who should 
presume to desecrate their sepulchre. 

Kendal has given birth to many eminent men, amongst whom the following are particu- 
larly worthy of mention. Richard de Kendal, who flourished in the reign of Henry VI., was 
an excellent grammarian, and reputed the best schoolmaster of his age. Thomas Shaw, born 
in 1692, after graduating at Oxford, was made chaplain to the factory at Algiers ; whence 
returning to Kendal, he published his " Travels in Barbary and the Levant," a work of 
high celebrity. Ephraim Chambers, the projector of Encyclopaedias, was apprenticed to 
Mr. Senex, globe-maker, and under him formed the design of his Cyclopaedia, which first 
appeared in 1728. To these may be added John Wilson, a stocking-knitter, who acquired 
considerable reputation as a botanist, and published a valuable treatise entitled, 
" A Synopsis of British Plants." 

Kendal, it is worthy of remark, was one of the first provincial towns that printed a 

-V. . . ..*■» 



The hill of Sty Head forms a defile between the mountains of Scawfell and Great 
Gavel. The road thither from Seathwaite is marked by a bed of stones, serving as a sure 
guide to the tourist in his ascent. Skirting along the rocky channel of the Denvent, 
which at this place is a small torrent, rapid and turbulent in its course, the traveller 
crosses a rude bridge projected over a tributary stream, and commences the ascent of a 
steep hill on his right hand. The path is winding and laborious ; and a torrent rushes 
down a ravine by the side of it, in one uninterrupted fall. 

The waterfall to which our illustration refers is formed of the tributary streams of the 
Derwent rivers, and, though inferior to others in extent, is eminently picturesque in its 
appearance, on account of the variety which it presents to the eye. The bare summits of 
the rocks, where, as if in mockery of vegetation, a few trees are scattered, contrast with 
the umbrageous foliage that clothes the base and sides of the precipices, while this is again 
relieved on the opposite side by a steep and rude ascent, strown with fragments of rock, 
and partially covered with underwood. The principal stream is divided by a mass of 
rock nearly at the commencement of the fall, and reaches the bed of the torrent with but 
few obstructions. Another stream descends with great impetuosity on the right hand ; 
and the mingled waters pursue their rapid course, boiling and foaming as they proceed, 
over a bed of stones. 

The i^raspect from the summit of Sty Head is very extensive, comprehending a fine 
view down the whole length of Borrowdale and the vale of Keswick, terminated by 


Of this cathedral, the choir is by far the most magnificent portion. It was begun in the 
reign of Edward the Third, by Bishop Welton, and finished by his successors to the 
episcopal chair. The expenses were in a good measure defrayed by subscriptions ; but to 
augment the funds still more, indulgences and remissions of penance were granted to such 
of the laity as should, by money, materials, or labour, contribute to the consummation of 
the pious work. Copies of various orders and letters-patent referring to this occasion, are 
still preserved in the registry of the see. The armorial bearings of several contributors 
to the work were delineated on the inner side of the roof, which was vaulted with wood ; 
but these Mere removed in or about the year 1J64, when the choir underwent considerable 
repairs, and the ceiling was stuccoed in form of a groined vault. 

The arches of the choir are supported by clustered pillars, presenting an extremely ele- 
gant appearance; the inner mouldings and the capitals being ornamented with figures and 
flowers in open carved work. The stalls are richly decorated with tabernacle work ; and 



the episcopal throne is elegant and stately. The east window, which is worthy of obser- 
vation on account of its beautifully wrought mullions, is partially glazed with painted 
glass in the lower divisions, forming the borders of different compartments having plain 
glass within, but in the upper portion it is more abundantly employed, the tracery work 
being chiefly filled with it. The height of this window measures forty-eight feet, by 
thirty feet in breadth. 

The wainscoting of the choir is of oak, executed after a design by Lord Camelford, 
nephew to Bishop Lyttleton, who presided over the see at the period when the renova- 
tions were effected in this part of the structure. 

Several monuments are remaining in this cathedral, supposed to be those of dis- 
tinguished prelates. On the north side of the choir, near to the altar, is a curiously 
engraven monumental brass-plate, placed as a memorial of bishop Henry Robinson, who 
was born in Carlisle about the year 1556, and became celebrated for his piety and exten- 
sive erudition. This prelate received his education at Queen's College, Oxford, where he 
Mas at first, only "a poor serving child;" afterwards, however, he became provost, and 
contributed greatly, by his judicious regulations and praise-worthy conduct, to advance 
the interests of the colleges to which he was destined to be, in other respects, a munifi- 
cent benefactor. The plate before-mentioned, is beautifully executed. The bishop is 
represented in his sacred vestments kneeling with one hand supporting a crosier ; the 
other bears a lighted candle, and holds a cord, to which three dogs are attached, who 
appear to be guarding a similar number of sheep-folds from the incursions of wolves. 
Below the candlestick is a group of allegorical figures, carrying implements of agriculture 
and peaceful industry ; and at their feet is a wolf pursuing harmless gambols with a 
lamb, and various warlike instruments scattered and broken. Suitable Latin and Greek 
sentences, chiefly selected from the sacred writings, illustrate the different compartments 
of the design. Behind the bishop is a quadrangular building, including an open court, 
probably intended to represent the college in whose welfare he had taken so great an 
interest. It bears a Latin inscription, signifying, — " he found it destroyed; he left it 
built and furnished." Above this building is a delineation of the cathedral, having over 
the entrance two inscriptions, — " he entered ly the door ;" " he passed through, faithful.' 
On the steps, underneath a group of figures, one of whom is kneeling to receive the bene- 
diction, are the words — '• he departed blessed." Towards the top of the plate, is written 
in Greek, — "To the Bishops;" and immediately above is engraven a Latin sentence from 
the New Testament : " There were in the same countiy shepherds abiding in the fields, and 
keeping watch over their flocks by night." At the bottom of the plate is written in 
Latin : " To Henry Robinson, of Carlisle, D.D., a most careful provost of Queen's 
College, Oxon., and afterwards a most watchful Bishop of this Church for eighteen years, 
who, on the 13th calend of July, in the year from the delivery of the Virgin 1616, and of 
his age 64, devoutly resigned his spirit to the Lord. Bernard Robinson, his brother and 
heir, set up this Memorial as a testimony of his love." Underneath the whole is a Latin 


elegiac stanza expressive of the virtues and fruitful ministry of the deceased, and of the 
bright reward into which he had entered by death. 

The coup d'oeil presented by the choir of Carlisle cathedral is eminently beautiful, 
using that term in a restricted sense: beautiful to those who feel a glow of piety within 
them, whilst contemplating the sacred fane, rendered venerable by age — made hallowed by 
its sacred uses : beautiful to those who are willing to admit into the temple a sublime 
grandeur, suitable to its character, and calculated to impress the mind with awful feeling, 
" to calm the troubled breast, and woo the weary to profound repose." Every arch, every 
column, refers to ages past, and stands an impressive memorial of forgotten generations. 
The subdued and many-coloured light that falls from the east window produces a tran- 
quillizing effect, which, added to the " expressive silence" that reigns in the building, 
may, without enthusiasm, be said to render it the dim shadowing of the things which 
shall be. 

The dimensions of the choir are 137 feet in length by 71 feet in breadth, including 
the aisles ; the height being 75 feet. 


Mardale Green is a fertile and beautiful spot in the valley of Mardale, distant about 
a mile and a half from the lake of Havves Water. Few dwellings are met with in this or 
any other part of the vale ; but ample accommodation for the tourist is provided at the 
White Bull Inn on the Green. The Chapel of Mardale stands on an eminence, one mile 
south of the lake, in a beautifully picturesque situation, surrounded by lofty mountains 
and fells. The views from the parsonage are of the most interesting and diversified 
character. The estate called Chapel-hill, in this neighbourhood, has been the residence 
and property of the Holme family through many generations. The founder of the raw- 
was a native of Stockholm, whence he came to England with William the Conqueror, 
who rewarded him with an estate in Northamptonshire, where his descendants located 
till the time of King John, when the head of the family was compelled to fly for 
refuge from his enemies to the valley of Mardale, and to seek concealment in Hugh's 
Cave ; and he afterwards purchased this estate. 

The " mountainous retirement" of Mardale Green still exhibits something of the 
primeval simplicity which prevailed throughout the " hill countrye," till the mighty 
revolution, effected by literature and the advancement of mechanical art, had entered 
even into these fastnesses of nature, and swept before it the peculiarities, the rude 
dwellings, and the manners of a semi-barbarous age. 

The chimneys of the houses were formerly of the most capacious extent, and served 
not only as larders, wherein joints of meat were suspended to dry for winter use, but 
also as the favourite gathering-places for the inmates of the dwellings. Under the 
smoky dome, which in moist weather was constantly shedding a black sooty lie, sat the 


women knitting, or spinning wool and flax, the men carding the wool, and the school-boy 
conning the barbarous latinity of Lilly ; while the grandsire of the house amused the 
party with tales of border strife and superstitious legends. The fire was lighted on the 
hearth, and opposite to it was usually a large oaken closet of different compartments, 
on which was carved the owner's name, the year in which it was made, and innumerable 
scrolls and devices. This was the common depository or strong room of the house. 
The clothing of the men was of the native fleece, home-spun, and woven by the village 
weaver ; that of the women, was made from the finer native wool, dyed to the weaver's 
fancy, and fabricated by a rude artisan at the owner's fireside. The furniture of the 
house consisted of a long oaken table, with a bench on each side, where the whole family, 
including servants, ate together. The richer sort of people would shew a service of 
pewter; but the middle and poorer classes used wooden trenchers. Chairs of heavy 
wainscot work, with high arms, were in use ; but the usual moveable seats were three- 
footed stools. To furnish light for the winter evenings, candles were made of peeled 
rushes, dipped in the hot fat of fried bacon. The candlestick was a light upright pole, 
fixed in a log of wood, and furnished with pincers for holding the rushes. The usual 
food consisted of leaven bread, (made from a kind of black oats,) boiled animal food, the 
produce of the dairy, and a limited supply of vegetables. 


Small- Water Tarn lies in a lofty and deary solitude at the head of Riggindale, which 
is the highest branch of the valley of Mardale, and takes its name from a sharp and 
barren ridge running up from the vale to High Street. The view is taken from the pass 
of Nanbield, a slack or defile between High Street and Hayter Fell, leading to Mardale and 
Hawes Water. 

From the most elevated portion of High Street are seen Skiddaw, Saddleback, and 
the Scotch mountains. Skiddaw, situated three miles north of Keswick, has an elevation 
of not less than three thousand five hundred feet above the level of Bassenthwaite. 
Saddleback, so named from a fancied resemblance to a saddle, is broken towards its base 
into a multitude of mountains, and unites on the north-west with the declivities of 
Skiddaw. It presents the appearance of having formerly been a volcano, and a small tarn 
on its summit is supposed to have been the crater. The views immediately under the eye, 
from the mountain itself, are of such appalling magnitude and character, that few persons 
possess sufficient resolution to look on them. 

The manners and circumstances of a class of men inhabiting the mountainous districts, 
are thus described by Mr. Warner in his " Northen Tour." 

" In the midst of these secluded scenes, formed by the involutions of the mountains, lives 
one of the most independent, most moral, and most respectable characters existing ; the 
estatesman, as he is called in the language of the country. His property varies from 


eighty to two hundred pounds per annum ; his mansion forms the central point of his 
possessions, where he passes an undisturbed, inoffensive life, surrounded by his own 
paternal meads and native hills." The hospitality of the estatesman to the wayfarer and 
traveller is touchingly illustrated by the same writer. " Go," said an estatesman, to a 
person whom he had entertained for some days in his house, " go to the vale on the 

other side of the mountain, to the house of (naming the party,) and tell him you 

came from me. I know him not, but he will receive you kindly, for our sheep mingle 
upon the mountains." 


Lilburn Tower " bosomed high in tufted trees," is a grey old ruin, in the township of 
West Lilburn, standing on the north side of a brook of the same name, and near to it are 
the remains of a chapel. It was the seat of John Lilburn, in 1234, from whom descended 
Colonel John Lilburn, a turbulent enthusiast, who obtained the familiar appellation of 
" Free-horn John," on account of his bold, intrepid, and assiduous labours during the 
Commonwealth. He defended the rights and liberties of the people both with his sword 
and his pen ; and was frequently tried, imprisoned, and punished for his offences against 
the ruling powers. 

East and West Lilburn are separated by the rivulet of that name, which rises near 
Hause Crag, and, after skirting the eastern side of the township, continues its course east- 
ward to the river Till. 

On the west side of East Lilburn township was formerly a large heap of stones, called 
the " Apron-full of Stones," and as tradition could not fix the origin of their erection, 
superstition, as a matter of course, was called upon to solve the problem. The credulity of 
a dark age was easily persuaded to believe that the prince of darkness had hallowed the 
spot with his own handiwork. If olden legends may be credited, this unmentionable per- 
sonage was at one time a notable architect : several remains of his skill in this department 
of human art have been pointed out by the finger of credulity ; and even to this day, so 
great is the impression produced on uneducated minds by marvellous narrations, that 
persons may be found wanting mental courage to deny their truth. Tradition further 
states, for our edification, that these piles of stones, similar to the one at Lilburn, are 
aprons-full dropped by the demon builder in his flight, when the grey dawn interrupted 
his avocations. In 1/68, the stones were removed for the reparation of a road, and were 
found to cover the base and fragments of a cross, with four rows of steps. 

The township of West Lilburn anciently belonged to the barony of Wark, but was 
forfeited by Robert de Ros, in consequence of his revolting to the Scots. Afterwards it 
was for many years held by the family who assumed the name of Lilburn. The estate of 
West Lilburn is now the property of Henry John William Collingwood, Esq., who resides 
at the tower, a handsome modern structure, erected within a short distance from the 
ancient remains. 




Warkworth Hermitage is situated about half a mile above the castle, on the brink of 
the Coquet river. This venerable retreat is probably the best preserved and the most 
entire work of its kind now remaining in the kingdom. It contains three apartments, all 
of them formed by excavation of the solid rock, and impends over the river clothed in a 
rich mantle of ancient trees, remains of the venerable woods which in olden times shel- 
tered the inmates of this romantic solitude. Mr. Grose, in his Antiquities, " ventures to 
call the three apartments, by way of distinction, the chapel, the sacristy, and antechapel." 
The former of these still exists in great perfection ; but the other two are dilapi- 

The chapel is eighteen feet in length, by about seven and a half in width and height ; 
and is beautifully modelled in the Gothic style of architecture. The sides are adorned 
with neat octagon pillars, branching off to the ceiling, and terminating in small pointed 
arches at the groins. At the east end is a plain altar, ascended by two steps ; and behind 
is a little niche, in which was probably placed the crucifix. The north side of the chapel 
is ornamented with a Gothic window, cut in the rock ; and from this the light passed into 
the sacristy. 

The sacristy is a plain oblong apartment running parallel with the chapel. The 
remains of an altar may still be seen at the east end, at which mass was occasionally 
performed. Between this room and the chapel is a small opening, whence the hermit 
might make confession, and behold the elevation of the host. Near this opening is a door 
leading into the chapel, and over it a small escutcheon with all the emblems of the Pas- 
sion — the cross, the crown of thorns, the nails, the spear, and the sponge. On the south 
side of the altar is a cenotaph supporting three figures ; the principal one being that of a 
female, over whom an angel is hovering ; the remaining figure is a warrior, in an erect 
position at the lady's feet. 

A door opens from the sacristy into the vestibule or antechapel, containing two square 
niches, in which the lonely inhabitant of this secluded dwelling sat to contemplate. Hence 
he looked down upon the beautiful river which washed his hermitage, and glided away in 
never-ceasing murmurs. Over the inner door of the vestibule is placed another escutcheon, 
bearing a sculpture, intended probably for the representation of a gauntlet, which might 
be the arms or crest of the founder. On the outside of the rock, near the antechapel, is a 
winding staircase, hewn out of the living stone, which leads through an arched doorway up 
to the top of the cliff that joins the level of the old park, and where was planted the 
orchard of the hermit. Time has destroyed all vestiges of the original cultivation ; but 
cherry-trees, propagated from the cuttings of the anchorite's plantation, are still dispersed 
over the neighbouring thicket. Below the orchard, at the foot of a hill, is said to have 


been the garden of the recluse ; and a few straggling flowers and shrubs still remain to 
confirm the tradition. 

The domestic retreat of the hermit was a small square building, erected at the foot of 
the cliff in which the chapel is hewn ; and consisted of one dwelling room, with a bed- 
chamber over it, and a small kitchen adjoining. This structure having been built of 
ordinary materials, and not scooped out of the rock, it has long since gone to ruin ; but 
the hermitage itself will probably remain for the inspection and admiration of the latest 
posterity. The interest which attaches to it is much increased by its connexion with 
" The Hermit of Warkworth," a fine imitation of the old Border minstrelsy, by Dr. Percy, 
sometime bishop of Dromore. 

In the reign of Henry the Third this hermitage was a cell for two monks of the 
Benedictine order, to whose maintenance the church at Branliston was appropriated. 


Sty Head Tarn is a small elevated lake in the neighbourhood of the mountain whence 
it takes its name. It forms one of the sources of the Derwent river, which is here 
reduced to an insignificant rivulet. Above the tarn, at a dread elevation, rises the 
towering acclivity of Great End, one of the summits of Scawfell. 

The extreme elevation of Sty Head forms a rocky plain, nearly half a mile in extent, 
and environed by a circle of steep slaty rocks. From one side of this crag, the eye 
looks down with terror ; much of the scenery around the place being calculated to 
inspire emotions of the most awful description. On the opposite side, a pleasing 
prospect unfolds itself, comprising the valley and village of Wastdale, with the lake 
of Wastwater, and a back ground of stupendous mountains. The pleasure with which 
the tourist surveys the latter scene, is, however, in a good measure lost in the over- 
powering sensation of danger, arising from a view of the path by which he must descend. 
Above him rise tremendous hills, whose bases appear to unite ; beneath lies a precipice, 
which the human eye can scarcely fathom, and along its sides winds the narrow and 
almost perpendicular path, whence, by one false step, the traveller would be precipitated 
into the gulf. 

The mountain of Scawfell is the highest in England, and ascends in an extensive 
concave sweep to the elevation of three thousand one hundred and sixty-six feet above the 
level of the sea. Frightful precipices surround the summits, on the highest of which is 
a conical pile of stones, thrown together during a trigonometrical survey of the country. 
The principal summits are called Mickle Door, and Scawfell ; the latter is most easily 
visited from Seathwaite, and the former from Mardale or Eskdale. The ascent of this 
mountain is more difficult than that of Skiddaw or Helvellyn, the peaks being composed 


of vast stones, with scarcely any appearance of vegetation. The persevering pedestrian 
will, however, find himself amply repayed for all his toils, by the rich and diversified 
prospects which open to his view when he has attained the most elevated points. When 
the atmosphere is free from vapours, and the hill from mists, the extent of country which 
the eye can traverse is truly wonderful. 


The river Esk enters Cumberland at a place called the Moat, from Scotland ; and, 
flowing through the beautiful valley of Eskdale, continues its course, in a westerly 
direction, till it at length falls into the Solway Frith. 

At the head of Eskdale, some remains of a Roman fortress are still visible. The 
scenery of the vale comprises some of the most picturesque objects in the lake district, 
including Birker Force and Stanley Gill. A few dispersed dwellings are scattered in the 
valley, surrounded by rocky knolls, beautifully enriched with trees, and bordered by 
uplands, on which large flocks of sheep graze in undisturbed quiet. 

The ready and powerful aid constantly afforded by the mountain streams, has 
naturally led to the erection of many water-mills in this romantic district ; one of these 
forms a prominent object in the present Illustration. 

Amongst the choice morceaux provided in this seat of the picturesque for the gratifica- 
tion of the pictorial gourmand, few can be met with more suitable for artistic effect than 
Eskdale Mill. Free from all stiffness of outline and architectural precision, its rude 
appearance harmonizes well with the rich accompaniments that nature has cast around it. 
The wheel and stream, the rocky knolls and clustering foliage, and the glimpse obtained of 
the upland pasturages, combine together with amazing effect, and produce a picture richer 
in composition than any that might be wrought from the artist's imagination. 

■..„-. :. : ■ ■ 



Chipchase Castle is a large and beautiful structure, standing on the declivity of a hill, above 
the North Tyne river ; and is situated nine miles and a half north by west of Hexham. 

The estate of " Chipches," together with that of Withill, was held, in 12/2, of the 
barony of Humfranvill, by Peter de Insula. From him the possession passed to the Lisles, 
and afterwards to the Herons, of Ford Castle, one of whom, Sir John Heron, enjoyed the 
demesne in the reign of Henry VIII. After continuing in this family through four descents, 
the estate passed by purchase to the Allgoods, and from them, in like manner, to the 
ancient house of Reed, of Troughend in Redesdale. The representatives of this family 
have conveyed the estate to the guardians of Ralph William Grey, Esq. 

Leland makes mention of Chipchase, as " a praty town and castle, hard on the easte 
parte of the arme of North Tyne." And Sir Ralph Sadler, writing to Secretary Cecil, 
observes, " the most apte and convenyent places for the keeper of Tindale to reside in, on 
all the frontiers, are Hawgston, Langley, or Chipchase, in one of which iij placis men of 
service have always been placed, and especially for the well executing of that office of 

The old Tower of the original edifice still remains. " Its roof is built on corbels, and 
has openings through which to throw down stones or scalding water upon an enemy. The 
grooves of the portcullis, the porter's chamber above it, and battered fragments of Gothic 
paintings on the walls, are exceedingly curious." Considerable additions were made to the 
structure, in 1621, by Cuthbert Heron, Esq. ; and many improvements were afterwards 
effected by the Reeds. The old chapel of Chipchase, which was given to the church of 
Hexham in 1172 was entirely rebuilt on the lawn, by John Reed, Esq. ; by whom also 
the gardens were tastefully arranged, and the grounds ornamented with extensive plan- 
tations. The neighbourhood of Chipchase includes the most rich and diversified scenery ; 
and its elevated situation renders the castle an imposing and magnificent object to the 
surrounding country. The interior of the edifice is fitted up in a splendid style ; and some of 
the apartments are ornamented with valuable paintings, by Vandyke, Tintoretto, Rubens, &c. 
A reminiscence of the past is still preserved in an heronry on the north side of the castle. 

An anecdote is related of Elizabeth, wife of Sir William Heron, who was residing at 
Ford Castle when King James of Scotland besieged and took the fortress ; Sir William 
was, at the time, a prisoner in Scotland. The beauty of this lady made so deep an 
impression on the monarch's heart, at his first introduction, that he neglected his military 
duties. It is said that the interview was planned by Earl Surrey, (who was well 
acquainted with the king's amorous disposition,) to arrest his progress until he could 
come up with him, which he at length did, to the discomfiture of James at Flodden Field. 

2 P 



This monumental erection stands near the village of Otterburn, and is commemorative 
of a dreadful battle which was fought in that neighbourhood between the English and the 
Scots. The best topographical authorities concur in noticing the incorrectness of the 
name " Percy Cross," as applied to this pillar ; the error has probably arisen from con- 
founding the present memorial with another at Hedgly Moor, which is properly so called. 
Be it as it may, "Battle Stone" is a more significant and intelligible appellative. 

The village of Otterburn is pleasantly seated on the north side of the Reed river, three 
miles west of Elsdon, and derives its name from the Otter rivulet, which falls into the Reed 
at this place. The Manor and Villa of Otterburn were possessed by the Umfravilles, but 
belonged to the crown, in the tenth year of the reign of Elizabeth. The estate afterwards 
descended to the Hall family. A descendant of this house suffered as a rebel, in the reign 
of Queen Anne, and his demesnes were forfeited to the crown. The manorial property 
was ultimately sold, under a decree of the Court of Chancery, to James Ellis, Esq. who 
resides at Otterburn Hall, the site of the old castle, which was so gallantly defended 
against Earl Douglas. The village and part of the lands were purchased by John 
Davidson, Esq. of Newcastle, from whom they descended to his son, who has a convenient 
and neat mansion in the neighbourhood. There is a large woollen manufactory in this 

Froisart, in his description of the memorable battle fought here, August nine- 
teenth, 1388, says of the castle, it was "tolerably strong, and situated among marches, 
which the Scots attacked so long, and so unsuccessfully, that they were fatigued, and 
afterwards sounded a retreat." A short time previous to the period just referred to, the 
Scots had entered Northumberland under the command of earls Douglas, Murray, and 
March ; and after burning the country as far as Brancepeth Castle, they returned north- 
ward, laden with plunder. In their way back they lay three days before Newcastle, when 
much skirmishing ensued between them and the English ; and Sir Henry Percy lost his 
pennon in an encounter with Douglas, who boasted he would fix it upon his castle of 
Dalkeith. The morning after this occurrence, — 

" The Douglas turnyd hym horaewarde agayne, 
For soth withowghten naye, 
He took his logeynge at Otterborne 
Upon a Wedynsday." 

The Scots had laboured hard during the day, to reduce the castle, and while they were 
at supper, " and some were gone to sleep," the English, advancing from Newcastle, entered 
their camp with the cry, " Percy ! Percy !" " It was moonlight. The assault, by mistake, 
was made among the huts of the servants, which gave the Scots (who had settled their 


plans of defence, in case of attack,) time to wheel along the mountain side, and fall upon 
the English flank. The battle now raged. Douglas and "Harry Percy" (familiarly named 
Hotspur) had met, and the Scots were giving way, when Sir Patrick Hepburne and his son 
came, and renewed the fight. The earl of Douglas, who was of a high spirit, seeing his 
men repulsed, seized his battle-axe with both his hands, like a gallant knight, and, to rally 
his men, dashed into the midst of his enemies, and gave such blows on all around him, 
that no one could withstand them, but all made way for him on every side, until he was 
met by three spears that pointed at him ; one struck him on the shoulder, another on the 
stomach, and the third entered his thigh. He could never disengage himself from these 
spears, but was borne to the ground, fighting desperately. From that moment he never 
rose again. Some of his knights and esquires had followed him, but not all ; for though 
the moon shone, it was rather dark. When his followers came up, they found him stretched 
upon the ground, with his valiant chaplain and a wounded knight by his side. "Thanks 
to God," said he, "I die like my forefathers, in a field of battle, and not in my chamber 
upon my bed. Raise up my banner, and continue the cry of — Douglas ! but tell neither 
friend nor foe that I am dead. The main force of the English army marched over his 
body. Sir Ralph Percy, badly wounded, was soon after taken prisoner. The contention 
still continued fierce ; but when the fallen banner again came forward with the cry of 
'Douglas ! Douglas !' the Scots made a furious attack, and the English, weary with a long 
clay's march, and the fatigue of battle, at last gave way, and were completely overthrown. 
There were taken, and left dead on the field, on the side of the English, 1040 men of all 
descriptions ; in the pursuit 1840, and more than 1000 wounded. Of the Scots there were 
about 100 slain, and 200 made prisoners." 

Such are the interesting particulars which have descended to us, concerning the famous 
battle of Otterburn. The fine old English ballad of "Chevy Chase" is generally supposed 
to refer to this contest ; and a further conmemoration of the event is preserved in another 
ballad specially entitled "The Battle of Otterburn.'' We select two stanzas from the 

latter : 

" The Forest, Fenwich, Collingwood, 
The Heron of renown, 
Hi.jdi in the ranks of Lord Percy, 
The war-axe hewed down. 

" The Percies in that vengeful fight 
Both, both were prisoners ta'en ; 
But for the Douglas' dead body 
Were yielded up again." 

It is recorded, however, that the "valiant Hutspur" undertook, for his own ransom, to 
built the castle of Penvon in Ayrshire, belonging to the family of Montgomery, now earls 
of Eglintoun. 

The ground on which the engagement took place is still called Battle-riggs ; some 
remains of the intrenchments are yet visible, and a number of tumuli, scattered over the 


plain, bear corroborative testimony to the records of history. A cairn, or tomb, was 
opened near Otterburr. about the year 1729, wherein were found ashes, human bones, and 
burnt wood ; from which it appears that the bodies of the slain were burned before they 
received sepulture. 

So far as space permitted, we have, it is trusted, succeeded in giving an interest to the 
scene which the artist has placed before us. The illustration itself requires little or no 
explanation from us ; the allusions are conceived with great judgment and effect. The 
hill on the right, partially wooded, is that wherein the Scotch army was encamped. The 
moon looks silently on the landscape, as in that night when the war-cry of the Douglas 
and the Percy echoed through the hills. The " Battle-stone" marks the spot where the 
Scottish chief fell, overpowered by numbers ; and two Highlanders are noting the proud 
memorial, and recounting all the great achievements of the Douglas. 

"So sleep the brave, who sleep in death." 


The altitude of Helvellyn is stated by Otley, in his " Descriptions of the English 
Lakes," to be three thousand and seventy feet above the level of the sea. From the 
different summits of this mountain, comprehensive views are obtained of several of the 
lakes ; and the hills in every direction are thence seen under a more than usually 
picturesque arrangement. 

The illustrative view, taken from the north-west, discovers the " mighty Helvellyn" 

from its base, which is skirted by the lake of Thirlmere or Wythburn Water, to its highest 

point. The ascent is frequently commenced at this spot ; the facilities for procuring 

a guide being greater here, and the distance to be traversed much less than from other 

places. An active pedestrian may easily surmount the difficulties of the journey, though 

the acclivity is too steep for a horse to keep his footing. The surface of the mountain, 

in the neighbourhood of its summit, forms a kind of moss -covered plain, inclining towards 

the west, and terminated eastward by Alpine precipices. Hence, the prospect spreads to 

an astonishing extent, and embraces great part of the lakes Ullswater, Windermere, 

Coniston, and Esthwaite, together with a number of tarns which lie in the bosom of 

the hills. " Red Tarn is seated so deeply below the eye, that, compared with its gigantic 

accompaniments, it would scarcely be estimated at more than half its actual dimensions. 

To the right and left of Red Tarn, the two narrow ridges called Striding Edge and Swirrel 

Edge are stretched out. Beyond the latter lies Keppel Cove Tarn, and at the termination 

of the ridge rises the peak of Catsty Cam, modernized into Catchedecam. Angle Tarn, and 

the frothy steam from Hays Water, may be seen among the hills beyond Patterdale ; and, 

more remote, the estuaries of the Kent and Leven, uniting in the Bay of Morecambe, and 

extending to the distant ocean," 


On the western side of Helvellyn, about three hundred yards from the summit, there is 
a spring called Brownrigg Well, whence the water issues copiously in all seasons : the 
temperature, during the summer months, varies from forty to forty-two degrees. " Mine 
host" of the Nag's Head skilfully effects the sale of his brandy, by extolling the virtues of 
this water when mixed with genuine Cognac. 


In the church-yard of Penrith is preserved a curious antique monument called the 
Giant's Grave ; the singular character of these remains, and the distant period to which 
they may beyond doubt refer their erection, are most probably the only authority that 
could be produced for the name bestowed on them. They consist of two large pillars, 
bearing resemblance in shape to the spears anciently used, and standing at the distance of 
fifteen feet from each other ; the space between them is partly enclosed on either side with 
four very large stones, thin in substance, and of a semicircular figure. Near to them 
stands another pillar, called the Giant's Thumb ; and if this relic be in anywise typical 
of the member after which it is named, we may fairly conclude that " there were giants in 
the earth in those days." Several rude and totally unintelligible figures still exist on some 
of these stones, which, if we may credit the uncertain voice of « dim tradition," were raised 
in pious memory of one Owen Caesarius, an ancient hero, celebrated no less for his mighty 
achievements than for his colossal stature. 


St. Cuthbert, the patron saint of the cathedral church at Durham, conceived a great 
antipathy to females, and forbade them to approach his shrine, in consequence of an unjust 
charge brought against him, whilst pursuing a solitary life in the country of the Picts, by 
a daughter of the king of the province. When the followers of the saint had transferred 
his "incorruptible remains" to Durham, and raised an ecclesiastical structure to his 
especial honour, they perpetuated the prejudices of their patron by strictly forbidding 
women to enter the holy sanctuary. In consequence, a structure, named the Galilee, was 
appended to the west entrance of the building, whither females might repair to their devo- 
tions, without incurring the displeasure of the saint. 

The following anecdote will suffice to shew how rigidly the prohibition of females to 
enter the church was enforced. 

» In the year 1333, Edward III. arrived at Durham, and lodged in the Priory; a few 
days after, Queen Philippa came from Knaresborough to meet him, and, being unac- 


quainted with the custom of this church, went through the abbey gates to the priory, and, 
after supping with the king, retired to rest ; at which the monks were much alarmed, and 
one of them went to the king, and told him that St. Cuthbert had a mortal aversion to 
the presence of a woman. The king, unwilling to give any offence to the church, imme- 
diately ordered his queen to arise, who, in her under garments only, returned by the gate 
through which she had entered, and went to the castle, after most devoutly praying that 
St. Cuthbert would not avenge a fault which she had through ignorance committed." 

Hugh Pudsey, patriarch of Jerusalem, when he came to be advanced to the prelacy at 
Durham, considered that his predecessors, in their zeal to do honour to their patron saint, 
had entirely overlooked the claims of the Virgin Mary to respect and homage ; he, there- 
fore, commenced the erection of a chapel at the east end of the cathedral, intending to 
dedicate it especially to her, and to give females free access for their devotional exer- 
cises. The work had not, however, proceeded far, when vast clefts were discovered in the 
building, which appeared to threaten an early demolition. This manifestation, as it was 
deemed, of the saint's displeasure, determined the bishop to relinquish his purpose. He, 
notwithstanding, appropriated a portion of the west end, without the interior door of the 
church, for the Virgin's Chapel, which he named the Galilee, and into this sanctuary 
females were admitted without offence ; but they were on no consideration to be received 
within the Cathedral. 

When the privilege of sanctuary was attached to the church of Durham, those who 
sought refuge were permitted to enter no farther into the building than the Galilee south 
door. "Certain men lay in two chambers over the north door, to answer the calls of those 
who fled hither, that, whenever any offenders came and knocked, they instantly let them 
in at any hour of the night; and ran quickly to the Galilee bell, and tolled it, that whoso- 
ever heard it might know that some one had taken sanctuary." 

The original entrance to the Galilee was from a small yard adjoining the church-yard, 
but is now by two doors from the end of the side aisles of the nave. It is eighty feet in 
length by fifty in breadth, and is divided into five aisles by four rows of clustered columns 
with semicircular arches. The singular combination of the Norman and pointed styles of 
architecture displayed in the building, arose from the repairs, directed by Bishop, subse- 
quently Cardinal, Langley, about the year 1406. The north aisle, which is now walled up, 
was used as a Register Office, and appropriated to the reception of wills and deeds until 
1822, when a more suitable building for the purpose was erected on the west side of the 
Palace Green. Here were formerly three altars, now entirely removed : the centre one 
was dedicated to the Holy Virgin. Close beside it is the tomb of Cardinal Langley ; and 
in the adjoining aisle is a large marble stone, covering the remains of the venerable Bede, 
the most learned man of his time. The southern side of the chapel is now divided by 
stalls and benches, and used as the consistory court of the diocese. 



A view of Castle Eden, the delightful residence of Rowland Burden, Esq., and of the 
romantic Dean, or Dene, in its immediate neighbourhood, has already been introduced 
into this work. Some topographical particulars, both of the edifice and glen, accompa- 
nied the illustration, and will be found at page 28. The Grotto is an object of great 
curiosity, well worthy the attention of tourists. It appears to be a natural excavation of 
the rock, and is approached by a safe and commodious foot-way, formed for the conve- 
nience of visitors, by order of the spirited and liberal proprietor of the mansion-house. 
On one side of the path the excavated rock rises in a semi-arch; and on the other, the opening 
foliage discovers the rich interior of the wooded valley or dean. 


The scenery of Borrowdale comprises the beautiful and the terrific. In the neigh- 
bourhood of Rosthwaite, a varied and pleasing landscape greets the sight ; but, as the 
tourist advances towards Derwentwater, the mountains close upon each other, and present 
a wild and solitary defile, strown with fragments of rock, and wearing an aspect of utter 

This view of Borrowdale, taken near the village of Grange, shows the commencement 
of a rugged pass, which continues for several miles through the mountains, with scarcely 
a single feature to relieve the awful solitude of the place, beyond the Derwent river, whose 
stream is " distilled to crystal" by its passage through a rocky channel. The immediate 
vicinity of Grange is not deficient in rich accompaniments of wood ; and the scene is here 
enlivened by the rich foliage of Castle Crag. 

The Bowder Stone stands opposite to Castle Crag, on the side of the road leading 
from Grange to Rosthwaite. This mass of rock measures about twenty yards in length 
and ten in height, and is rendered an object of great curiosity by the singular manner in 
which it rests, being poised upon one of its angles, with a trifling additional support 
towards one end. From the similarity of its veins to those of the adjoining precipice, 
Bowder Stone appears to have been detached from the latter by lightning, or some violent 
convulsion of nature. Bowder Stone is visited, in a good measure, on account of the 
prospect thence obtained of the interior of Borrowdale, extending as far as Rosthwaite. 

" Bowder Crag is of very singular conformation, consisting of vast masses of rock, 
disposed partly in strata, and partly in a columnar order. In various places, on the side 
of the road are huge crazy fragments, which have been severed from the impending moun- 
tains by some concussion of nature : some are lying on the level road, others arc appa- 
rently suspended from the sides of the mountains, and cause the traveller to feel appre- 
hensions for his personal safety. Several of these are covered with moss, while the 
crevices of others afford a scanty soil to the hardy trees which grow out of their sides." 



The castle at Carlisle is pleasantly situated, at the north-west angle of the city, on the 
summit of a bold eminence overlooking the Eden river. This structure has been the 
arena of many important transactions in English history, and still retains much of its 
original strength and character. 

The edifice is said to have been begun under William Rufus, but left by him in an 
unfinished state. In the reign of Henry III. considerable dilapidations had taken place 
in consequence of the injuries it sustained during the siege by Alexander of Scotland, in 
1216. A commission was appointed in 1256, to report upon the state of the building, 
when it was found that " the queen's chamber, Maunsell's turret, the turret of William de 
Ireby, the chapel, great hall, kitchen, and other offices," were in a very ruinous condition, 
owing to the repeated attacks which they had sustained. An estimate was taken in 1344, 
for its entire renovation, and considerable repairs were effected ; but in the reign of 
Elizabeth it had again fallen into a ruinous condition, insomuch that " the dungeon tower 
(which should be the principal defence of the castle) was in a state of great decay, and, 
although the walls were twelve feet thick, was in daily danger of falling." Orders were 
therefore issued for its thorough reparation ; and, in the following century, it is recorded to 
have sustained a siege of several months. Within the present century it has undergone 
much repair, and considerable additions have been made to the original building. The 
new barracks, built in 1819, with other rooms appropriated to the use of the garrison, are 
capable of accommodating upwards of two hundred soldiers. 

The inner court of the castle contains the great tower, the officers' barracks, the maga- 
zine erected in 1827, and the tower in which Mary queen of Scots was confined. This 
portion of the building is separated from the large area by a wall and tower gate, defended 
by a half-moon battery, which was formerly mounted with cannon, and strengthened by a 
wide and deep ditch, with a drawbridge. The great tower, or keep, of the fortress, is a 
massive and lofty square building, now used as an armoury, and contains an effective sup- 
ply of warlike weapons. Beneath the armoury are the dungeons — prison-houses of vast 
extent, and of frowning aspect. Here, also, is an exceedingly deep well, said to have been 
sunk by the Romans for the purpose of insuring a supply of water to the garrison during 
a siege. From the battlements of the tower an extensive prospect is obtained, comprising 
a variety of pleasing features in the mountain and sylvan scenery of the surrounding 

This castle was repeatedly invested by the Scots, and suffered greatly at their hands. 
It was seized by the Pretender in the very outset of his rash attempt upon the throne of 
England, and its spoils furnished his followers with arms and ammunition, of which, till 
then, they had a very inefficient supply. The visits of majesty, at different periods, and 
the important consultations held from time to time within its walls, serve also to render 
this fortress an object of much interest to the historian and the antiquary. 





The Market-Hull at Hexham is of an irregular figure, averaging fifty yards in length, 
by about thirty in breadth. On the south side is the leather and poultry market, with 
piazzas in front, and behind are stalls for the butchers. A market is held here every 
Tuesday, when the town is plentifully supplied with corn, provisions, &c, and there is also 
an inferior market on Saturday. From the end of February to Midsummer, and from October 
to Christmas, an extensive cattle market is held every alternate Tuesday. 

Vast quantities of vegetables are sent from Hexham to the Newcastle markets. This 
trade has suffered materially from the gardeners who reside near the sea; an injury 
which would probably be effectually removed by the construction of a rail-road, for the 
removal of produce from the inland parts of the county. The annual sales in the 
Hexham market average four thousand quarters of wheat, one thousand quarters of 
barley, two thousand quarters of oats, and fifteen hundred quarters of rye. 

If Hexham enjoyed the benefits of inland navigation, it would be, in many respects, 
one of the most favourable seats for trade. It has long been famous for its manufacture of 
leather, particularly gloves, of which about twenty-four thousand dozens of pairs are 
made and exported annually. This branch of trade gives employment to a great number 
of persons of both sexes and of all ages. Manufactories for hats and worsted goods are 
also carried on at Hexham. 

The tower and gateway, in the centre of our view, form the Town Hall, where the 
courts of sessions, &c. are held. This sombre-looking tower is built over a defensible 
archway, on the east side of the Market Place, where it is supposed to have been erected 
for the defence of the abbey in times of danger, being situated in the Hall Garth. It was 
formerly used as the town-gaol. 


Lymington, or Lemington, is a populous village, conveniently situated on the north 
bank of the Tyne, four miles west of Newcastle. The extensive iron works of Messrs. 
Bulmer and Company give employment to a great number of men, and produce annually, 
with the iron ore from the collieries in the neighbourhood, not less than thirty 
thousand tons of metal. Till the year 1/87, Lymington was a very inconsiderable 
village, but since the establishment of a Crown Glass Manufactory, and subsequently of 
the Iron Works, it has obtained a high commercial character. We shall avail our- 
selves of the opportunity given by the illustration under review, to offer a brief history 
of that useful metal, iron, whose value is infinitely greater than that of " fine gold." 

Iron is a malleable and ductile metal, of a blueish white colour, susceptible of a high 
degree of polish, and found under a variety of combinations, to which we shall presently 

2 R 


refer more particularly. The use of this metal is of very high antiquity ; it is mentioned 
in the Pentateuch, and was, in the time of the writer of that history, employed in the 
fabrication of swords, knives, and other edged instruments. Some estimate may be 
formed of the value then attached to the metal, from an expression in the eighth chapter 
of Deuteronomy, where Moses eulogizes the Land of Promise, as " a land whose stones 
are iron." About four hundred years subsequent to the era of the Pentateuch, a ball of 
iron was proposed by Achilles as a reward to the victors at the funeral games of Patroclus. 
The art of working the metal appears, in a few succeeding centuries, to have reached a 
high state of perfection : Alyattes, king of Lydia, presented to the Delphic Oracle an 
iron vessel, curiously inlaid, " of surprising workmanship, and as worthy of observation 
as any of the offerings presented at Delphi." 

A talented writer has observed, that " without iron, agriculture could not have 
existed, nor could the plough have rendered the earth fertile. The philosopher, while he 
studies the progress of the human understanding, and compares the fortune and state of 
the different nations established on various portions of the surface of the globe, will 
remark, that their iron works seem, in some measure, to be proportioned to their 
intelligence, to the advancement of reason amongst them, and the degree of perfection to 
which the arts have arrived. When we consider it in this point of view, as the agent by 
which men, in the variety of its uses, and the numerous wants it supplies, acquire enjoy- 
ments which would be unknown to them if they did not possess these products of their 
industry, iron must singularly contribute to extend their ideas, to multiply their know- 
ledge, and to conduct their spirit towards that perfectibility, which nature has given no 
less as the character of the human species, than as the source of all the advantages it can 

The ores of iron are divided into a number of species, each including several sub- 
species ; but of the latter, it is not possible to make particular mention in this brief 
sketch. The first species is the Native Iron, which is found only in a ramous form, and 
contains a very great proportion of pure iron, combined with minute quantities of lead 
and copper. Iron Pyrites, (the second species,) appears under various colours ; is found 
both massive and disseminated ; and frequently assumes the crystallized form, the 
crystals of each sub-species varying in figure. It is composed of nearly equal parts of 
sulphur and iron. Magnetic Pyrites is of a copper-red colour, which on exposure to the 
air changes to brown ; is found only in that class of rocks denominated primitive, and is 
composed of sulphur and iron. Magnetic Ironstone is of an iron black colour; is found 
in the massive, disseminated, and crystallized forms ; is attracted by the magnet ; and is 
very abundant in Sweden, where it is used in the manufacture of the iron imported to this 
country for the supply of the Sheffield market. In addition to these species, are those of 
the Iron Stones and the Iron Earth; each of which includes a number of sub-species 
differing from each other in colour, form, chemical analysis, and specific gravity. 

The specific gravity of the iron, in any of the ores, being so much greater than that of 


the other ingredients, the weight of the ores will give a tolerable idea of their relative 
value. Previously to working them, the ores are minutely analyzed, to ascertain what 
substances should be combined with them in the furnace, to extract the metal, and fuse 
the earthy parts. In the process of smelting, two things are absolutely essential to the 
separation of the iron. First, the metal itself must be rendered fluid, which will then, by 
its great specific gravity, descend to the lowest parts of the furnace ; and, in the next 
place, something must be employed to combine with and fuse the substances united to the 
iron in the ore. The coal employed in the smelting of iron is commonly laid, for the 
purpose of being coked, in heaps in the open air, and afterwards set on fire. The average 
charges of coke for the furnace, per shift, as it is termed, or in the space of twelve hours, 
are fifty, of two hundred weight and three-quarters each, amounting together to nearly 
seven tons. Iron, as obtained from the ores in the furnace, contains a large proportion 
of carbon, which unfits it for forging purposes, but renders it highly serviceable to the 
founder in the manufacture of cast-iron productions. To make pure iron, the metal 
undergoes another process in the furnace, by which it is deprived of its carbon, loses its 
fusibility, and becomes malleable. Iti this state it is called wrong/it iron. The pure 
iron is again combined with a certain proportion of carbon, to produce the metallic 
substance called steel. 

The management of the smelting and blast furnaces of the Iron Works requires a high 
degree of scientific knowledge ; a successful reduction of the ores depending entirely on a 
skilful analysis of them, and a judicious choice of substances to assist the fusion. When 
we consider the immense value of the metal — its manifold uses — and, in the present state 
of society, the impossibility of dispensing with such a production, or discovering an 
adequate substitute, — we must view the iron works of this country with deserved 
admiration, and rank their conductors amongst the greatest benefactors of the human 


The choir of Durham cathedral is separated from the Feretory and Chapel of the Nine 
Altars by an elegant stone screen, presented by one of the Neville family, and erected al 
the cost of four hundred pounds, a vast sum in those times. The work was completed in 
London, and afterwards sent in detached portions to Durham by sea. Seven expert 
masons, it is said, were employed to fit the parts together, and place them in their 
present situation ; they were nearly a year completing their undertaking, and during this 
time the convent allowed them diet and wages. The erection was finished in 1380. 

The design of this screen is divided into three tiers or stories. The lowest, or base- 
ment story, is solid; the second and third are open, so that the statues which filled 
the niches, or outer canopies, were seen through in a back view from the east side. The 
light and airy pinnacles, rising in a pyramidal form, cannot be too much admired. Under 


three grand centre canopies on the west side, were originally whole-length statues of our 
Lady, St. Cuthbert, and St. Oswald ; and all the others were likewise ornamented with 
statues of great and holy personages. The several niches on the east side were also filled 
with historical statues. This screen has been greatly mutilated at various periods, since 
its erection ; and presents, in the present day, an appearance less splendid than the original 
design, and in a good measure of different character. 

Immediately behind the screen, projecting into the chapel of the Nine Altars, and on a 
level with the choir, is tbe chapel called the Feretory, where in ancient times the gorgeous 
shrine of St. Cuthbert was deposited. Through " the godly devotion of kings, queens, 
and other estates," this shrine is reported to have become the richest in the kingdom. 
Its pristine splendour has, however, vanished ; and the only reminiscences of its former 
reputation are to be found in the hollow impressions worn in the stone flooring by the feet 
of the devotees who flocked hither in the ages of superstition and credulity. 

A pilgrimage to the shrine of St. Cuthbert was deemed so meritorious an act, that, in 
1284 a remission of forty days' penance was granted to every votary who performed it. 
The remains of the saint are said to have been deposited here in "a chest well fortified with 
navies and leather ;" this was afterwards enclosed in a marble sepulchre by John Lord 
Neville, the same who erected the screen. The commissioners of Henry VIII. plundered 
and defaced the shrine ; and the monarch himself gave orders that the relics of the saint 
should " be buried in the ground, under the place where his shrine was exalted." A large 
blue stone, placed in the centre of the floor, is said to indicate the spot where the bones of 
St. Cuthbert, after many removals, were finally laid at rest. 

The commissioners of the king, when examining the shrine, discovered " many worthy 
and goodly jewels, but especially one precious stone, which, by the estimate of those then 
visitors, and their skilful lapidaries, was of value sufficient to ransom a prince. After the 
spoil of his ornaments and jewels, coming near unto the body of the saint, thinking to 
have found nothing but dust and bones, and finding the chest that he lay in very strongly 
bound with iron, the goldsmith, taking a great forge hammer of a smith, broke the said 
chest ; and when they had opened it, they found him lying whole uncorrupt, with his 
face bare, and his beard as it were of a fortnight's growth, and all his vestments about him 
as he was accustomed to say mass, and his metwand of gold lying by him. When the 
goldsmith perceived that he had broken one of his legs as he broke open the chest, he was 
troubled at it ; for, contrary to expectation, not only his body was whole and uncorrupt.ed, 
but also the vestments wherein he lay, and in which he was wont to say mass, were fresh, 
safe, and unconsumed." 

The chapel of the Nine Altars terminates the cathedral of Durham on the east, and 
is entered from the side-aisles of the choir, by a descent of several steps. Its length is 130 
feet, and the breadth 51 feet, measuring from the screen of the high altar. The pilasters 
of this transept, from which rise the groins of the roof, are of an angular projection, light 
and elegant ; on each side of the great window, the pilasters consist of a cluster of small 


circular columns, one of larger dimensions in front, and six on each side to form the 
projecting angle. " The several columns composing the clusters are beautifully contrived 
to relieve the eye from the general mass ; they standing in part clear of the body of the 
cluster, but connected with it by their bases, bands, and capitals, which, with the ribs of 
the groins springing from them, are enriched with foliage and flowers." The columns are 
alternately of black marble and white freestone, which had a beautiful effect before the 
mistaken zeal of the reformers led them to destroy the contrast by an uniform wash of ochre. 
This portion of the chathedral derived its name from the nine altars erected beneath the 
windows on the east side, and dedicated to various saints. Previous to the Reformation, 
these altars had their several screens and covers of wainscot overhead ; and had likewise, 
between each, a very fair and large partition of wainscot, all varnished over with fine branches, 
and flowers, and other imagery work, containing the several lockyers and amberies for the 
safe-keeping of the vestments and ornaments belonging to the altar. Before the great 
central window, nine cressets, or lamps, were suspended, whose light was so great as to 
make every part of the church visible during the time they were kept burning. 


The Waterfall of High Force is situated near Middleton, in Teesdale, and about three 
miles from Winch Bridge. At this place the whole body of the Tees river rushes over a 
perpendicular rock of black marble sixty-nine feet in height, and precipitates itself into 
several caverns formed in the solid rock by the continual action of the waters in their 
descent. Clouds of mist and spray are produced by the violent fall of the torrent ; and 
these, when illuminated by the sunbeams, reflect all the dyes of the rainbow. The con- 
cussion of the waters produces a sensible tremor in the earth for some distance ; and the 
noise of the fall is heard for many miles round the country. 


This view of Grasmere, from Loughrigg Fell, an eminence " scarcely one thousand feet 
above Windermere, and nine hundred above Grasmere," comprehends the whole of the lake, 
with all the varied sylvan and mountain scenery by which it is surrounded. Having 
already described this locality, in connexion with a former view of it, it remains only in 
the present instance to notice the prominent features of the view before us. At the farther 
end of the lake rises Helm Crag, " distinguished from its rugged neighbours, not so much 
by its height, as by the strange broken outlines of its top, like some gigantic building 
demolished, and the stones that composed it flung across each other in wild confusion." 
Beyond the crag, the hill of Dunmail Raise, and the mountains Helvellyn and Fairfield, 
rise in magnificent proportions. Sloping wood-covered eminences descend on each side 
to the margin of the lake, their rich foliage greatly enhancing the beauty of the valley, 

2 S 


wherein is set the goodliest gem of all— the mere, shining " like a burnished silver 
sea " and reflecting from its motionless surface " all earth and heaven." 

The cairn, or monument, called Dunmail Raise, is an object of great interest to the 
antiquary, on account of the traditions connected with its history. It stands on the 
side of the road, in the middle of the pass between Cumberland and Westmorland, and 
is composed of a huge raise, or heap of stones, piled on each side of an earthern mound. 
Its bulk has of late years been lessened, in consequence of stones being taken from it 
for the repair of the adjoining roads. The generally received tradition concerning this 
pile is, that it was thrown together for the purpose of commemorating the name and 
defeat of Dunmail, a petty king of Cumbria, A.D. 945 or 946, by the Saxon monarch, 
Edmund I., who slew his vanquished enemy ; and, in conformity with the cruel usages 
of that barbarous age, put out the eyes of his two sons. Gilpin, the topographer, 
conjectures that this heap of stones was intended as a boundary mark between the 
kingdoms of England and Scotland in ancient times, when the Scottish border extended 
much farther than it does at the present day. But whatever may have been the design 
with which this monstrous pile was originally raised, it is, notwithstanding the change 
it has suffered in its dimensions, one of those monuments of antiquity, which may be 
characterized by the scriptural phrase of " remaining to this very day." 


Rydal Hall is seated in a vale on a slight eminence, not far from the Ambleside road, 
and is sheltered by fine old timber, of which there is abundance in the grounds, and on 
the hill-side. The lofty mountain, Fairfield, rises immediately behind the edifice, and 
the lower part of this steep acclivity has obtained the name of Rydal Head. In the 
ascent of this hill is Rydal Mount, the residence of William Wordsworth, Esq. " In this 
place, within view at once of Windermere and Rydal Water, the father of the lake 
school of poetry has passed a considerable portion of his life ; and the scenery around 
him, scarcely equalled in beauty by any in Westmorland or Cumberland, has probably 
contributed to enrich his imagination, to refine the natural purity of his feelings, and to 
produce many of the noble and exquisite descriptions of nature which adorn his poems." 

Rydal Hall has been the seat of the Flemings from a remote period. Sir Michael le 
Fleming, relative to Baldwin Earl of Flanders, brother-in-law of the Conqueror, was 
sent to the assistance of William, then newly arrived in England, and for his services 
that monarch gave him large grants of land in Furness. His descendants obtained pos- 
session of Rydal, in the reign of Henry VI., by marriage ; and it has remained with 
them ever since. The present owner is Lady le Fleming, relict of Sir Daniel le 
Fleming, Bart. 

The view of the surrounding country, from Rydal Head, is exceedingly picturesque. 
"The pleasant vales of Grasmere and Rydal, beautifully diversified with wood, rock, 




and water, with verdant pastures and cultivated grounds, .are extended at your feet. 
Beyond these, the mountains with verdant sides, and purpled with heath, rise in various 
forms, and discover a small lake, called Elter water. From this water issues a white 
silvery stream, which joins the Brathay, and thence flows over a succession of small 
cascades to mighty Windermere. Not far distant, the majestic lake of Windermere, 
which gradually unfolds itself during the ascent to the summit of the mountain, now 
appears in all its grandeur, studded with numerous islands, and nearly intersected by 
jutting promontories. Over the western margin of Windermere, Esthwaite Water is 
seen extending to Hawkshead ; and on the right of it, Conister Lake stretches among 
the high and rocky fells of Furness. In the horizon is seen the Irish sea, washing a 
very indented shore. At another point, mountains extend as far as the eye can reach, 
declining imperceptibly into distance, and advancing their summits to different heights 
of elevation : of these the most prominent are Dow Crags, Grisedale Pike, and 

The present view, taken from Fox How, an ascent between the ranges of mountains 
on both sides of the valley, discovers the verdant beauty of Kydal vale, and the lofty hills 
which environ it in this quarter. 


Prudhoe Castle, so called from its occupying a proud eminence on the south bank of the 
Tyne river, gives name to a township and hamlet situated half a mile south-south-east of 
Ovingham. The steep promontory on which stand the ruins of this once celebrated 
fortress, communicates with the circumjacent grounds by a narrow neck of land, stretching 
towards the south. The site of the castle occupies seven parts of a circle, on an octagonal 
section. It is guarded on the north by an outward wall, constructed on the brink of the 
cliffs, which rise to the height of sixty perpendicular feet above the level of the river. 
The superstructure of the inner gateway is a massive embattled square tower, sixty feet 
in height, but which is so overmantled with ivy that the windows and loop-holes are 
scarcely discernible. The keep, or principal tower, measuring seventy-five feet in height, 
and forming a square of fifty-four feet, overlooks, with sullen and frowning aspect, the 
extensive and confused heaps of ruins by which it is surrounded. This ruined fortress 
forms a conspicuous and highly interesting object in the scenery of the vale of Tyne ; and 
from what point soever it is viewed, its amazing extent, dilapidated walls, and time-worn 
towers, produce an august and imposing appearance. 

Prudhoe Castle is considered to owe its original foundation to the Romans ; it was a 
place of considerable note during the Heptarchy, and also at the time of the Conquest. 
It was the baronial mansion of the Umfranville family ; and afterwards, for many ages, a 
castle of the Northumbrian Percy, in whose posterity it continues. The former house 
possessed it from the Conquest till about 1381, when it was transferred by marriage to the 


Talbois, who forfeited it at the battle of Hexham. By a grant of the crown, it was given 
to the Duke of Bedford, and subsequently to the Percys. This fortress was several times 
ineffectually besieged by the Scots; in 1577 5 it was tenanted; and, in 1596, was reported 
as " an old ruinous castle." In 1816, Algernon Percy, only brother to the Duke of 
Northumberland, was created Lord Prudhoe, Baron of Prudhoe castle, in Northumberland. 
Camden fixes the site of the Roman station Protolitia, or Prosolitia, at this place. 


Dilston is a small but pleasant village, situated on the south side of the Tyne, and 
distant three miles east by south from Hexham. The name is a corruption of Devilstone, 
and is derived from its proximity to the small stony rivulet of Devil Water. Here was 
the baronial seat of the Devilstones, whose ancient tower is still standing, and near to it 
was the mansion of the Ratcliffes, subsequently Earls of Derwentwater. This villa was 
erected in 1616 by Francis Radcliffe, and, after falling into ruins, was completely removed 
in 1/68, excepting the chapel, which is still kept in repair, probably from respect for the 
unfortunate family, many of whom lie interred within the vault. Though the chapel is 
not now used, the reading-desk and two pews are still preserved entire. The approach to 
the ruins of Dilston is of the most romantic description : the little rivulet before men- 
tioned, at its conflux with the Tyne, flows out of a deep dell, which spreads forth a leafy 
canopy, one hundred feet in height, and shades the lower objects with a solemn gloom. 

The last representative and most unfortunate member of the Ratcliffe family, who 
enjoyed the Dilston estates, was James, third Earl of Derwentwater, whose interference 
on behalf of the Pretender caused the ruin of his house, and cost him his life. The fate 
of this young and generous-hearted nobleman, whose only crime consisted in a faithful 
and enthusiastic attachment to the Stuarts, whose princely favour he had enjoyed, excited 
very general commiseration. His memory is still cherished and revered in Northumber- 
land, where numerous instances of his affability and beneficence are still related with 
feelings of sympathy and regret. The Elector of Hanover, who had become lord of the 
ascendant, sacrificed the faithful subject of a fallen prince ; but a living memory of him 
still existed in the warm hearts of his countrymen, — in that sanctuary whence the monarch 
could not drag it forth. His large and numerous estates were declared forfeited, and 
an act was passed to transfer them to the use of Greenwich Hospital, to which institution 
they still belong. The Derwentwater property produced, in 1717? a n annual revenue of 
£6372 ; but the yearly value is now not less than £60,000. 

The hospitality of Dilston Hall is still proverbial ; and to its deserted state after the 
decapitation of the Earl, in 1716, the following lines refer : — 

" The tim rous deer hath left the lawn ; 
The oak a victim falls ; 
The gentle traveller sighs, when shewn 
These desolated walls." 

. *'-£:-£ t--'. "Vr i 


:oeipe s 



Milnthorpe is a small but well-built market town, situated on the north side of the 
river Belo, seven miles and a half south by west of Kendal. It is a dependent sea-port 
under Lancaster, and has belonging to it vessels of nearly one hundred tons burden each ; 
but they can seldom approach nearer to the town than Arnsidc or Haverbrack. The 
Sands here are well adapted for bathing, and many visitors resort hither in the summer 
for that purpose, though it is only during the highest tides in each fortnight that a suffi- 
ciency of water is found. The salubrity of the air, and the beautifully diversified scenery 
in the neighbourhood, contribute in no small degree to the health and gratification of the 
company. Several small inns stand on the shore for the accommodation of the bathers 
and other visitants ; and ferry-boats are constantly in readiness, to convey passengers from 
one side of the Sands to the other. The elegant villas of Beetham House, Elmsfield 
House, Ash Meadow, and Dallam Tower, lie in the immediate neighbourhood. The plan- 
tations about Ash Meadow are in the most thriving condition, and the fruit-trees extremely 
luxuriant, though many of them stand within a few yards of high- water mark. The 
extensive coppices, which are chiefly hazel, yield vast quantities of nuts. 

The town of Milnthorpe consists principally of one long street, the east end of which 
is the most modern; on the north side is an assemblage of new erections called the 
New Row. Several extensive flax-mills, together with paper-mills, and a factory for the 
carding of wool, are met with in the town and neighbourhood. The May fair, of very 
ancient date, is proclaimed with much ceremony by the steward of the manor lord, 
attended by a numerous train of gentlemen ; and the business of the day is closed with 
mirth and festivity at Levens Gardens. 


Sizergh Hall, an ancient fortified mansion, situated to the right of the road from 
Kendal to Milnthorpe, stands in the midst of fertile grounds, beautifully sprinkled with 
wood, though at the foot of a sterile and rocky hill. 

This mansion was erected in those days of suspicion, when feudal discord and northern 
irruptions required to be met by strength of masonry and a well-appointed garrison ; and 
even to the present day it retains a formidable appearance, reminding us of a remote 
period, when, without any poetical license, every Englishman's house might be really styled 
his castle. Many alterations and enlargements have been made in the edifice since its 
original construction, the exact period of which cannot be ascertained, but these have been 

2 T 


effected with judicious reference to the character of the building, and have therefore 
renovated without deforming it. The exterior lias a grey, venerable appearance, especially 
the tower at its south-east corner, which is finished with two embattled turrets. One of 
the turrets, that over the great entrance, is embrasured, and capable of holding twelve 
men. The winding staircase terminates also in a turret, which served as a defence to the 
other entrance. 

Sizergh Hall is the seat of Thomas Strickland, esquire, whose ancestors derived 
their name from Strickland, or Stirkland, in Morland parish, and who resided in this 
vicinity from a early period. William de Strickland, in the time of Henry III., 
married a daughter of Ralph d'Aincourt, and it is probable that he built the tower of 
Sizergh ; for on the west side is an escutcheon quartering the arms of D'Aincourt and 
Strickland. In the reign of Edward I. the manor of Sizergh is expressly mentioned as 
the possession of the latter family. The strength and importance of the lord of Sizergh, 
in the time of Henry VI., may be gathered from the fact that he could take to the border 
wars, " bowmen, horsed and harnessed, sixty-nine ; billmen, horsed and harnessed, 
seventy-four; bowmen, without horse and harness, seventy-one ; billmen, without horse- 
harness, seventy-six ;" making together a force of two hundred and ninety fighting men. 

Ages have pass'd since the vassal horde 

Rose at the call of their feudal lord ; 

Serf and chief, the fettered and free, 

Are resting beneath the greenwood tree 

And the blazon'd shield, and the badge of shame, 

Each is alike an empty name. 

The interior of this structure is elegantly furnished, and adorned with good paintings. 
The dining-room, the ceiling and wainscoting of which are of oak richly carved, is a 
spacious and lofty apartment. Tradition has conferred on one of the rooms, that forming 
the subject of our illustration, the name of the Queen's Room : Catherine Parr, the last 
queen of Henry VIII., is said to have occupied this apartment for several nights after the 
king's death; an interest, in consequence, attaches to it, beyond that derived from its 
spacious extent and rich adornings. We have but to carry the imagination back three 
centuries, a mere trifle when one's Pegasus has got the rein, and the present illustration 
ushers us at once into the very sanctum sanctorum of a queen of England. There is the 
royal couch, its stately pillars and lofty canopy; the richly-disposed toilet, with its 
massive appendages, royalty assuming her outward adornings, and the lady in waiting 
disposing draperies according to the most approved mode ; the vision might lose its illu- 
sion by an observation on the want of sables in her majesty's dress, and the extraordinarily 
youthful appearance and elegant figure of the queen ; but, after all, Henry was not a king 
or husband to be mourned exceedingly, and a lady's age is universally admitted to be a very 
delicate subject of discussion. 





Blackhall rocks, so named from their sombre and dismal-looking recesses, are 
situated about five miles north from Hartlepool. This singular and romantic cluster of 
rocks presents one of the most interesting objects for the tourist's contemplation, to be 
met with in the north of England. Some of the caverns penetrate to a great extent 
into the rocks, and recede far beyond the light of day ; others are open, and supported by 
natural pillars. These have been formed by the force and ceaseless action of the waves, 
which have also separated enormous masses from the coast, washing some away, but 
leaving others standing like the vast towers of a cathedral : in some places the rock is 
perforated so as to resemble a finely-pointed arch gateway. 


Darlington is a neat and thriving market town and parish, situated eighteen miles 
south from Durham. This place is of great antiquity, and is said to have derived its 
name from the lingering stream of the old Dur or Der river. Soon after the episcopal 
seat was settled at Durham, the town was given with much solemnity to that see. The 
present church at Darlington owes its origin to Bishop Pudsey ; the expense attending its 
erection must have been immense, the stone of which it is built having been brought 
a distance of twelve miles, from the quarries of Cockfield fell. Notwithstanding the 
opulence of this religious foundation, and the extent of the parish, a very small portion 
only of its revenues were reserved, at the dissolution in the reign of Edward the Sixth, for 
the maintenance of the minister. 

The church, which is dedicated to St. Cuthbert, is in the form of a cross, with a tower 
and spire rising from the centre. The tower contains a peal of six musical bells ; and 
about the year 1822, a handsome organ was erected by subscription, to assist divine 
service. The church has frequently undergone repair, and is kept in good order, though 
the effect of the interior is injured by the disposition of the pews and galleries. It forms 
the principal ornament of the town, and stands at the south-west angle of the market 
place. The Grammar School was a chantry in the church, founded and amply endowed 
by Robert Marshall. The possessions belonging to it remained in the hands of the crown 
till the time of Elizabeth, when, through the intercession of Henry, Earl of Westmorland, 
and Bishop Pilkington, the queen was graciously pleased to grant, by her charter, dated 
the 15th of June, 1567, the foundation of a grammar school, endowing the same with the 
various possessions formerly belonging to Marshall's chantry. 

The Town's House, an elegant structure situated in the market place, was erected in 
1808, for the use of the inhabitants ; and here all their public meetings are held, and the 


town's business is transacted. Petty sessions, over which two or more magistrates pre- 
side, are also held here on alternate market days. The Shambles, erected in the year 
1815, on the west side of the market place, is a neat building, and well supplied with 
butchers' meat. The Dispensary for the relief of the sick poor occupies a part of the 
Town's House, and was established in 1809. A weekly market is held in Darlington on 
Monday, which is plentifully supplied with the rich agricultural produce of the neigh- 
bouring district; and on alternate Mondays there is a large show of cattle; also, at the 
proper season, a show of sheep and wool, the most abundant in the north of England. 
Nine annual fairs take place in Darlington. A considerable portion of the inhabitants of 
Darlington are employed in the manufacture of linen, and in spinning worsted yarn. 
There are in the immediate neighbourhood of the town a number of water mills, employed 
in the grinding of corn, fulling and spinning the linen and worsted yarn ; and one is used 
for grinding optical glasses. 

A rail-way, or tram-road, passes from Stockton, by way of Darlington, to Witton 
Park, three miles east of Bishop Auckland. 

At the distance of about three miles from Darlington, at Oxenhall, are cavities in the 
earth, denominated (how shall we mention it to ears polite ?) Hell-kettles; to the origin 
of which are attached many fabulous conjectures. Three of the largest are about thirty- 
eight yards in diameter, and vary in their depth from seventeen to thirty-seven feet. The 
chronicles of Tinemouth Priory, and Brompton, inform us, "that a. d. 11/9, upon Christ- 
mas-day, at Oxenhall, in the outskirts of Darlington, in the bishopric of Durham, the earth 
raised itself up to a great height in the form of a lofty tower, and remained all that day 
till evening, (as it were fixed and immoveable,) when it sunk down with such a horrid 
noise, that it terrified all the vicinity; when the earth absorbed it, and there formed a deep 
pit." Many conjectures, as to the real origin of these pits, have been formed, but nothing 
satisfactory has been determined respecting them. The properties ascribed to the water 
of these pits are similar to those acquired by water standing in hollows whence marl has 
been obtained, which tastes pungent, and curdles milk and soup. 

Hurworth, a pleasant village three miles south of Darlington, is the birth-place of the 
celebrated mathematician, William Emerson, who was born in May or June, 1/01. In 
his early years he was instructed by his father in the rudiments of education ; his fondness 
for books, however, was by no means conspicuous, and he himself declares, that his 
attachment to the common amusements of childhood did not subside till he had arrived 
nearly at the age of twenty years. Subsequently, by the able assistance of masters at 
Newcastle and York, he pursued his studies with so much success, as to rank himself 
amongst the greatest mathematicians of this" country. Emerson might, perhaps, be 
indebted for his celebrity, in a great measure, to the chagrin which he felt at the con- 
temptuous treatment he met with from Dr. Johnson, rector of Henworth, whose niece he 
had married. He, on one occasion of dispute, told the Doctor that he would be revenged, 
and prove himself the better man of the two. Mr. Emerson had the usual attendant of great 



genius, a whimsical eccentricity of dress and manner. His singularity in these respects 
was so conspicuous, that, together with his reputation for profound learning, and know- 
ledge more than human, it occasioned him to be considered by the vulgar as a cunning- 
man or necromancer. " The last time he made an excursion to Darlington with his wallet, 
he made a figure truly conspicuous : this was, perhaps, the only time he ever rode thither ; 
he was then mounted on a quadruped, whose intrinsic value, independent of the skin, 
might be fairly estimated at half-a-crown. Being preceded and led by a boy hired for 
that purpose, he passed in solemn state, at the rate of a mile and a half an hour, till in 
due time he arrived at Darlington, and was conducted in the same state, to the great 
entertainment of the spectators, through the streets to the inn, where he wished to refresh 
himself and his beast. What idea Emerson himself entertained of the velocity with which 
the animal could move, appears from the following colloquy with a neighbour, who asked 
him, towards evening, if he was going home. ' What dost thou want with my going 
home?' said he. ' Only,' replied the man, ' because I should be glad of your company.' 
' Thou fool, thou !' rejoined Emerson, ' thou'lt be home long enough before me, man : 
thou walks, and I ride.' " 


Belle Isle, known also by the names of Curwen's Island and Windermere Island, is the 
largest in the lake of Windermere, containing an area of about thirty acres. " From this 
fine island, which no tourist ever visited without rapture, or left without regret ; every 
object that gratified the eye from the shore appears in a new and even a more beautiful 
point of view." The view towards the west is confined to the lake, and the thickly- wooded 
forest that towers above it ; but the eastern prospect is truly enchanting, comprising the 
bay of Bowness, the village, and the mountain steeps which rise in the rear. Having 
surveyed the various interesting objects which this island affords a convenient station for 
beholding, the tourist should cross the lake to the Ferry House. " In crossing the water 
at the ferry," remarks Mrs. Radcliffe, " the illusions of vision give force to the northern 
mountains, which, viewed from hence, seem to ascend from its margin, and spread round 
it in a magnificent amphitheatre. This was to us the most interesting view in Windermere. 
On our approaching the western shore, the range of rocks that form it, discovered their 
cliffs, and gradually assumed a consequence which the breadth of the channel had denied 
them ; and their darkness was well opposed by the bright verdure and variegated autumnal 
tints of the isles at their base." 

The surface of Windermere presents, in different parts, clusters of water-lilies of the 
most dazzling whiteness. A gentleman is shewn in our view gathering them for his fair 
companions : perhaps a wager is pending between the ladies' hands and the lilies ; — the 
ladies' hands for a ducat ! 

2 U 



The custom of rush-bearing is of ancient origin, and at a remote period prevailed in 
most parts of England. Churches, in the olden times, were very rude and uncomfortable 
structures (excepting, of course, the monasteries, which were the palaces of the ecclesias- 
tical lords, and furnished as well as the resources of the times permitted.) the floors were 
unpaved, and the only protection to the feet from the damp earth was a covering of rushes. 
The trampling of the feet, and the humidity of the ground, rendered it necessary to clear 
away, at intervals, the old covering, and strew fresh rushes in its place. In the course of 
time, a custom which necessity and prudence had suggested, was converted into a festival : 
the annual renewal of the rushes was attended with ceremonies and rejoicings, and was 
marked in the calendar as a holiday. Time, the great improver, improved churches ; and 
the sacred edifices were rendered more comfortable by a paving of flags. Still the covering 
of rushes was more agreeable to the feet of our grandsires than a slab of naked stone ; the 
ceremonial therefore was continued. The artists of some centuries past bethought them- 
selves, however, of weaving the rushes into mats ; and these proving more durable and more 
convenient than strown rushes, the annual ceremony was superseded, or at least observed 
only as the reminiscence of a salutary precaution against an attack of catarrh and rheuma- 
tism. In some places, to the present day, the church floor is annually strown with rushes ; 
and in several others, as at Ambleside, the ceremonial is still preserved. We have collected, 
from various sources, the characteristic features of recorded rush-bearings, in which, 
though the object is the same, the materiel of the festivity is somewhat different. 

At Rochdale in Lancashire, the rushes are laid transeversely on the rush-cart, and are cut 
with sharp knives into the desired form. When the cart is finished, the load of rushes is 
decorated with carnations and other flowers in various devices, and surmounted by branches 
of oak, and a person rides on the top. The cart is sometimes drawn by horses, but more 
frequently by men, to the number of twenty or thirty couple, profusely adorned with 
ribands and finery. They are generally preceded by men with horse-bells about them, 
grotesquely jumping from side to side, and jingling the bells. After these is a band of 
music, and sometimes a set of morris-dancers (but without the ancient appendage of bells), 
followed by young women bearing garlands. Then comes the rush-banner of silk, tastefully 
adorned with roses, stars, and tinsel; this is generally from four to five yards broad, by 
six or eight yards long, having on either side, in the centre, a painting of Britannia, the 
king's arms, or some other device. The whole procession is flanked by men with long 
cartwhips, which they keep continually cracking, to make a clear path. A spirit of rivalry 
exists amongst the neighbouring villages as to which shall produce the best cart and ban- 
ner, and sometimes serious fracas take place between the parties. 


At Warton, in Yorkshire they cut hard rushes from the marsh, which they make up 
into long bundles, and then dress them up in fine linen, silk ribands, flowers, &c. After- 
wards the young women of the village, who perform the ceremony for that year, take up 
the bundles erect, and begin the procession, which is attended with multitudes of people, 
with music, drums, and ringing of bells. When they arrive at the church, they go in at the 
west door, and, setting down their burdens in the church, strip them of their ornaments, 
leaving the heads or crowns of them decked with flowers, cut paper, &c. in some part of 
the church, generally over the cancelli, or chancel. The company, on their return, partake 
of a plentiful collation, and conclude the day, weather permitting, with a dance round a 
May-pole tastefully decorated. 

The church of St. Oswald, at Grasmere, is annually strown with rushes ; and paper 
garlands, tastefully cut, are deposited in the vestry by the girls of the village. 

The custom is still extant of strewing Norwich cathedral, on the mayor's day, when 
all the corporation attend divine service. The sweet-scented flag was accustomed to be 
used on this occasion, its roots, when bruised, giving forth a powerful and fragrant odour; 
but the great consumption of the roots by the brewers (under the name of quassia) has 
rendered it too valuable, and the yellow water-iris is therefore substituted in its stead. 
The flags were formerly strewn from the great west door to the entrance of the mayor's 
seat ; but they are now laid no further than the entrance to the choir. Twelve shillings 
per annum are allowed by the dean and chapter for this service. 

The strewing of rushes was not, however, confined to churches ; private houses, and 
even palaces, had no better garniture for the floors in olden times, as we may gather from 
fragments of history. In " Newton's Herball to the Bible," mention is made of " sedge 
and rushes, with the which many in the country do use in sommer time to strawe their 
parlors and churches, as well for coolness as for pleasant smell." Henzner, in his 
Itinerary, speaking of queen Elizabeth's presence-chamber at Greenwich, says, " The 
floor, after the English fashion, was strewed with hay." 

Our artist has portrayed the rush-bearing at Ambleside more effectively than any descrip- 
tion could possibly do; so, with a very brief notice of the ceremonial, we shall close this 
exposition, and extinguish our riish-Yight. 

The tasteful and elegant garlands are deposited in the church on Saturday, and 
remain there during divine service on the Sunday, when each girl takes her respective 
garland, and all the bearers walk in procession, preceded by a band of music. The 
children receive a pennyworth of gingerbread, and a small gratuity at the door of the 



St. John's chapelry forms a joint township with Castlerigg and Wythburn, and extends 
from two to five miles south-east of Keswick. It comprises the two romantic vales of 
St. John and Wanthwaite, which are divided by the mountain of Naddle-fell, whereon 
stands the chapel of St. John. 

The verdant and peaceful valley of St. John is situate between enormous crags, and 
discloses through its defile the gigantic mountain of Saddleback or Bleneathara. The 
name of this mountain appears to have been derived from its peculiarity of shape; "on 
the south-west side it rises with a regular convex swell from the base nearly to the 
summit, and, being rounded off on each side, and, covered with verdure, the whole side or 
back of the hill appears like a smooth sloping saddle for some Brobdingnagian rider. 
The summit is craggy ; and on the east and south-east the hill is intersected by awful 
ravines. The base of Saddleback touches that of Skiddaw. 

In the midst of St. John's vale stands the Castlerock, a massive crag, so named from 
its resemblance to the walls and towers of a dilapidated and time-worn fortress. The 
genius of Sir Walter Scott has hallowed this spot, by selecting it as the principal scene for 
" The Bridal of Triermain." 

..." midmost of the vale, a mound 
Arose, with airy turrets crown'd, 
Buttress and rampire's circling bound 

And mighty keep and tower ; 
Seem'd some primeval giant's hand 
The castle's massive walls had plann'd 
A ponderous bulwark to withstand 

Ambitious Nimrod's power." 


The accompanying view is taken from near the Keswick road, close by the picturesque 
bridge of the Mill Beck stream. 

Buttermere is a township and chapelry, deriving its name from the celebrated lake. 
The hamlet of Buttermere lies between Crummock water and the lake of its own name, 
in a low, crooked, and deep valley, encompassed with stupendous mountains, and at the 
distance of eight miles south-west from Keswick. The chapel of ease is a small ancient 
building, rendered interesting to the tourist by the situation which it occupies in the 
immediate neighbourhood of the mountain Melbreak. 



Whitehaven, a populous sea port and market town in the parish of St. Bees, is situated 
in a creek of the Irish Sea, at the distance of forty-one miles south-west from Carlisle. 
This town sends one member to parliament, and in 1831 contained a population of 11,300 

In the monastic ages, Whitehaven belonged to the monks of St. Bees, whose aversion 
to commerce, and disinclination for the improvements that ever follow in its train, suf- 
ficiently explain the circumstance, that in 1566 the town consisted of six fishermen's huts ; 
and one small bark only, of nine tons burden, entered the port, and that for the purpose 
of supplying the brotherhood with fish, salt, and other necessary articles. At the disso- 
lution of religious houses, an ancestor of the Lowther family purchased the lands in the 
neighbourhood of Whitehaven ; and to his descendants, the town and port arc indebted in 
a good measure for the vast improvements that have been effected in their general 
appearance and prosperity. 

The present town is laid out with much taste and elegance. The streets are broad and 
straight, intersecting each other at right angles ; the houses are, for the most part, con- 
structed of stone, and roofed with blue slate. The churches and other public buildings 
are handsome and appropriate structures. The extensive harbour is protected by seven 
stone piers, stretching into the ocean in different directions. From the whiteness of the 
rocky head-lands, the port is supposed to have i - eceived its name of Whitc-Havcn. The 
open valley in which the town is situated, is generally supposed to have been anciently 
occupied by the sea ; the appearance of the soil, and the discovery of a ship's anchor at a 
considerable depth in the ground, seem to favour the opinion. 

The coal trade of Whitehaven is very extensive. Several of the seams in which this useful 
mineral is found lie below the bed of the sea, and have been wrought for many years with 
such persevering enterprise, that the mines present the appearance of a subterranean city. 
Rail-roads are laid for transporting the coals from the mines to the harbour. Some of 
the pits are three hundred and twenty yards in depth, extending to a great distance under 
the ocean : so that ships of large burden sail over the miners' heads. 

The fulminating dam ps engendered in the coal mines, if not conveyed by large pipes into 
the open air, produce in the pit an effect resembling the eruption of a volcano. The coal 
itself has been frequently ignited by them, and has continued to burn for many months ; 
while the foul vapour, in its course through the shaft, has carried with it ponderous bodies, 
and projected them to a great height into the air. Mr. Spedding, formerly engineer of the 
coalworks in this neighbourhood, having observed that the fire-damp could only be kindled 
by flame, invented a machine in which a revolving steel wheel elicits from flints properly 
disposed a continual train of sparks, affording sufficient light for the miner's purpose, 
and superseding the use of light or candle. This contrivance, however, was not an effectual 
preservation, for the ingenious contriver lost his life by an explosion of the damps, where 

2 X 


his machine was in operation. The Safety-Lamp, invented by Sir Humphrey Davy, has 
succeeded better ; yet, though it may be demonstrated to be perfect in theory, lamentable 
accidents have shown that, without great care on the part of the miner, it will fail in 

Paul Jones, the notorious pirate, served an apprenticeship to a mariner of Whitehaven. 
This desperado landed here, early in the morning on the 23rd April, 1//8, with about 
thirty armed men, from on board the American privateer, Hanger, which carried eighteen 
six-pounders and six swivels, and had been fitted out at Nantes for this hostile expedition. 
After setting fire to three ships, Paul was betrayed by one of his men, and obliged to make 
a precipitate retreat, leaving the shore in two boats before any force could be brought 
against him, having taken the precaution to spike all the guns on the nearest battery. 

The maritime importance of Whithaven, in the reign of Charles II., led to the establish- 
ment of a Custom House. In the year 1811, the present large and convenient edifice was 
erected, in the West Strand. 

The Earl of Lonsdale, who is lord of the manor, and proprietor of the coal mines, has a 
delightful residence near Whitehaven, called the Castle. This structure appears on the 
right of our view. 


Muncaster Castle, the residence of the Right Honourable Lowther Augustus John 
Pennington, Lord Muncaster, is a handsome structure, delightfully situated on the north 
side of the Esk river. A spacious park and beautiful walks and gardens lie in the vicinage 
of the edifice. It commands an extensive prospect towards the south-west, of land and 
marine scenery. The predecessor of the noble lord covered the neighbouring hills with 
forest- trees, and introduced into his pastures a breed of cattle of acknowledged superiority. 

The present possessor is a lineal descendant of the family of Pennington, who have 
enjoyed the Muncaster estate from the period of the Norman conquest. The honour of 
knighthood was conferred on many of this house for their distinguished valour in the field. 

The illustrative view is taken from the ancient city of Barnscar, some extensive ruins 
lying on the south side of the Esk. No historical documents are in existence, to throw a 
light on the origin of these remains. Tradition ascribes the foundation to the Danes, who 
are said to have gathered for its inhabitants the men of Drig, and the women of Becker- 
mont ; and the old popular saying, " Let us go together like lads of Drig and lasses of 
Bcckermont," is gravely urged in confirmation of the tale. " This place is about three 
hundred yards long, from east to west ; and one hundred broad, from north to south ; 
it is walled round, save at the east end, nearly three feet in height. There appears to 
have been a long street, with several cross ones : the remains of house-steads within the 
walls are not very numerous ; but on the outside they are innumerable, especially at the 
south side and west end. About the year 1730, a considerable quantity of silver coin was 
discovered in the ruins of one of the houses, concealed in a cavity formed in a beam." 

■' ■ . 



South Shields is of small extent, being, as its name imports, merely the land by the 
water's side, formerly inhabited by a few fishermen, whose hovels were provincially called 
S/iiels. Great part of it is now occupied with ship yards, manufactories, &c, and the town, 
like its twin relative on the opposite side of the Tyne, has rapidly increased in opulence, 
buildings and population, since the restrictive charters were removed. This town contained, 
at the census 1831, a population of 9070 ; and it sends one member to parliament. 

There are in South Shields eight large manufactories for all kinds of glass ; but the 
salt trade is now considerably less than it was formerly. However, the great increase of 
shipping indicates that the trade of this port is in a high state of prosperity. 

Our illustration refers more particularly to the Tyne and its craft ; we therefore waive 
further allusion to the site whence it is taken, having on a former occasion detailed, in 
brief, the history of North and South Shields. 

The Tyne is at this point near its confluence with the German Ocean, and presents a 
noble expanse of water, rendered picturesque by the objects on either shore, and the ship- 
ping lying in masses on its surface. The maritime importance of our country, particu- 
larly when brought so immediately under review, is a kindling theme ; and much might 
be said in praise of our ships and their crews : we, however, are not orators, as Brutus 
was ; despairing therefore of saying much to the purpose in prose, we have few appre- 
hensions of doing less in rhyme. 

Success unto the goodly Tyne ! 

For 'tis a noble river : 
Now listen to a song of mine ; 
Which I'll to you deliver. 

Her sailors are a jolly crew, 

Stout-hearted, active, brave ; 
Their jackets of Old England's blue, — 

They laugh at wind and wave. 

On top-mast, and on deck the same, 

A bold, undaunted band ; 
And well 'tis known from whence they came, 

Wherever they may land. 

To reef a sail, to clue a line, 

There's none like them beside ; 
They hold their course, and track the brine, 

Despite of wind and tide. 

Now tell me, after what I've said 

Concerning of this hale crew, 
For what was boundless ocean made ? 

Why, — made for them to sail through ! 




Marsden, or Marston Rocks, are enormous craggy masses which have been detached 
from the coast by the violence of the sea. One of them, situated about a mile from the 
Suter Point, and called, par eminence, the Marston Rock, is, at high water, about fifty or 
sixty yards from the land, though within memory it was so near as to have been reached 
by a plank. All the intermediate part has been washed away, and even a large aperture 
formed by the force of the waves in the body of the rock, through which sailing boats 
have frequently passed at convenient stages of the tide. Adjacent to the Rock are other 
large and irregular masses, that have been separated from the land, and which rear their 
gigantic forms with considerable majesty. 

In the vicinity of these rocks is a much frequented place, called Velvet Bed. This is 
a small island covered with smooth grass, and is frequently the scene of festivity and 
amusement during the bathing season, when the visitors to Tynemouth and its neighbour- 
hood resort hither in pic-nic parties. Within a short distance of this island, there is a 
singular excavation in the rocks, called Fairies' Kettle, one hundred yards in length, and 
thirty in breadth. 



(The Drawing is taken from the Koad to Watendleth.) 

The usual size of our engravings has been departed from in this instance, to enable 
the artist to comprise with distinctness, in one view, the rich and extensive scenery sur- 
rounding Derwent and Bassenthwaite Lakes. It is hoped that this engraving will be 
deemed a pleasing variety in our Illustrations, and an evidence of the solicitude with 
which the publishers regard the management of a work that has long since established 
itself in popular favour. 

The view is taken from the road to Watendleth, from a point whence the eye surveys 
the whole extent of the two lakes before-named. The town of Keswick lies in the vale on 
the right ; the lofty Saddleback, easily distinguishable from its form, rises " into the clear 
blue heaven ;" and, more remote, " in all the majesty of distance," stands Skiddaw. 
The leading features of Derwentwater have been described in connexion with previous 
and detached views of the lake ; to avoid repetition, therefore, we shall confine ourselves 
at present to such interesting incidents and particulars as are not included in our former 


The beautiful isles of the Derwent claim particular regard ; and of these, the one 
named St. Herbert's Island deserves a more than ordinary uotice. This insulated para- 
dise includes an extent of about four acres, and is situated near the centre of the lake. 



It obtained its name from St. Herbert, a priest and confessor, who, about the middle of 
the seventh century, made it his lonely abode. He was particularly distinguished for his 
friendship to St. Cuthbert; and, according to a legendary tale, at the intercession of St. 
Herbert, they both expired on the same day, and in the same hour and minute. 

At Lindisfarne, expecting death, 

The good St. Cuthbert lay, 
With wasted frame and feeble breath ; 

And monks were there to pray. 

The brotherhood had gather'd round, 

His parting words to hear, 
To see his saintly labours crown'd, 

And stretch him on the bier. 

His eyes grew dim ; his voice sunk low ; 

The choral song arose ; 
And ere its sounds had ceas'd to flow, 

His spirit found repose. 

At that same hour, a holy man, 
St. Herbert, well renown'd, 
Gave token that his earthly span 
Had reach'd its utmost bound. 

St. Cuthbert, in his early years, 

Had led him on his way : 
When the tree falls, the fruit it bears 

Will surely too decay. 

The monks of Lindisfarne meanwhile 

Were gazing on their dead : 
At that same hour, in Derwent isle, 

A kindred soul had fled. 

The remains of St. Herbert's hermitage are still visible ; and near to these hallowed 
ruins stands a small octagonal cottage, of unhewn stone, erected some years ago by Sir 
Wilfred Lawson, to whose representative the island at present belongs. The dwelling of 
the anchorite consisted of two apartments, one of which, about twenty feet in length by 
sixteen in width, appears to have been his chapel; the other, whose dimensions are con- 
siderably less, was his cell. 

The surface of Derwent-water is frequently in a state of agitation, when not a breath 
of air is stirring ; and the motionless quietude of the foliage on its borders, contrasts 
singularly with its tumultuous and ruffled waves. This remarkable phenomenon lasts 
sometimes for an hour or two, at others for a whole day ; and it is usually during its 
continuance that the floating island is visible on the surface of the lake. 

2 Y 


Skiddaw forms a distinguishing feature in the mountain scenery of Derwent-water. 
The most accurate surveys determine its altitude to be three thousand and twenty-two 
feet above the level of the sea, and about two thousand eight hundred feet above lake 
Derwent. As a tour to the lakes would be considered incomplete if the visitor did not 
gratify himself with a view of the country from at least one of the lofty elevations in the 
district, Skiddaw is generally selected for the purpose ; it is nearest to Keswick, the prin- 
cipal station, is easy of access, and is ascended with less difficulty than others by ladies, 
who can ride on horseback to the very summit ; and, in addition, the view from it is 
little intercepted by other mountains. Sometimes, indeed, the visitor has the mortifica- 
tion, after having reached the highest point, to find himself enveloped in a cloud, which, 
though constantly passing, is never dispelled during his stay. " Those however, who are 
fortunate enough to be upon the summit at the very time of the cloud's departure, will 
experience a gratification of no common kind ; when, like the rising of the curtain in a 
theatre, the country in a moment bursts upon the eye." 

The lake of Bassenthwaite is of greater length than Derwent-water, but does not equal 
it in breadth. Lying as it does at some distance from the mountain range, it is usually 
viewed with less interest than other lakes. Its western side is richly wooded ; and, 
towards the east, it displays a fine breadth of cultivation, indented with bays and pro- 

" On the verdant tops of some of the hills in the neighbourhood of this lake, may be 
discovered traces of the plough, for which it is difficult to assign a satisfactory reason. 
Tradition says, that the Pope, in the reign of King John, cursed all the lower grounds, 
which obliged the inhabitants to cultivate the hills." Mr. Pennant, however, observes — 
"I rather think that John himself drove them to this cruel necessity ; for, out of resent- 
ment for their declining to follow his standard to the borders of Scotland, he cut down 
their hedges, levelled their ditches, and gave all the cultivated tracts of the north to the 
beasts of the chase, on his return from his expedition. 


The scenery in the neighbourhood of Mill Beck, in Great Langdale, is of the most 
interesting kind ; and includes many of the picturesque objects so eagerly sought after by 
the visitor to the Lakes. The road, in the foreground of the view, is that usually taken 
from Ambleside to Langdale Pikes. At its extremity stands a mill, giving name to the 
beck or stream, which descends in a beautiful cascade from the mountains, and continues 
its course till, with other tributary rivulets, it reaches the tarn of Elterwater. The loftiest 
elevation in the view, is that of Harrison Stickle ; and on the right is seen the hill of 
Pavey Ark ; between these two mountains Stickle Tarn is situated. 

Colwith Force, Blea Tarn, and Dungeon Gill are comprised in the scenery of 



Stybarrow Crag is a lofty promontory, deeply scarred by winds and torrents, ter- 
minating a mountainous ridge that descends from Helvellyn. A road winds beneath 
this crag, commanding a fine view of Ullswater. The situation of this pass, with its 
steep acclivity on the one hand, and the waters of the lake on the other, might have 
suggested to Sir Walter Scott the following graphic description, which occurs in the 
" Lady of the Lake" — 

" At length they came where, stern and steep, 
The hills sink down upon the deep. 
Here Vennachar in silver flows; 
There ridge on ridge Benledi rose ; 
Ever the hollow path twined on, 
Beneath steep bank and threat'ning stone ; 
An hundred men might hold the post 
With hardihood against a host. 
The rugged mountain's scanty cloak 
Was dwarfish shrubs of birch and oak, 
With shingles bare, and cliffs between, 
And patches bright of bracken green, 
And heather black that waved so high, 
It held the copse in rivalry." 

Leaving the scene before us, we now briefly refer to the tales of other times, in order 
to illustrate an incident which the artist has skilfully introduced into the view. 

In olden time, when the contiguous countries of England and Scotland held no 
amicable relation to each other, it may well be supposed that the mountain ridges, 
forming the line of demarcation between the two territories, would frequently be the 
scene of fierce contention between a rival people. The proximity of the English and 
Scots in the neighbourhood of the border line, and the inoperative character of the laws, 
arising from the disorders of the feudal system, which filled both countries with chiefs 
and petty governors, eager, and sufficiently powerful, to make aggressions and reprisals 
on each other, — are of themselves a sufficient explanation of the causes which led to those 
continued strifes called the border warfare. The deep enmity of the hostile parlies 
towards each other, overthrew in a good measure all moral obligation and honourable 
feeling : incursions were frequently made from the north, less for the purpose of conten- 
tion in arms, than for committing depredations on cattle and property. Hence the name 
of freebooters came to be applied to the border clans, and ultimately with much justice; 
for in course of time it was deemed matter of indifference by either party whether they 


preyed on their rival neighbours or on their own countrymen. Instances are, however, 
on record, in which the border feuds were distinguished by a romantic and chivalrous 
feeling, that may well be supposed to have animated great and noble minds, in an age 
when the most powerful sceptre was the sword, and martial prowess the most estimable 
quality of manhood. 

" Those were the days, the olden days, 
When border feuds ran high, 
And the men of the north oft times sallied forth 
On deeds of chivalry. 

On baith sides of the river Tweed 

The rival clans wad meet, 
And the bluid o' the foe, like a streamlet flow, 

O'er the heather aneath their feet. 

The clan was summon'd, the dogs were loos'd, 

The gallant stag to chase ; 
But mony were they, wha at close of day 

Na returned to their dwelling place. 

As o'er the Cheviot hills they pass'd, 

(Blithe hunters all were they,) 
The slughorn's deep sound told the north countrie round, 

The Scots were abroad that day. 
Then rose up England's merry men, 

They rose up ane and all; 
Hark, forward, hark, hark! Hark, follow, hark! 

Did ilk to idler call. 

They met thegither in Tiviotdale, 

Nae word of parley said ; 
And 'was a sair sight to look on the fight, 

And see the warm bluid shed. 

Now heaven gie rest to the souls of a' 

Wha liv'd in those times o'disorder; 
There were guide men and bra' in the olden day, 

On baith sides o' the border." 

The illustration under review embodies an incident touching the border warfare, 
connected with the history of the Mounsey family. We cannot hope to impart any novel 
interest to " a thrice-told tale ;" and therefore briefly state the particulars as tradition has 
conveyed them. A band of the Scots having entered Westmorland on a predatory expe- 
dition, a chief was wanting to lead the peasantry to battle with the intruders. A rustic, 
named Mounsey, offered his services ; and proceeding with a few trusty shepherds to the 
pass of Stybarrow Crag, there met the Scots and defeated them. For this important 
service he was proclaimed king of Patterdale, a title that he enjoyed during his life, and 
which continued with his descendants for many years after his death. 



Eagle Crag is a tremendous rock, at the head of Borrowdale to the east, where 
eagles have commonly fixed their habitation. The young eagles are occasionally caught 
by the adventurous inhabitants of the valley, who, when standing underneath, observe the 
place where the nest is seated, and afterwards, from the summit of some cliff, let down 
by ropes one of the most hardy of their companions, to secure the nest while the old eagles 
are abroad. 

The present view includes a branch of the Derwent river, the hamlet of Stonethwaite, 
the lofty acclivity of Eagle Crag, and a distant glimpse of "the mighty Helvellyn." 


Have the days of (lie wizard returned again ? 
Hath a deep spell been uttered o'er hill and plain ? 
And fairy forms on their gossamer wings, 
Thrown round us a veil of rich shadowings ? 

Where are the days when the wand of the seer 
Wrought its fabrics of beauty o'er earth and in air ; 
When mystical forms on the mountains were cast, 
While it wav'd o'er the forests that moan'd as it pass'd ? 

Invisible melodists hung o'er each vale, 

And fill'd with rich music the leaf-stirring gale ; 

It pour'd, like a rush of the waters, along, 

And the rocks echoed back the sweet notes of the song. 

From mists, as they curl'd on the brow of the hill, 
The enchanter could weave his bright visions at will ; 
From cloud and from vapour the picture was made, 
That call'd back the past, and the future displayed. 

The enchantment is broken, the soell that could bind 
In its magical fetters the rovings of mina, 
Hath slept through long ages; Tradition, alone, 
Remains, to discourse of the things that are gone. 

Hutchinson, in his "Excursion to the Lakes," has described this singular scene so 
happily, and with such poetic feeling, that we cannot do better than give the account in his 
own words. 

2 Z 


"An ancient ruined castle Seems to stand upon the summit of a little mount, the 
mountains around forming an amphitheatre. This massive bulwark shows a front of 
various towers, and makes an awful, rude, and gothic appearance, with its lofty turrets and 
ragged battlements : we traced the galleries, the bending arches, and the buttresses. The 
greatest antiquity stands characterized in its architecture ; the inhabitants near it assert 
that it is an antediluvian structure. 

" The traveller's curiosity is roused, and he prepares to make a nearer approach, when 
that curiosity is put upon the rack by his being assured, that, if he advances, certain 
genii, who govern the place by virtue of their supernatural arts and necromancy, will 
strip it of all its beauties, and by enchantment transform the magic walls. The vale 
seems adapted for the habitation of such beings ; its gloomy recesses and retirements look 
like the haunts of evil spirits. There was no delusion in this report ; we were soon 
convinced of its truth ; for this piece of antiquity, so venerable and noble in its aspect, as 
we drew near, changed its figure, and proved no other than a shaken massive pile of rocks, 
which stand in the midst of this little vale, disunited from the adjoining mountains, and 
have so much the real form and resemblance of a castle, that they bear the name of the 
Castle Rocks of St. John." 

There could scarcely be found, in the whole range of mythological fable, any thing 
more beautiful than the popular superstition which ascribes the disappearance of " the 
castle," on a near approach, to supernatural agency. Frigid philosophy would say, these 
fragments of rock, when viewed from afar, bear strong resemblance to an old fortress ; 
but as one approaches nearer, the illusion vanishes, and they are found to be shapeless 
masses of stone. Poetry clothes this fact in beautiful imagery : she warns the intruder 
to survey the structure at a distance ; for should he have the temerity to advance upon it, 
the incensed genii of the place will, by spells " of power to cheat the eye with blear illu- 
sion," transform its fair proportions into a mis-shapen pile of rocks. Tins pleasing 
fiction emanated from the same poetical spirit that wrought, in the elder days of Greece, 
the splendid fable of Aurora in her saffron-coloured robe opening the gates of the morn- 
ing to the chariot of the sun. 

The present illustration, by the introduction of two equestrian figures, is made to 
refer directly to that scene in the "Bridal of Triermain," where the castle is said to have 
opened its gates to King Arthur and his companion De Vaux. 

" With toil the king His way pursued, 
By lonely Threlkeld's waste and wood, 
Till on his course obliquely shone 
The narrow valley of St. John, 

Piled in by many a lofty hill, 

The narrow dell lay smooth and still, 

And, down its verdant bosom led, 

A winding brooklet found its bed." 

~m%, CASTLE. 


The eight lines following those we have quoted, are illustrative of the principal object 
in our view; but as we introduced them in page 1/2, we forbear a repetition. 

The Vale of St. John was the scene of a dreadful inundation, on the 22nd August, 
17-19, occasioned by the discharge of a waterspout. A little school, where the children of 
the neighbourhood were instructed, was crowded with infantile occupants at the very time 
that the swollen torrents were bearing down all obstacles that lay in their course. The 
hand of Providence stayed a rolling rock in its descent, in such a position that the over- 
whelming stream was divided, and passed on either side of the school-house, leaving its 
terrified inmates spectators of the havoc that was raging without. 


Featherstone, or Featherstonehaugh Castle, signifies, by the etymology of its name, 
" the castle in the meadow where the stones are stratified featherwise, as in the bed of the 
Tyne at Hartleyburne foot." This edifice is included in the township of Featherstone, and 
stands in a spacious lawn, on the east side of the south Tyne, in a fine rural and picturesque 

Featherstone was the seat of Thomas de Featherstonehaugh, in the time of Henry III. 
and held by him of the barony of Tindale, by the yearly payment of six shillings and eigiit 
pence. The estate continued, with some little interruption, in this family till it was sold 
by Sir Matthew Featherstonehaugh, of Up Park, in Sussex, to the father of the present 
noble proprietor, the Right Honourable Thomas Wallace, Baron Knaresdale. During the 
civil wars, in the time of Charles I., Timothy Featherstonehaugh espoused the royal cause : 
he raised a troop of horse at his own expense, and for his services was knighted under the 
king's banner ; but being afterwards taken prisoner at the fatal battle of Worcester, in 1651, 
he was beheaded at Bolton in Lancashire, and his manorial estates were sold by the 
parliament to the earl of Carlisle. Subsequently the castle and demesnes reverted to the 
original family, and remained in their possession till sold as before mentioned. 

The castle, like most of the border structures, was surrounded by a deep and broad 
ditch, crossed by a drawbridge, and consisted of a strong tower, built upon arches, ami 
furnished with turrets. By the present noble proprietor, very considerable alterations and 
improvements have been made in the edifice. Three smaller towers have been added, and a 
suit of offices, which, with the garden-wall, are executed in the castellated style, conformably 
to the character of the original building ; the appearance it presents is in consequence bold 
and interesting, and entirely free from incongruity. It fronts the narrow valley of Hartley- 


burne, through which, and over the rocky and finely wooded banks of the Tyne, are seen 
the high and heathy summits of Tindale and Byres Fell. The meadows around it are 
uncommonly rich ; the trees in the hedge-rows and the lawn, large and luxuriant ; and the 
plantations throughout the whole estate remarkably healthy, thick, and picturesque. 

The noble proprietor of Featherstone castle displayed the most profound and 
enlightened views on all matters relating to the commerce, trade, and navigation of this 
kingdom ; and when he retired from the vice-presidency of the Board of Trade, the leading 
members on both sides of the House pronounced the highest eulogiums on his transcendent 
talents ; and the merchants of the city of London presented him with a piece of plate of the 
value of five hundred pounds. In 1828 he was raised to the peerage by the style and 
title of Baron Knaresdale, of Knaresdale in Northumberland. His lordship's possessions 
in this neighbourhood are very extensive. 


An interior view of this arcade, accompanied with an interesting description, kindly 
furnished by Mr. Grainger, the proprietor and architect of the building, appears at page/O 
of this work. The detailed account alluded to, so perfectly describes the structure, that we 
can do little more, in the present instance, than refer the reader to its lucid statements. We 
may however be allowed, in connexion with the present view, to direct attention to the exqui- 
site architectural arrangement displayed in the front of the edifice. " The manly Doric" of 
the basement story is exceedingly chaste and massive ; while the rich and graceful Cor- 
rinthian columns, with their superb capitals, frieze, and entablature, afford a beautiful 
contrast, that renders the general coup d'oeil still more effective. 

As some small stream by dripping fountains fed, 
Through narrow channels first obscurely led, 
Claims in its course the tributary rills 
That trickle slowly from the neighbouring hills, 
Till, with increasing strength, on every side 
It bursts the narrow bounds that hold its tide, 
Pours its swoln wave, expanding by degrees 
A goodly river, rippling in the breeze. 




Like to that river in its infant flow, 

The streams of Trade, at first confin'd and slow, 

Increase in volume by the lapse of time, 

Till their full waves have reached each distant clime, 

Uniting many lands in one vast whole, 

E'en from the northern to the southern pole. 

The rude barbarian brings his trifling store, 
And waits impatient on the ocean shore, 
Till from the distant country strangers come, 
Laden with comforts for his savage home. 
Eager for traffic, he presents his wares, 
And barters with the strangers, his for theirs 
The vessel spreads her wings, and tracks her way 
Back to the clime where Commerce holds her sway , 
In splendid marts her curious wares are brought, 
The novel wonders are exposed and bought, 
In fancy cabinets securely placed, 
As things of curious worth, virtu, or taste 


In a field adjoining the old road to Penrith, and at the distance of one mile and a half 
east-by-north from Keswick, are the remains of a Druidical temple, popularly named the 
Druids' stones. These interesting memorials of the primeval age of Britain consist of forty- 
eight rude, unhewn blocks of granite ; thirty-eight of which are disposed in an oval figure, 
whose diameters are thirty-four yards from north to south, and nearly thirty from east to 
west; the remaining ten stones form an oblong square, on the eastern side of the oval area. The 
latter inclosure is supposed to have been the sacred place, exclusively appropriated to the 
Druidical order, where the priests assembled to perform their mystical rites, and to deter- 
mine on matters of government and judicature : the largest of the stones is not more than 
seven feet in height, and the greater number measure only three or four feet ; they all stand 
in an erect position. 

3 A 


The situation of this temple was well chosen, when considered with reference to the idola- 
trous superstitions of the Druids, the objects of which were, to subdue the mind with 
appalling images, and to extort obedience through the agency of terror. Seated in the 
neighbourhood of the highest mountains, whose clouded summits impended over the 
sacrificial altar, and cast obscure shadows through its precincts ; hither the trembling 
worshippers repaired, to hear and to acknowledge the teachings and denunciations of their 
potent masters. In the eyes of the barbarian Britons, alike ignorant, credulous, and super- 
stitious, the place would appear to be the very sanctuary of Omnipotence, and the Druid 
ministers themselves an impersonation of their gods. Wind and cloud, storm and tempest, 
wrought powerfully in the abstruse mysteries and terrific incantations constituting the 
Druidical worship ; and the mind was prostrated, with terrific awe, at the shrine where 
natural sublimity combined with human cunning to thrill its scarcely awakened faculties. 
" Here, at midnight, every Druid, summoned by the terrible horn, never sounded but upon 
high occasions, and descending from his mountain or secret cave, might assemble, without 
intrusion from one sacrilegious footstep, and celebrate a festival, 

By rites of such strange potency, 

As, done in open day, would dim the sun, 

Though enthroned in noon-tide brightness. " 

The tourist will tread this once hallowed circle, where the Druids offered their adora- 
tions to deity, and sat in judgment on their fellow-men, with a mixture of awe and venera- 
tion, so well expressed by the poet — 

■' Skirted with unhewn stone, it awes my soul 
As if the very genius of the place 
Himself appeared, and with terrific tread 
Stalk'd through this drear domain. " 

Sir Walter Scott, in the " Lord of the Isles, " makes beautiful allusion to the Druidical 
remains in the lake district : 

" He cross'd his brow beside the stone, 
Where Druids erst heard victims groan ; 
And at the cairns upon the wild, 
O'er many a heathen hero piled. 
He breath'd a timid prayer for those 
Who died ere Shiloh's sun arose." 


Holme Hall, the residence of major Lutwich, is situated on a rising ground, in the 
neighbourhood of the Irt river, and within a short distance from Ravenglass. It commands 
extensive and pleasing prospects of marine and picturesque scenery, and, from its proximity 
to the sea, enjoys a highly salubrious air. 


The village of Holm Rook, in the vicinity of the Hall, stands on the banks of the river 
Irt, and the Egremont road, at the distance of two miles and a half, north, from Raven- 
glass. This village obtained a celebrity, from its having been the residence of an eccentric 
woman, called Jane Roger, who subsisted on the bounty of the neighbourhood, but never 
would take money. Her whole apparel, hats and shoes excepted, she knitted on wooden 
pins, from wool she had gathered on the common, and spun herself. She had constantly 
a pipe in her mouth, a large knotty stick in her hand, and a bag upon her back; and when she 
could find nothing of value to inclose in the latter, rather than be deprived of her accustomed 
burden, she would fill it with loose earth or sand. When age prevented her from con- 
tinuing to perambulate the country, she repaired to the house of a friend at Whitehaven, 
and there died. 


Ayden Castle is situated in the parish of Corbridge, at the distance of one mile and a 
half north-east from the town of that name. This structure stands on the west side of a 
precipice overhanging a deep dell, and having a small rivulet meandering at its foot. The 
edifice, to all appearance, must have been a fortress of considerable strength, at a remote 
period in our history ; it is encompassed by an outer wall, in which the loop-holes still 
remain. In the immediate vicinity of the august ruins of the castle, is a large stable with 
an arched roof of stone, and without any timber in its structure. The extreme edge of the 
precipice has obtained the name of "Jack's Leap," owing, so tradition reports, to a frantic 
lover ending his troubles by casting himself from its summit into the dell beneath. 
Another chronicle, probably as veracious as the former one, supposes the appellation to 
have been derived from a Scotch soldier, called Jack, who, during the civil wars, (by a 
singular piece of good luck, we should say,) was the only individual that escaped death, out 
of a numerous host, defeated by Sir Robert Clavering, and precipitated from this lofty rock 
into the abyss at its foot. The reader can adopt which legend he pleases, or discard both, 
and join opinion with us, that a love for the marvellous in this, as in a variety of other 
instances, conferred the name, and, as time progressed, currency was given to a wild and 
vague narrative, to account for its original application. 

Ayden was anciently part of the barony of Hugh de Baliol, a descendant of Guido 
Baliol, who came into England with the Conqueror, and received very considerable and 
valuable grants from William Rufus. This Hugh de Baliol married Agnes de Valentia, 
niece to king Henry III. John Baliol, a descendant of this family, was confirmed in the 
kingdom of Scotland by Edward I. 


In 12"2, this castle was the seat and property of Emma de Ayden, a rich heiress ; and 
subsequently the estates passed through a number of families to the Blackets of 

Several remains of Roman antiquity have been found in the neighbourhood of the castle, 
amongst which are two urns, and an effigy of a man. 

In 17-12, a countryman, whilst ploughing, drove his share into a vein of lead, and an 
attempt was made by William Errington, esq., and a Mr. Sopwith of Corbridge, to estab- 
lish a lead mine : the undertaking, however, proved entirely fruitless ; neither lead nor 
coal was found in quantities sufficient to reimburse the projectors for the outlay 
attending the experiment. 

In troublous times, when nothing short of walled towers, encircled by moats, or pro- 
tected by inaccessible heights, could secure property and persons from depredations and 
violence, Ayden Castle must have been a place of enviable security ; its situation and 
martial aspect would enable its inmates to smile at the futility of an assault, attended on 
the one hand by such perilous difficulties for the assailants, and on the other by so many 
advantages and facilities for disconcerting the attacks. 


Bywell Hall, the magnificent villa of Thomas Wentworth Beaumont, esq., stands near 
the village of Bywell, and is distant four miles, south-east, from Corbridge. The structure 
is seated on a beautiful lawn, adorned by forest trees, and having on its south side the river 
Tyne, in which there is a picturesque islet, and, on the opposite bank, an extensive plan- 
tation, and the ruins of a domestic chapel. In the neighbourhood of the Hall are the 
remains of an old baronial castle, which appears to have been, at some distant period, a 
fortress of considerable strength. 

Bywell Hall is built in the Ionic style ; the basement story is rusticated, and the front, 
facing the lawn, adorned with pilasters, supporting an architrave and pediment. The 
architectural design displays throughout a high degree of chastity and elegance. 

The parish church of Bywell St. Peter, dedicated to the patron saint, forms a pleasing 
object in the present view. This ancient edifice is of considerable magnitude, and has a 
square tower ; near to it stands the church of St. Andrew, a smaller building, with a lofty 
steeple. Between the structures is an ancient stone cross. 

: . .5'-; ^»*iif 





The village of Jarrow, giving name to a populous and extensive parish, is pleasantly 
situated on the south side of the Tyne, at the point where the river expands, and forms the 
Slake of Jarrow, and is distant six miles east from Newcastle. This place was anciently- 
called Gi/rvy, the Saxon name for a marsh or fen ; and the inhabitants were known by the 
appellation of Gyrvii, or Fen-men. 

For some time prior to the evacuation of Britain by the Romans, Jarrow had been a 
place of considerable importance, and so continued for several centuries afterwards, till the 
dissolution of its celebrated monastery, when it gradually fell into decay. Hutchinson 
says, "little more remained of this once famous town, when we visited it in 1/82, than 
two or three mean cottages, the distracted ruins of the old monastery ; the church, a 
venerable pile, then patched up so as to retain few traces of its original figure, and the 
capacious haven, now called the Slake, washed full of sand, and left dry by the river Tyne 
at ebb of tide." 

Jarrow was anciently in the occupation of the Romans, a9 is evidenced by two inscrip- 
tions discovered during the rebuilding of the church ; from one of these we gather, that 
" the army erected this, on the extension of the Roman dominion in Britain from the western 
to the eastern sea; " the other is on the fragment of an altar, and supposed to have been 
" erected pro salute, of all the adopted sons of Adrian." Roman pavements have also been 
discovered in the immediate neighbourhood; and the foundations of buildings, distinctly 
referring to Imperial era, have been found in the fields on the north side of the church. 

The monastic edifice at Jarrow was founded by the Saxons ; who, according to their 
usual policy, in availing themselves of the sites of Roman stations, commenced an ecclesias- 
tical structure, in honour of St. Paul, on the 23d of April, A.D. 685. This foundation 
was consolidated with the monastery of Monkwearmouth, dedicated to St. Peter, which 
had been established a few years before ; and the joint institution is named in records as 
"the monastery of St. Peter and St Paul." The two buildings were erected and endowed 
by the same founder and patron, St. Benedict and King Egfrid ; the latter of whom set 
apart for its use forty hides of land. The first abbot at Jarrow was Ceolfrid, who obtained 
for his church, from King Alfred, an additional grant of eight hides of land, afterwards 
exchanged for twenty, lying contiguous to the monastery in the village of Sambuce. Under 
the government of St. Benedict and Ceolfrid, nearly six hundred monks were gathered in 
the united houses. St. Bede, better known in history as the Venerable Bede, is said to 
have been born at Monkton in the parish of Jarrow, about the year (>72. After receiving 
the rudiments of education here and at Hexham, he took the tonsure, " and spent the 
remainder of his life in great piety, and unwearied application to letters, in the monastery 



at Monkwearmouth and at Jarrow, at which latter place he died May 26th, 735, and was 
buried in a porch, built to his honour on the north side of the church ; where, to this day 
is shown a little stone mansion, in which he was wont to sit and meditate." Nearly three 
centuries after this event, Elfred, a priest, and a famous collector of saintly remains, 
removed the body of St. Bede to Durham, where it was honourably deposited in the same 
coffin with St. Cuthbert. The genius and acquirements of this great man, viewing them in 
connexion with the then limited extension of knowledge, must have rendered him a person 
of great weight and authority with his contemporaries ; and, indeed, we find that all ranks 
of people united to do him honour : — the poor implored his blessing, and the rich made 
offerings of their wealth under his direction; the weak sought and ever found his pro- 
tection, and the most powerful potentates of the age took counsel of Ins wisdom. Near 
Monkton there still exists a " holy well" bearing his name; and till very lately it was 
resorted to as a Bethesda of healing power. 

The monastery of Jarrow could scarcely hope to escape the ravages and fury of the 
Danes, who in all their incursions seem to have levelled their strength more especially 
against the monastic structures. It was several times plundered, and partially burnt; yet, 
phoenix-like, it still preserved the principle of existence, till at the dissolution it shared 
the common fate of all those ancient institutions, whose wealth, rather than their irregu- 
larities, had become an inexpiable crime in the eyes of Henry VIII. The church, (properly 
so called, independent of the general range of monastic offices) was rebuilt in 1783, except 
the chancel and tower, which remain in the same state as at the dissolution. In the vestry 
may still be seen the chair of St. Bede, rudely formed of oak ; to this relic many virtues 
are ascribed, but as they refer entirely to the gentler sex, we make no other mention of them 
than this : — " Many a fair pilgrim has borne away pieces of this wonder-working relic, to 
place them under her pillow, confident that the man she dreams of, under so powerful a 
charm, is destined to be her husband. " 

The monks of Jarrow belonged to the order of St. Benedict. The habit of these monks 
was a black loose coat, or gown of stuff, reaching down to their heels, with a cowl or hood 
of the same, and a scapulary ; and under that a white habit, nearly as large as the former, 
made of flannel ; these, with a pair of boots, completed their costume. From the sombre 
tinct of their garments they obtained the name of "Black Monks." The course of 
devotions included " the nocturnal, at two in the morning ; the matins, at six ; the tierce, 
at nine ; the sexte, at twelve ; the none, at three in the afternoon ; the vespers, at six in the 
evening; and the compline, at seven." 

The remains of the monastery have suffered greatly, not only from the usual ravages of 
time, but also from a rapacity of spirit which little respects what the lapse of ages and the 
records of history have hallowed. Still, however, some interesting fragments of the edifice 
are scattered over its site, and identify a spot where Christianity (veiled, we admit, by idle 
superstitions) rooted itself, and spread forth branches, whence has been cultivated the 
fruitful Lebanon of succeeding ages. 



Stanhope is an ancient market town and parish, pleasantly situated in Weardale, at the 
distance of twenty miles west from Durham. The neighbourhood comprises an extensive 
mountainous district, abounding with lead ore ; and a great portion of the population are 
employed in working the mines. Within a short distance from the western extremity of 
the town stands Stanhope Castle, a large structure, guarded with a curtain wall, and over- 
looking the river Wear. This mansion was formerly the family residence of the Feather- 
stonehaughs, the last male descendant of which house perished in the civil wars ; the 
castle and estates were then sold. It is now the seat of Cuthbert Rippon, esq. M. P. 

The original part of the edifice was erected by the late Cuthbert Rippon, esq. and is a 
square pile of building, fronting the south, with two semicircular projections on each side. 
To the east the present proprietor has added an elegant conservatory, connecting the main 
building with a lofty square tower, which is occupied by an extensive museum, and 
lighted by large and elegant windows, divided into Gothic compartments, as displayed in 
the annexed view. The entrance to this tower, in consequence of the declivity on which 
it and the conservatory stand, is in the second story, around the interior of which is a 
beautiful gallery of brass, whence a geometrical staircase descends to the depository of 
mineral curiosities. The upper walls are covered with splendid specimens of ornithology, 
and other varieties ; and the whole reflects credit on the taste of the spirited proprietor. 
All the towers and walls of the castle are embattled ; and the garden and pleasure-grounds 
are laid out to great advantage. 

"Stanhope," says a late tourist, "derives great beauty from the broad foliage which 
here adorns the vale. The opposite bank is studded over with trees, which give it a 
chequered and beautiful appearance. Some of them are ranged in hedge-rows, which 
have a formal appearance, while others are less regularly arranged, in masses, of breadth 
and variety much more interesting than the other portion. Their contrast affords a 
simple but useful lesson in ornamental planting, which the improved taste of the present 
day has discovered to be much more dependent on the freedom and simplicity of nature 
than the formal rules of art." 

As the ground rises from the river, the sylvan beauties of the vale gradually disappear; 
and the bleak and lofty hills in the distance present a striking contrast to the scene above 
described. It is in the bowels of the earth, however, and not upon its surface, that the 
industry of man has been here most successfully applied; and the riches of the lead-mines 
in this district have well repaid his exertions. * 

* The rectory of Stanhope, the principal emoluments of which are derived from the lead-mines, is one of the 
richest in the kingdom; and several of the incumbents have stepped from it into the episcopal dignity. The late 
rector, Henry Phillpotts, D.D. is now bishop of Exeter. 


The talents and public spirit of Cuthbert Rippon, esq. having rendered him highly 
popular in the borough of Gateshead, he was elected its representative in parliament on 
the 12th of December, 1832 ; being the first member ever returned for that place. 

The name of Stanhope is derived by Hutchinson from Stone-hope, the fortified hill, or 
Stand-hope, the hill where the inhabitants made their chief resistance against an enemy ; 
an idea which is furnished by a remarkable eminence at the west end of the town, one 
hundred and eight feet high, and called the Castle Hill, or the Castle Heugh. At a short 
distance to the west is the ancient park of the bishop of Durham, in which these "mitred 
princes " formerly held their great Chace, attended by their vassals, and displaying all the 
pomp of feudal chiefs. In 1327, this park was the scene of a campaign between a 
marauding army of Scots, under Randolf and Douglas, and an English force of forty thou- 
sand men, led by the youthful and impetuous Edward III. The Scots occupied a lofty 
hill on the south of the river Wear, defying the English to drive them from it; and 
several days were occupied in fruitless endeavours to draw them from their advantageous 
post. On one occasion, a party of them, during the night burst into the English camp, 
cut the cords of the king's tent, killed about three hundred men, and then retired with 
some loss. On the following evening they lighted fires along the heights, and, under cover 
of the night, escaped into Cumberland with their booty. When Edward was informed 
of the deception in the morning, he lamented with tears the escape of his enemies. 

Historians have described the army of the Scots as peculiarly adapted for predatory 
excursions. It consisted entirely of cavalry, some idea of which may be formed from 
Scott's " Watt Tynlynn," who 

" Led a small and shaggy nag, 

That through a bog from hag to hag 
Could bound like any Bilhope stag." 

This bounding from hag to hag was exactly what the Scottish horse had to perform in 
their retreat over the western fells. The troops were unencumbered with provision or 
baggage. Their drink was the water of the river or brook ; their meat the cattle of the 
country, which they slaughtered, and then boiled in the skins; and they carried with them 
a scanty supply of oatmeal in a bag, which each horseman attached to his saddle. The 
velocity with which they advanced, or retreated, was such as to make it difficult either to 
discover or pursue them. 

During the confusion which prevailed on the rebellion of the Earls of Westmorland 
and Northumberland, Weardale was harassed by a troop of Border plunderers. This 
event is commemorated in a ballad called " The Raid of Rookhope," inserted in Scott's 
Border Minstrelsy. The homely bard very naturally exlaims, 

" Lord God ! is not this a pitiful case, 

That men dare not drive their goods to t'fell, 
But limmer thieves driveB them away 
That fears neither heauen nor hell?" 


In the neighbourhood of Stanhope, on the north, are several natural caves, called 
Hetherhurn Caves, which are open for nearly a mile in length, " and wherein nature, in 
all her gloomy sport of subterranean magnificence, displays wonders similar to those of 
the "Peak," and other celebrated caverns. 


A comprehensive view is here submitted to the patrons of the " Lake Scenery," 
including the lakes of Rydal Water and Grasmere, in connection with all the noble and pictu- 
resque objects in their vicinity. It were idle to insist on the advantage which the reader 
must derive from a general delineation. The detached views render him familiar with the 
prominent beauties of this romantic neighbourhood, while the present design exhibits an 
orderly arrangement of the whole, and exposes, much more effectually than any description 
could do, the relative position of places and objects. With reference to the size and style 
of the engraving, we may be permitted to suggest the consideration, — what would, a few- 
years since, have been the cost of this impression, here included in a work of British art 
for less than sixpence ? 

The village of Rydal, situated on the north side of the lake, is supposed to have 
derived its name from Rothay-dale, — the river Rothay flowing from Langdale Pikes, 
through the lakes of Grasmere and Rydal to Windermere. This village has long enjoyed 
the munificent bounty of theLe Fleming family, whose hall stands adjacent, embosomed 
in a beautiful park, on a gently rising eminence near the foot of Rydal Water. In the rear 
of the Hall rise the mountains of Fairfield and Rydal Head ; from the latter of which the 
extensive prospect delineated in our view is obtained. " In the woods and in the disposi- 
tion of the ground round Rydal Hall, there is a charming wildness that suits the character of 
the scene; and wherever art appears, it is with graceful plainness, and meek subjection to 
nature. The taste by which a cascade in the pleasure-grounds, pouring under the arch of 
a rude rock amidst the green tint of woods, is shown through a darkened garden-house, and 
therefore with all the effect which the opposition of light and shade can give, is even not 
too artificial, so admirably is the intent accomplished of making all the light that is 
admitted fall upon the objects which are chiefly meant to be observed." A little above the 
Hall is Rydal Mount, the residence of William Wordsworth, esq. Such universal tribute 
is paid to the genius of this great man, that it is needless to multiply examples ; a native 
poet, "a lowly child of song," has, however, in a brief effusion, added his mite of 
admiration : — * 

" Pilgrims will here resort in after days, 

And glowing kneel before thy rocky shrine, 
In honour of thy poet's deathless lays." 

It cannot be considered irrelevant to the purposes of this work, if we direct attention to 
the comparatively unknown, and self-instructed writer, from whom we have just quoted. 

* Mr. George Bell, of Penrith. 

3 C 


His poems, of which we have been favoured with a copy, certainly betray faults which more 
extensive reading and a more judicious selection of images and modes of expression alone 
can correct ; but they also contain beautiful thoughts happily expressed, and this opinion 
will be justified by the following extract from "The Dark Cloud, " the only specimen that 
space permits us at present to offer. 

" Serenely from the west, a dark cloud sailed 
Along the waveless ocean of the sky, 
Halo'd with a gorgeous fringe of golden dye ; 
I saw the heavenly vessel when it hail'd 
The bright full moon, obscured its majesty, 
Then voyaged away with wonted dignity." 

Returning to our view: the eye traverses the beautiful demesnes of Rydal Hall, and is 
thence led to the lake, on one side of which a few ancient trees decorate the banks, and, 
on the other, hoary rocks present themselves, with woods vegetating from the clefts and 
fissures in their sides. The lake itself, with a calm surface, ornamented by two small 
islands, " Lies like a sleeping child, too blest to wake." 

The projecting eminences form a strait connecting Rydal Water with the lake of 
Grasmere, lying in the vale of that name, amidst beautiful meadows and enclosures, and 
sheltered by surrounding mountains. Near the centre of this lake rises a small green 
island with an out-house or barn upon it, to which Mr. Wordsworth poetically alludes : — 

*' Thou seest a homely pile, yet to these walls 
The heifer comes in the snow storm, and here 
The new-dropp'd Iamb finds shelter from the wind ; 
And hither does one poet sometimes row 
His pinnace." 

The mountains of Silver How and Langdale Pikes are included in the range forming 
the back ground of the view. 



Wasdale Hall, the beautiful rural seat of Stansfeld Rawson, Esq., is situated at the 
foot of Wastwater, in a delightfully picturesque and romantic situation. Having referred 
to this unique erection at page 134, we have little to add in the way of description, that 
is not superseded by the view herewith given. The artist has chosen his point with much 
judgment, and connected with the building the most beautiful features in the scenery 
of the neighbourhood. Here we may be allowed to remark on the good taste which 
induced the proprietor to adopt so unpretending and unobtrusive a character in the 
erection ; it harmonizes well with surrounding objects, and imparts an additional beauty 
to the scene ; while itself derives an interest from the assemblage of picturesque 
magnificence in its vicinity. 




The most picturesque route to the lake of Wastwater is that from Borrowdale. As 
the tourist advances, the valley becomes more contracted, and the way is progressively 
more rugged. Ascending to the head of Borrowdale, he continues his journey through 
narrow winding paths, between rocks and precipices, down which pours a roaring torrent, 
that, after flowing for some miles, passes through the village of Grange, and becomes the 
main feeder of Lake Derwent. Crossing an alpine bridge of one arch, the tourist 
addresses himself to the laborious ascent of Sty Head, a steep and precipitous crag, from 
which the eye looks down with terror, and whence is discovered a grand view of Skiddaw 
and Saddleback. The scenery in this neighbourhood is calculated to inspire emotions 
of the most awful kind ; but, after reaching the brow on the opposite side of Sty Head, 
a most delightful prospect is opened to the eye. The river Wasdale is seen falling from 
the adjacent mountains ; at the bottom are the dale and village of Wasdale, and on 
every side rise mountains of stupendous height. The mind revels in the beautiful 
and extensive scenery here displayed ; but every other feeling is nearly lost in an over- 
powering sensation of danger, on beholding the path by which a descent must be made 
into the vale. Above appear tremendous mountains, whose bases seem almost to meet ; 
and below is a precipice, nearly interminable to the eye, along which winds the narrow 
and steep path whence a single false step would precipitate the traveller into the fearful 
chasm beneath. On approaching the vale, the road becomes wider and less perpen- 

The illustrative view supposes the tourist to have visited Wasdale by the route above 
described, and to have reached a point in the lake overlooking Nether or Lower Wasdale, 
and commanding an impressive view of the mountains at the foot of Wastwater. On the 
left, in the engraving, is seen the debris of the Screes, a very high ridge of mountains 
extending along the southern shore of the lake ; the loose rocks on which are in almost 
constant motion, falling in showers into the water. 


Hulne Abbey stands in a woody and delightful solitude, at the distance of about three 
miles from Alnwick. This structure, now an assemblage of venerable ivy-clad ruins, was 
the first monastery of Carmelite friars established in England. The following particulars 
are recorded of its foundation. 

Amongst the English barons who went to the holy wars, in the reign of Henry III., 
were William de Vesey, Lord Alnwick, and Richard Grey, two eminent chieftains in tin- 
Christian army. Attracted by curiosity, or devotional feeling, they visited the monks of mount 
Carmel, and there unexpectedly found a countryman of their own, named Ralph Fresborn, 


a Northumbrian gentleman, who had signalized himself in a former crusade, and, in con- 
sequence of a vow, had taken upon him the monastic profession in that solitude. Vesey 
and Grey, when about to return to England, importuned the superior of the Carmelites to 
permit their countryman to accompany them ; which request was at length granted, on 
condition that they would found a Carmelite monastery in their own country. Fresborn, 
mindful of the engagement he had made with his superior, began to look out for a conve- 
nient spot whereon to erect the new convent, and ultimately fixed upon the site of the 
present ruined Abbey, induced, it is said, by the great resemblance which the adjoining 
hill bore to mount Carmel in Palestine. Vesey granted thirteen acres of land in his " park 
of Hulne," for the building and its demesnes ; but the structure was erected at the sole 
expense of Fresborn, who completed the work in 1240, and became the first abbot. 

This religious foundation was warmly supported by the Percy family ; and at the 
dissolution, the annual revenues of the establishment were valued at £194. 7s., an income 
which in those days was equal to meet a princely expenditure. In the reign of queen 
Elizabeth, the building and grounds were purchased by Thomas, seventh earl of Northum- 

Some of the Abbey buildings are now the residence of persons intrusted with the care 
of the duke of Northumberland's aviary ; other parts are decorated with plantations which 
render the ruins exceedingly picturesque in appearance. John Bale, the biographer, was 
a member of the Carmelite order, and lived in the solitude of Hulne Abbey. 


The approach to Alnwick castle retains much of the solemn grandeur of feudal times. 
The precaution of letting down the draw-bridges is no longer observed, and the once wide 
and deep moat is diverted from its bed ; but the walls continue to wear that aspect of 
strength and defiance which identifies the structure with a period far remote, and with 
manners and usages now obsolete. A striking effect is produced on entering through the 
dark and frowning gateway that leads from the town into the interior of the castle. The 
eye suddenly emerges into one of the most splendid scenes that can be imagined, and is 
presented at once with the great body of the inner castle, surrounded with noble semi- 
circular towers, adorned with figures, pinnacles, and battlements. The impression increases 
as the visitor proceeds successively through the large and massive towers leading to the 
second and third courts. The numerous figures distributed round the battlements represent 
men in the attitude of defence, armed with weapons peculiar to the age when they were 



Long Sleddale township and chapelry extends over a mountainous and picturesque 
district, six miles in length by three miles in breadth, and reaches southward from the 
lofty Harter Fell to Potter Fell, within a few miles north of Kendal. This vale is inter- 
sected by the Sprint rivulet, which runs parallel with the road by which tourists from 
Kendal approach the sublime mountain scenery round Hawes Water. On each side of the 
rivulet verdant fields rise in irregular swells, till the rocky declivities of the mountains 
preclude all cultivation except brushwood and coppices, which climb the steep banks, and 
in some places find support even in the craggy precipices, which here present their lofty 
and rugged fronts with much grandeur, having, in many places, beautiful cascades 
spouting and tumbling from their summits, and sometimes broken by gusts of wind into 
clouds of spray. 

The extensive slate quarries are situated at Rangle Gill, near the head of the dale, and 
are famous both for the quality and quantity of fine blue slate which they yield. The 
slabs are conveyed from the quarries on the backs of ponies and asses, the roads being 
inaccessible to carts. In the description of Thrang Crag Slate Quarry, at page 78, the 
reader will find some geological particulars applicable to the present subject. 

It is an object of no slight interest to the tourist, in these picturesque regions, to 
behold in the secret retirements of nature, where solitude would seem to rule with despotic 
sway, the hand of human industry labouring with patient toil, and the great work of 
civilization aided and accelerated. 

What vast intricacies of human art 

Are daily trodden by laborious man ! 

In ocean, earth, or air, there's not a thing 

On which the eye of Genius hath not glanced, — 

On which the hand of Science hath not wrought 

Change beautiful or useful. From the caves 

Where Amphitrite and her nymphs have dwelt, 

In song and fable, from the first of days, 

The fearless diver plucks a roseate branch, 

Of bright vermilion tinge — pearls of rare worth — 

And richest gems, that long had lain conceal'd 

In that wide treasure-house, the boundless sea : 

Thence brought, the lapidary's skilful hand 

Forms of them ornaments to grace the fair. 

3 D 


In subterranean chambers, far beneath 
The surface of this earth, where never comes 
At morn, or eve, or at the noon-tide hour, 
One ray of sun-light, — but eternal gloom, 
More desolate, and yet more awful made, 
By the red torch that feebly flickers there. — 
The anxious miner wears his life away 
In constant searchings for the precious ore. 
Various are earth's treasures, — all amassed 
By Wisdom infinite, and nothing vain ! 
In all the secret paths and hidden ways 
Of nature, man hath walked ; with curious eye 
Beheld her workings great and manifold ; 
And, led by Science to the ample stores 
Profusely gathered in the earth's rich womb, 
He rends with powerful arm the products forth, 
For various purpose fitted and designed. 


Bley- Water Tarn lies beneath a lofty crag of the same name, forming part of the 
Mountain High Street. In its approach to the valley of Mardale, the stream from this 
taru unites with that of Small Water Tarn, and both flow together northward to the lake 
of Haweswater. 

The artist has alluded in this view to the annual festivities which take place on the 
broad top of High Street. Horse-racing forms the principal feature in the sports, which 
derive no little additional zest from a copious supply of cakes and ale from the neigh- 
bouring villages. 

Ulverstone lies in the distance. 



The present view, looking southward, exhibits a picturesque valley, lying between 
Rydal Park and the head of Windermere, and includes the whole extent of the lake last 
mentioned, with its mountain scenery, also a glance at Esthwaite Water. 

Ambleside is situated on the left side of the valley; having Wansfell Pike at a short 
distance on the east, and Loughrigg Fell a little to the west. The neat gothic chapel, 
erected here by public subscription in year 1812, forms a distinct but pleasing object in 
the engraving. 


Esthwaite Water, though lying beyond the prescribed boundaries of this publication — 
in Lancashire — is connected with Windermere, and consequently forms a portion of its 
picturesque scenery. Esthwaite Lake is situated about two miles west from Windermere 
Ferry, and has near its head the ancient little town of Hawkshead. It does not exceed 
two miles in length, by about half a mile in width; and is much shallower than most other 
lakes. The margins are broken and relieved by projecting peninsulas, fringed with trees 
and coppice wood, and cultivated at the summits. Near the head of the lake is an island, 
containing about two perches of land, said to have been separated from the banks, and 
formerly to have floated about the surface of the water ; but for some years past it has 
remained stationary, and is now covered with shrubs. 

Tourists universally acknowledge the beauty of " the vale of Windermere," as seen 
from Rydal Park ; particularly " when, in a serene evening, the charms of this spot are 
rendered yet more delightful by the softened noises of distant waterfalls, which are rever- 
berated by the echoes in great variety." 


The town of Ambleside stands on the side of a steep hill, and near the opening of a 
narrow glen whence rushes the torrent of Stockgill Force. The craggy heights of Lough- 
rigg Fell, the lower parts of which are covered with wood, and the extensive range of 
Fairfield, form a mountain fastness round this picturesque station. At page 85, the reader 
will find a topographical description of Ambleside. 

In the remote periods of our history, the mountain districts were the last refuge of 
freedom, — the strong-hold whither the aboriginal possessors of the country retired, to 
avoid the yoke of the invader. In the present day, " the hill countrie" and the plain, the 
desart solitude and the crowded city — of this favoured land, are alike unawed by 
despotism and tyranny ; still, the stern magnificence of the scenery, associated with 
records of the past, compels us to view " the patriarchal hills" as the sacred haunts of 

O Liberty ! the hills are thine ! thy mountain homes are free ' 

There is no abject bondsmen here, to cringe and bow the knee ; 

A power, that mocks at human strength, wrought here when time began ; 

And Echo still doth laugh to scorn the impotence of man. 

The mountain lifts its hoary head, and on its brow is set, 

Form'd from the cloud and wreathing mists, a glistering coronet. 

From thunder-splintered crags, behold with what resistless force 

The torrent rends its furious way, a giant in its course. 


Where is the sceptre that can awe, the look that dares defy 
The cataract in its onward path— the rocks that cleave the sky ? 
Ye purple tyrants ! at whose nod the prostrate nations quake, 
List the response, ye feeble things, those mountain thrones can make 
We have been in the days of old, we are before you now ; 
We shall be in the future times that ye can never know : 
Thousands of years are on our heads, and thousands yet to come, 
Ere in the wreck of Earth we sink, to bide the general doom. 

Ye insect rulers of a day ! what is your boasted power? 

To fill the cup of sensual bliss, and fret your little hour: 

The 'scutcheon'd pall, the aisle's deep gloom, and outward signs of wo, 

Are the last tribute you can claim, or flattery bestow. 

We are Creation's elder-born, coeval with the sun, 

His young beams fell upon our heads, when first his course begun ; 

One hand alone can cast us down, and when the time has come, 

No thing of earth will live, to scorn or desecrate our tomb. 


On the northern banks of the river Calder, in the deeply secluded vale through which 
its waters flow from the bleak mountains of Cald-fell, stand the beautiful ruins of Calder 
Abbey, in the immediate vicinity of the stately mansion to which they give name. This 
monastery was founded in the year 1134, by Randulph de Meschiens, for a colony of 
Cistercian monks, detached from the Abbey of Furness in Lancashire. It subsequently 
was enriched with many valuable endowments, and continued to hold a pre-eminent place 
in ecclesiastical foundations up to the period of the dissolution, when Henry the Eighth 
by royal grant transferred " to Thomas Leigh and his heirs, the demesne and site of the 
late Abbey, or manor of Calder, and the church, steeple, and church-yard thereof, and all 
messuages, lands, houses, gardens, orchards, waters, and mills, as well within as nigh unto 
the site and precinct of the said monastery; to hold the same of the king in capite, by the 
tenth part of a knight's fee, and a yearly rent of twenty-seven pounds." The estate and 
magnificent remains ultimately descended to J. T. Senhouse, Esq. who erected an elegant 
mansion in the neighbourhood of the monastic ruins, which edifice is now the seat of 
Thomas Hewin, esq. 


The rained Abbey, as well as the modern structure, is sheltered by majestic forest trees, 
which rise from the skirts of level meadows to the tops of the circumscribing hills that 
bound the vale of Calder. The most striking object in the ruins is the square tower of the 
abbey church, supported by pointed arches, sustained on four finely clustered columns of 
excellent workmanship, about twenty-four feet in height, having the capitals, whence the 
arches spring, ornamented with a roll. The church was but small, the width of the 
chancel being only twenty-five feet, and that of the transept no more than twenty-two. 
The colonnade has five circular arches, supported by clustered pillars, and profusely 
covered with ivy. The remains of a fascia still exist above the arches, and formerly 
supported the roof of the building. The upper chambers shew a range of eight windows 
to the west, and seven to the east; and on the ground-floor are the remains of three which 
have belonged to a small cloister. Against the walls are fragments of various sepulchral 
fio-ures, which, from the mutilated sculptures and the devices on the shields, would seem 
to have belonged to the tombs of eminent persons. Hutchinson, in his description of 
Calder Abbey, says, with much poetical feeling, that these solemn ruins appear " to stand 
mourning in their sacred solitude, concealing wo in the secluded valley, and bending to 
the adversity of ages ; like the image of Melancholy looking down on the tomb of interred 
horrors and wasted ornaments." 

Spirit of the past, appear! 

On the zephyr's unseen wing, 

Come to me, aerial tiling : 
Spirit! who art ling'ring here, 

Tales of other times reveal ; 

Say what does the past conceal ? 
Approach me near ! 

Why shoukl'st thou seek from the past to restore 
A record of frailty existing no more ? 
AVhy look back through time, and more evidence bring 
To prove all earth's brightness a perishing thing? 

The dew sheds its pearls in the cup of the flower, 

Day dawns on its beauty, the bloom of an hour! 

Ere the sun goeth down, it declineth its head: 

Wouldst thou ask where its colours and perfume have fled ? 

Then wherefore inquire of the times that are gone, 
Ere ruin had chosen this fane for his throne? 
Thou seest the desolate temple, and they 
Who knelt at the shrine have departed away. 

All thou beholdest must come to an end, 

The ocean, earth, sky, in wide ruin will blend ; 

When the morning no longer the sun can restore, 

And the paths of his brightness shall know him no more. 




Egremont is a neat and small market town, principally consisting of one wide street, 
seated on the banks of the river Ehen, a few miles south-east from Whitehaven, and within 
two miles and a half west from the Irish sea. Its origin appears to be connected with 
that of the castle, which was erected here, near the commencement of the twelfth century, 
by William, brother to Ranulph de Meschiens. 

Egremont was anciently a borough, and enjoyed the privilege of returning members 
to parliament, but was disfranchised on the petition of the burgesses themselves, who 
deemed their representatives in the senate (and perhaps with much justice) more costly 
than valuable. The inhabitants were invested with many privileges, under charters 
granted by the immediate successors of William de Meschiens, and were also enjoined 
the performance of many servile duties that distinguished the ages of feudal tyranny. 
The charter granted by Richard Lucy, who possessed the barony about the time of king 
John, is still extant, and displays fearfully the abject state of vassalage in which the 
people then lived. The burgesses were compelled to find armed men for the defence of 
the castle forty days at their own charge. They were bound to furnish aids for the 
redemption of the lord and his heir from captivity ; for the knighthood of one of his sons ; 
and for the marriage of one daughter. They were to find him twelve men for his military 
array, to hold watch and ward; and were forbidden to enter the forest of Ennerdale 
with bow and arrow, or with a dog, unless one foot had been cut off to disable it from 
pursuing the game. Every burgess who kept a plough was compelled to till the lord's 
ground one day in the year, and likewise provide a man to reap and mow in autumn. So 
much for the olden time ! 

The ancient custom of electing a chief magistrate is preserved here ; and the town 
continues to be governed by a sergeant and a jury. From old records it would appear, 
that dyers, weavers, and fullers were the only artisans formerly in Egremont ; but at the 
present day, there are manufactories of check, linen, canvas, sail-cloth, and paper, 
and also for tanning and dressing leather. Extensive iron-stone mines exist in the 
neighbourhood. Amongst the recent improvements, is the erection of a new bridge 
over the Ehen river. A market is held weekly on Saturday, and there are three 
annual fairs. 

The parish church, dedicated to St. Mary, is a neat structure, with a short tower ; 
presenting in the interior a neat and handsome appearance. A Methodist chapel was 
erected in 1821. A National School for gratuitous education, has been founded, and 
continues to be supported by voluntary contributions. 

The castle seems to have been of great strength, but not very extensive ; its ruins 
occupy an eminence on the west side of the town. The approach and principal entrance 


was from the south, where a draw-bridge secured the passage over a deep moat that 
surrounded the fortress, and was originally walled on both sides, having a rampart of 
earth outward. The gate-way is vaulted with semicircular arches, and defended by a 
strong tower, which appears to be the most ancient part of the fabric. The outward wall 
formerly enclosed an area of a square form, but is now wholly decayed, and has only 
a postern on the east side remaining. Westward from the area, is an ascent to three 
narrow gates, standing in a line, and close together; these appear to have communicated 
with the outworks, and have each been defended by a portcullis. Beyond the gates is a 
lofty artificial mount, wherein stood an ancient circular tower, the western side w;is 
levelled some years ago : the height of the mount is seventy-eight feet perpendicular 
above the moat. The construction of some of the walls is singular ; they are built with 
large thin stones, placed in an inclining position, the courses lie different ways, and the 
whole has been cemented together with lime and pebbles. There is a traditional story 
current here, of a lady of the Lucy family, who, on an evening walk near the castle, was 
devoured by a wolf. A similar story is told of the hill of IFotobank, a romantic acclivity 
in the manor of Beckermont, in this neighbourhood. The tale relates, that " a lord of 
Beckermont, with his lady and servants, was one time hunting the wolf; during tin- 
chase, the lady was missing, and, after a long and painful search, her body was found 
lying on this hill or bank, mangled by a wolf, who was in the very act of ravenously 
tearing it to pieces, The sorrow of the husband in the first transports of his grief, was 
expressed by the words—' Wo to this bank !' whence the hill obtained the name of 
Wotobank. Mrs. Cowley adopted this legend for the subject of her poem, " Edwina." 

" Wo to thee, bank.' the attendants echoed round, 
And pitying shepherds caught the grief-fraught sound. 
Thus to this hour, through every changing age, 
Through every year's still ever-varying stage, 
The name remains, and Wo-to-bank is seen 
From every mountain bleak, and valley green. 
Dim Skiddaw views it from his monstrous height, 
And eagles mark it in their dizzy flight. 

" Not rocks, and cataracts, and alps alone, 
Point out the spot, and make its sorrows known ; 
For faithful lads ne'er pass, nor tender maid. 
But the soft rite of tears is duly paid : 
Each can the story to the traveller tell, 
And on the sad disaster pitying dwell." 

"The castle and town of Egremont, from many points of the river Ehen, and the 
adjacent lands, display some pleasing assemblages of the picturesque ; and the road 
hence to Ennerdale lake is easy, and beautifully diversified with the bold and chaste 
features of nature." 



This large engraving presents a most interesting and extensive prospect of lake and 
mountain scenery, including the lakes of Windermere, Esthwaite, and Coniston, seen from 
the top of Loughrigg Fell. To avoid repetitions in the descriptive portion of our work, 
we refer the reader, for copious particulars respecting Lake Windermere, to pages 14, 30, 
and 169. 

Coniston Mere, or Thurston Lake, as it is sometimes called, is about six miles in length 
from north to south, and three-quarters of a mile at its greatest breadth from east to 
west. Its greatest depth is twenty-seven fathoms. The shores are beautifully indented, 
and several bays appear in succession. Both sides of the lake are marked with coppices, 
interspersed with verdant meadows, and with patches of rocky surface ; above which, the 
mountains, clothed with verdure, and rendered picturesque by fragments of rock, 
gradually elevate themselves. 

A pleasant road winds along the side of the lake, sometimes through thick groves and 
low woods, which scarcely admit a sight of the water ; at other times, over naked tracts, 
commanding a full prospect of the lake. At the foot of a mountain, on the west side of 
the water, stands the village of Coniston, pleasantly situated ; and in its vicinity are the 
delightful residences of Waterhead and Coniston Hall. Above the verdant banks, which 
are sparingly studded with villages, seats, and cottages, the dark and rocky steeps ascend 
to an alpine height, and encircle the head of the lake. 

Mrs. Ratcliffe describes, in very glowing terms, the beauties of Coniston Water : — 

"This lake appeared to us one of the most charming we had seen. From the sublime 
mountains which bend round its head, the heights on either side decline towards the 
south into waving hills, that form its shores, and often stretch in long sweeping points 
into the water, generally covered with tufted wood, but sometimes with the tender verdure 
of pasturage. The tops of these woods were just embrowned with autumn, and contrasted 
well with other slopes, rough and heathy, that rose above, or fell beside them to the 
water's brink, and added force to the colouring which the reddish tints of decaying fern, 
the purple bloom of heath, and the bright golden gleams of broom, spread over these 
elegant banks. Their hues, the graceful undulation of the marginal hills and bays, the 
richness of the woods, the solemnity of the northern fells, and the deep repose that 
pervades the scene, where only now and then a white cottage or a farm lurks among the 
trees, are circumstances which render Thurston Lake one of the most interesting, and 
perhaps the most beautiful, of any in the country." 

We have alluded to Esthwaite Water in a preceding description. 




Hayswater Tarn, in the environs of lake Ullswater, is more extensive than most of the 
other tarns, and is much frequented by trout anglers. It lies under the north-west side 
of High Street. The stream from this elevated lake passes Low Hartshope, and, uniting 
with the waters from the diminutive Brother Water, discharges itself into lake Ullswater. 

This mountain retirement is illustrative of a passage in the "Excursion :" — 

" Mauy are the notes 
Which in his tuneful course the wind draws forth 
From rocks, woods, caverns, heaths, and dashing shores ; 
And well those lofty brethren bear their part 
In the wild concert — chiefly when the storm 
Rides high ; then all the upper air they fill 
With roaring sound, that ceases not to flow, 
Like smoke, along the level of the blast 
In mighty current ; theirs, too, is the song 
Of stream and headlong flood that seldom fails ; 
And, in the grim and breathless hour of noon, 
Methinks that I have heard them echo back 
The thunder's greeting ; nor have nature's laws 
Left them ungifted with a power to yield 
Music of finer frame ; a harmony, 
So do I call it, though it be the land 
Of silence, though there be no voice : the clouds, 
The mist, the shadows, light of golden suns, 
Motions of moonlight, all come thither, touch, 
And have an answer — thither come, and shape, 
A language not unwelcome to sick hearts 
And idle spirits ; there the sun himself, 
At the calm hour of summer's longest day, 
Rests his substantial orb ; between those heights 
And on the top of either pinnacle, 
More keenly than elsewhere in night's blue vault, 
Sparkle the stars, as of their station proud. 
Thoughts are not busier in the mind of man 
Than the mute agents stirring there." 

3 F 



Grisdale is a portion of the valley of Patterdale, lying about half-a-mile north of the 
chapel, and extends westward three miles to the confines of Cumberland. Grisdale tarn, 
which takes its name from the dale, is situate at the junction of the three mountains, 
Helvellyn, Seatsandal, and Fairfield. Grisdale Pike is a lofty mountain, rising to an 
apex, or point, two thousand five hundred and eighty feet in height. From this elevation 
fine prospects are obtained of the vale of Keswick to the east ; and over a considerable 
part of Cumberland, with the sea, the Isle of Man, and the mountains of Galloway to the 
west and north. Grisdale is enclosed, at the upper end, by the mountains Helvellyn and 


The church of St. Nicholas, at Newcastle, is an ancient and beautiful edifice, situated 
in the parish to which it gives name; and was founded in the year 1091 by Osmund, 
bishop of Salisbury and earl of Dorset, a follower of William the Conqueror. This 
ecclesiastical structure was given by the first Henry to the church of Carlisle, and it still 
remains in the patronage of that see. The privileges of the church were greatly abridged 
during the prelacy of bishop Farnham. Henry the Eighth granted a moiety of the rectory 
of Newcastle-upon-Tyne to the dean and chapter of Carlisle, enjoining the payment of 
eight pounds per annum to the bishop of Durham. 

The original edifice was destroyed by fire in 1216, and a new erection completed in 
1359, since which period considerable alterations have been made, and frequent reparations 
been effected. It is now a magnificent and imposing structure, situated on the top of a 
commanding eminence, which rises somewhat precipitately from the river nearly to the 
centre of the town. In 1783, a subscription was opened for the purpose of effecting such 
alterations in the plan of the building as should give it the air and character of a cathedral 
church. The design succeeded : and the chancel was thrown open, the communion table 
removed under the great east window, all the erections at the west end of the church 
cleared away, and the space devoted to the purposes of sepultm - e. A wooden screen was also 
placed at the entrance to the choir. 

■;#: ■; 


The steeple of this church, which is considered by architects and men of taste to be its 
most admirable feature, is a very ingenious and elegant specimen of art. It rises to the height 
of sixty-four yards ; and consists of thirteen richly ornamented pinnacles, and two massive 
stone-arches, supporting a large and beautiful lantern surmounted with a tall spire. This 
magnificent piece of architecture is constructed upon the original tower, which appears 
to have formerly been terminated by a battlement of open stone-work. Its erection is 
ascribed by some authors to David king of Scotland, but the character of the structure 
refers to the period of Henry the Sixth. Frequent repairs have been effected by the 
corporation, who have from time immemorial been charged with this expense. The tower 
contains a peal of eight musical bells, and an excellent clock ; the latter, which has chimes 
connected with it, was completed by Mr. Walker in 1761. 

" May ne'er 
That true succession fail of English hearts, 
That can perceive, not less than heretofore 
Our ancestors did feelingly perceive, 
What in these holy structures doth exist 
Of ornamental interest, and the charm 
Of pious sentiment diffused afar, 
And human charity, and social love. 
Thus never shall the indignities of time 
Approach their reverend graces unopposed ; 
Nor shall the elements be free to hurt 
Their fair proportions ; nor the blinder rage 
Of bigot zeal madly to overturn." 

There is a tradition, that during the siege of Newcastle in the year 1644, the Scottish 
general threatened to demolish the steeple of this church, unless the keys of the town 
were immediately surrendered to him. The mayor, on hearing this, immediately ordered 
the most distinguished individuals amongst the Scottish prisoners to be taken to the top 
of the tower, and then replied to the threat of the besieger, " Our enemies shall cither 
preserve the steeple, or be buried in its ruins." This reply had the desired effect. 

A valuable library is attached to the church of St. Nicholas, and occupies a handsome 
fabric over the vestry built for the purpose, by Sir William Blackett, in 1734. 

Middle-street is a narrow but picturesque avenue, which unites with the Old Butchers' 
Market, and at this point of junction it takes the name of Union-street. 



The Black Gate, at Newcastle, is the only remains of the outer line of circumvallation 
to the castle. For a general history and description of the building, the reader is referred 
back to page 31. 

This gate was erected by the government in the year 1248, and during the reign of 
Henry III., at the cost of five hundred and fifteen pounds. Its arch, extending to the 
gloomy length of thirty- six feet, is low and narrow, and flanked by two circular towers. 
Besides its iron doors, it formerly had two portcullises and a drawbridge within and 
without. The eastern tower is still very perfect towards its base ; but the rest of the 
structure is enclosed within masses of building, and its original character disguised by 
conversion into dwelling-houses. The inner wall of the castle extended from the Black 
Gate round the great tower, and again joined the outer wall north of Bailey Gate. 

The strength of the outer works of the castle is evidenced by the resistance it offered to 
the entrance of the Scotch army in 1644. By effecting some few repairs, and by planting 
ordnance on the top of the tower, it was enabled, under the gallant Sir John Marley, then 
mayor of Newcastle, to hold out several days after the town had surrendered to the 


Axwell Park, in the township of Winlaton, six miles west by south of Newcastle, is 
the seat of Sir T. Clavering, baronet. Serlo de Burgh, the ancestor of the Claverings, 
came into England with the Conqueror ; and Edward I. conferred upon his descendants 
the name of Clavering, from their barony in Essex. They were first seated here in Queen 
Elizabeth's reign ; and their old mansion, called TVJiite House, stood half a mile west of 
the present residence. 

This mansion is an elegant modern building, occupying a pleasant and elevated site, 
and surrounded by grounds beautifully diversified by irregular swells, and judiciously 
embellished with plantations of forest trees. The east front commands a rich prospect of 
the Tyne, and the busy towns of Newcastle and Gateshead : the view from the south front 
of the woodlands of Gibside and the adjacent country, is also exceedingly beautiful. 




Gibside, an extensive domain, the seat of the Countess Dowager of Strathniore, and 
of her son, John Bowes, esq., member of parliament for the south division of the county 
of Durham, is situated in the midst of a delightful park, five miles and a half south-west 
of Newcastle. 

The mansion occupies a sequestered site on the southern bank of the Derwent, 
and is approached through a wood of venerable oaks. It is an ancient structure, in the 
style that prevailed in the seventeenth century. At the end of a most beautiful terrace, 
nearly in front of the house, stands an elegant chapel, which was built in 1812 by 
the late Earl Strathniore, and ornamented with a portico and highly-embellished dome. 
At the other extremity of the terrace rises a fine Ionic column of stone, one hundred and 
forty feet in height, surmounted by a colossal figure of Liberty, and embosomed in an 
extensive wood. In another part of the grounds, the banqueting-house, a gothic structure 
ornamented with pinnacles, terminates a spacious avenue. 

Although nature, with a lavish and luxuriant hand, has adorned this scene with 
some of her richest gifts, yet art has bestowed a number of embellishments; and, besides 
the buildings already mentioned, the green-house, bath, and other edifices, are finished 
with great taste, and the sylvan beauties that surround them are not surpassed in 
any part of the country. The interior of the building is ornamented with numerous 
family portraits and some good paintings. Of the latter, the principal one is a fine picture 
of Rubens' wife. 

Various beautiful views occur in different parts of the grounds, and particularly from 
a walk near the back of the house, on the brink of a steep descent, whence the Derwent 
is seen flowing through a deep vale, enclosed on the north by hanging woods ; but on 
the south bounded by cultivated lands, rising from the river in irregular swells. The 
Park is about four miles in circumference. The approach to the house is by a serpentine 
road, nearly a mile in length, winding through the oak forest, sometimes extending 
along the brink of a deep valley, at others descending on the easy inclination of an 

In 1385, Gibside was the estate of the Merleys; and in the reign of Henry VIII. 
Roger Blackiston, esq. and his wife Elizabeth, daughter and heiress of Richard Merley, had 
livery of it : about the end of the seventeenth century, Sir William Bowes acquired it by 
marriage with the heiress of Sir AVilliam Blackiston, and from him it descended to John 
Lyon, Earl of Strathniore, who took the name of Bowes. 

3 G 




Bassenthwaite Lake, or, as it is sometimes called, Broad Water, is nearly four miles 
north of Derwent- Water, and is formed by the river Derwent, which flows in a serpentine 
form through a fine extensive vale. 

" The river nobly foams and flows, 
The charm of this enchanted ground, 
And all its thousand turns disclose 
Some fresher beauty varying round ; 
The haughtiest breast its wish might bound, 
Through life to dwell delighted here." 

This lake is said to be four miles and a half in length ; at its northern extremity it is 
nearly a mile in breadth ; but, lower down, it decreases to little more than a quarter of a 
mile. On the east side is the beautiful and extensive vale of Bassenthwaite, deeply 
indented with three bays, behind which the mighty Skiddaw rears its lofty head. 
Opposite, on the west, is a range of high mountains, which fall abruptly to the water's 
edge, leaving only two or three small spots on which cultivation can prevail. These 
declivities are called Withop Brows, and are partly rocky, and partly covered with thick 
woods which consist chiefly of young oaks growing out of old stems. 

To view the beauties of the lake, the tourist should proceed along the eastern margin 
to Armathwaite. A road to the left leads to Bradness, a round verdant hill, which projects 
considerably into the water, and, with the assistance of two other promontories, forms a 
spacious bay, having Bowness on the south and Scarness on the north. From the summit 
of this hill, you have a good general view of the lake, and of the three beautiful bays which 
indent its eastern shore, forming a fine contrast with the lofty hills and hanging woods on 
the opposite side. 

After regaining the road, you recede rather farther from the water, and proceed 
towards Ousebridge, by way of Bassenthwaite Hall. On an elevated part of this road, to 
the north of the village, is another fine view of the lake, the north side of Skiddaw, the 
opposite shore, and the vales of Embleton and Isel. Farther on, you reach Armathwaite, 
a small but finely-situated seat, at the head of a gentle slope, and commanding, through 
a grove of trees, a grand view of the lake. Here you see the lowest bay in all its beauty : 
the lake of Bassenthwaite seems to retire beyond the promontory of Scarness, and the 
hanging woods of Withop on the opposite side add considerably to the scene. A pleasant 
road leads to Ousebridge, where is a good inn, fronting the Jake, and commanding some 
variegated prospects. Here the lake, without any previous contraction, or the least 
appearance of an outlet, pours forth its waters beneath a stone bridge of three arches ; 



and, resuming once more the name of a river, the Derwent, after a winding course through 
several verdant valleys, at length falls into the sea near Workington. 

Returning to Keswick, along the western shores, the ride is delightful ; especially in 
the evening, and whilst the water is still gilded by the radiance of the sun. At such a 
time, when the lake is one vast expanse of crystall mirror, the mountain shadows are 
softened into a mild blue tint, which sweeps over the half surface, and the other half 
receives the impression of every radiant form that glows around. At Berk Withop the 
view of the lake is full and pleasing, the water beautifully expands to the eye, having its 
outlet concealed by Castle How, a circular peninsula crowned with wood, on which appear 
the vestiges of a castle or fortress. 

Lord Byron makes beautiful allusion, in his Childe Harold, to the dilapidated remain s 
of castellated structures : 

" They stand, as stands a lofty mind, 
Worn, but unstooping to the baser crowd, 
All tenantless, save to the crannying wind, 
Or holding dark communion with the cloud. 
There was a day when they were young and proud, 
Banners on high, and battles pass'd below ; 
But they who fought are in a bloody shroud, 
And those which waved are shredless dust ere now, 
And the bleak battlements shall bear no future blow." 

On the Berk Withop side of the castle, the shore is lined with a range of rocks, half 
concealed in low wood, over which rise Withop Brows. The opposite shore is indented with 
beautiful bays, formed by the promontories of Scarness, Bowness, and Bradness. Hence 
is seen, in a pleasing point of view, a part of the vale of Bassenthwaite, interspersed with 
its church and two or three white houses. Ullock, a gloomy mountain covered with heath, 
forms the back-ground of this picture ; and Skiddaw appears in all its preeminence, 
towering above the neighbouring hills in majestic grandeur, and lifts its summit to the 
skies. On all sides the scenery is various, and the whole of it beautifully picturesque. 
As you approach Keswick, Skiddaw appears to great advantage ; Crosthwaite church and 
vicarage are successively seen ; and between these and the town, on the left, is the villa 
Lucretilis of the Poet Laureat. 

The vale of Bassenthwaite extends from the foot of Skiddaw to Ousebridgc ; it is 
variegated with many beautiful objects, both of art and nature, and, in general, is a rich 
and fertile tract of land. The lake, which adds so much to its beauty, is marly as trans- 
parent as that of Derwent, and abounds with a great variety of fish and water-fowl. 



This view of Keswick, taken from the Kendal Road, presents a striking assemblage of 
picturesque objects, including the lakes of Derwent Water and Bassenthwaite Water, 
with the mountainous acclivities of Withop Brows in the back-ground. 

" The lofty rocks 
At night's approach bring down the unclouded sky, 
To rest upon their circumambient walls ; 
A temple framing of dimensions vast 
And yet not too enormous for the sound 
Of human anthems, — choral song, or burst 
Sublime of instrumental harmony, 
To glorify the Eternal ! What if these 
Did never break the stillness that prevails 
Here, if the solemn nightingale be mute, 
And the soft woodlark here did never chant 
His vespers ; Nature fails not to provide 
Impulse and utterance. The whispering air 
Sends inspiration from the shadowy heights 
And blind recesses of the cavern'd rocks. 
The little rills and waters numberless, 
Inaudible by daylight, blend their notes 
With the loud streams ; and often, at the hour 
When issue forth the first pale stars, is heard 
Within the circuit of yon fabric huge, 
One voice, the solitary raven, flying 
Athwart the concave of the dark-blue dome, 
Unseen, perchance above the power of sight — 
An iron knell ! with echoes from afar, 
Faint — and still fainter — as the cry with which 
The wanderer accompanies her flight 
Through the calm region, fades upon the ear, 
Diminishing by distance till it seemed 
To expire." 



This romantic locality is situate at the extreme end of Little Langdale ; and the 
present view looks in the direction of Bley Tarn and Langdale Pikes. The spot is 
surrounded by lofty mountains and crags ; that on the left hand, assuming a prominent 
character in the engraving, is called Blackrigg. At the proper season of the year, the 
mountain shepherds bring hither their fleecy charge to wash them, a customary prelude 
to the shearing. 

" In one diffusive band, 
They drive the troubled flocks, by many a dog 
Compell'd, to where the mazy running brook 
Forms the deep pool ; this bank abrupt and high, 
And that fair swelling in a pebbled shore. 
Urged to the giddy brink, much is the toil, 
The clamour much, of men, and boys, and dogs, 
Ere the soft fearful people to the flood 
Commit their woolly sides. And oft the swain, 
On some impatient seizing, hurls them in : 
Embolden'd then, nor hesitating more, 
Fast, fast, they plunge amid the flashing wave, 
And, panting, labour to the farthest shore : 
Repeated this, till deep the well-washed fleece 
Has drunk the flood, and from his lively haunt 
The trout is banished by the sordid stream ; 
Heavy, and dripping to the breezy brow, 
Slow move the harmless race ; where, as they spread 
Their swelling treasures to the sunny ray, 
Inly disturb'd, and wondering what this wild 
Outrageous tumult means, their loud complaints 
The country fill : and, toss'd from rock to rock, 
Incessant bleatings run around the hills." 

Blackrigg is a place of much danger both to the sheep and the shepherds, when, a* is 
frequently the case, the straying herd wander beyond the possibility of retreat, or farther 



advance. They are then said to be " crag-fast;" and inthis situation they are often starved 
to death before the herdsman discovers them, or are dashed to pieces in a desperate effort 
to escape. Sometimes the shepherds venture on a perilous attempt to effect their res- 
cue : they suffer themselves to be lowered by ropes from the summit of the crags, into 
the rocky cavern wherein the sheep have strayed or fallen; and occasionally have to 
swing themselves into the crevices of the rocks. If they are fortunate enough to obtain 
a hold of the wanderer, they have then to combat its struggles, while they return with 
it in their arms by the same dangerous route. 

Wordsworth has introduced into the " Excursion" an incidental allusion to the 
casualty just mentioned. 

" List ! — I heard, 
From yon huge breast of rock, a s. ileum bleat ; 
Sent forth as if it were the mountain's voice, 
As if the visible mountain made the cry. 
Again ! — the effect upon the soul was such 
As now expressed ; for, from the mountain's heart 
The solemn bleat appeared to come ; there was 
No other — and the region all around 
Stood silent, empty of all shape of life. 
— It was a Iamb — left somewhere to itself, 
The plaintive spirit of the solitude." 


Burnshead, more usually called Burneside, is a village standing on both sides of the 
Kent river, at the distance of two miles, north by west, from Kendal. The chapel is a 
handsome gothic structure, on the west side of the river, and was rebuilt in the year 1823, 
at a cost of £1,300. 

The manor formerly belonged to the ancient family of Burnshead, with whose heiress 
it passed to the Bellinghams, and thence to the Braithwaites, who sold it out of their 
possession. The hall, which is a fine old ruin, is occupied by a farmer. In 169*2, this 
structure- consisted of " a court with a lodge and battlements, through which was the 
ascent into the hall." Before the court was a large pond on each side of the passage to 
the gate ; and on either side a small island, with a tree planted in the midst ; and in the 
windows of the gallery and dining-room were the Braithwaites' arms, with impalings of 
the several families to which they were related." 



An extensive and astonishing view of mountain scenery is obtained from the summit 
of the Pikes, looking in an easterly direction. The mountains of Fairfield, High Street, 
Hill Bell, Harter Fell, Potter Fell, and others, are here brought into view together, and 
form, with the lakes and tarns which diversify the scene, the most magnificent prospect 
on which the eye can rest. 

Language is unequal to the task of describing the extensive scope of vision enjoyed 
from the summit of a mountain, or the splendid combination of sublime and pleasing 
objects at once presented to the eye. The following poetical extract embodies more of 
the spirituel, than, perhaps, any other we could have selected. 

" O 'tis au unimaginable sight ! 

Clouds, mists, streams, watery rocks, aud emerald turf, 

Clouds of all tincture, rocks and sapphire sky. 

Confused, commingled, mutually inflamed. 

Molten together, and composing thus, 

Each lost in each, that marvellous array 

Of temple, palace, citadel, and huge 

Fantastic pomp of structure without name, 

In fleecy folds voluminous, enwrapp'd 

Right in the midst where interspace appeared 

Of open court, an object like a throne 

Beneath a shining canopy of state 

Stood fixed; and fixed resemblances were seen 

To implements of ordinary use, 

But vast in size, in substance glorified ; 

Such as by Hebrew prophets were beheld 

In vision — forms uncouth of mightiest power 

For admiration and mysterious awe.'* 

When the mind has in some desjree regained its composure, and is enabled to arrange 
and discriminate objects, the mountain vision will disclose an appearance — 

" As of a mighty city — boldly say 
A wilderness of building, sinking far 
And self-withdrawn into a wondrous depth. 
Far sinking into splendour, without end ! 
Fabric it seems of diamond and of gold, 
With alabaster domes and silver spires ; 
And blazing terrace upon terrace high 
Uplifted : here, serene pavilions bright, 
In avenues disposed; there, towers begirt 
With battlements, that on their restless fronts 
Bear stars — illumination of all gems." 




The present view is more circumscribed than the last, but is scarcely less striking in 
its character. The broad side of Bowfell confines the eye within a mountain fastness, of 
much grandeur and sublimity. Utter desolation appears to characterize the spot. 

" He who ascends to mountain-tops shall find 
The loftiest peaks most wrapt in clouds and snow ; 
He who surpasses or subdues mankind 
Must look down on the hate of those below : 
Tho' high above the sun of glory glow, 
And far beneath the earth and ocean spread, 
Round him are icy rocks, and loudly blow- 
Contending tempests on his naked head, 
And thus reward the toils which to those summits led." 

Thus sings the muse of Byron : the reflection contains much of truth ; yet is written 
in gloominess of spirit. Another brief extract from the same poet is in keeping with the 
present scene. 

" The sky is chang'd ! — and such a change ! O night, 
And storm and darkness, ye are wondrous strong, 

Yet lovely in your strength, as is the light 
Of a dark eye in woman ! Far along, 

From peak to peak, the rattling crags among, 

Leaps the live thunder ! Not from one lone cloud, 

But every mountain now hath found a tongue." 

The clouds that hang on the summit of Bowfell remind us of a phenomenon connected 
with the mountain districts, called the Helm Wind, and to which we are not aware of 
having before adverted. 


The coming of the Helm Wind is indicated by the appearance of the Helm, a white 
cloud, resting on the summits of the hills, (most usually Cross Fell, and the neighbouring 
elevations;) this cloud wears a hold, broad front, not dissimilar to a vast float of ice 
standing on edge. Immediately on its appearance, there issues from it a prodigious noise 
exceeding in grandeur and awfulness the roaring of the ocean. Occasionally is seen what 
is called the Helm Bar, from an idea that it controls the fury of the storm ; this consists 
of a white cloud arranged opposite to the Helm, and holding a station various in its dis- 
tances, sometimes not more than half-a-mile from the mountain, at others three or four 
miles. It continues in a tremulous motion till it disperses; and then the hurricane issues 
forth, roaring along the sides of the hills, and frequently extending two or three miles 
from their sides. The sky is generally visible between the Helm and the Bar ; and fre- 
quently small specks of clouds, and loose vapours, are separated from them, and fly across 
in contrary directions, both east and west, with amazing velocity. The violence of the 
wind is usually greatest when the Helm is highest above the mountains. The cold air 
rushes down the hills with astonishing force, so as to make it both difficult and dangerous 
for the adventurer to attempt an ascent. It mostly comes in gusts, but sometimes blows 
with unabated fury for twenty-four hours, and continues at intervals for from three to six 

Whilst digressing to introduce notices of remarkable phenomena observable in these 
mountainous regions, we may be permitted to allude to a singular appearance witnessed 
in the vicinity of Souter Fell ; and we are the more led to do so, from having read a well- 
authenticated statement of a similar phenomenon very recently witnessed on the Mendip 

On a summer's evening, in the year 1/43, the servant of Mr. Wren of Wilton Hall was 
sitting at the door with his master, when they both saw the figure of a man with a dog 
pursuing some horses along Souter Fell side, a place so steep that a horse could scarcely 
keep his footing on it. These visionary forms appeared to run at an amazing pace, till 
they got out of sight at the lower end of the Fell. Mr. Wren and his servant next 
morning ascended the steep of the mountain, expecting to find the man dead ; but they 
found no vestige whatever of man, dog, or horse. 

The following year, 1744, on the twenty-third of June, the same servant, then in the 
employ of Mr. Lancaster of Blakehills, saw a troop of horsemen riding along Souter Fell, 
in close ranks, and at a brisk pace. Having been much ridiculed the previous year for his 
report, he determined to observe rigidly and with caution ; after assuring himself that he 
was not deceived as to the actual appearances, he went and informed his master of what he 
had seen, and both returned to the place together. Before their arrival, however, the son 
of Mr. Lancaster had discovered the mountain phantoms ; and the three witnessed the 
phenomenon. Afterwards all the members of the family were summoned to see and bear 
testimony to the existence of the fact. In all, it appeared, there were twenty- six per- 
sons who had ocular proof of the occurrence. 



The phenomena above described assimilate to that, well known as the Spectre of the 
Broken, in the Hartz Mountains ; and may be rationally explained on the principles of 
refraction and reflection, the shadowy forms being no other than the images of realities, 
favourably posited with relation to the refracting medium and the observer's eye. 


Gold Rill Beck is in the valley of Patterdale ; and unites several streams which pass 
through it to lake Ullswater. From the bridge, or in its immediate neighbourhood, the 
tourist discovers a splendid prospect, including the rich meadows that lie on each side of 
the Beck, the lake before named, and a mountainous range closing the view on the 


This view of Buttermere lake and village is taken from the road, leading from 
C rum mock Water to Gatesgarth, and which passes through the village and along the 
banks of the lake. The valley of Buttermere is exceedingly beautiful and picturesque, the 
air pure and salubrious ; and near the bottom of the vale is a very lofty cascade, " bisect- 
ing the mountain whence it descends like a white riband," and which, from its constant 
foaming, has obtained among the country people the name of " Sour Milk Force." 

The vale of Buttermere is rather confined in that part which the lake occupies, the 
mountains shelving down to the water's edge ; but, below, it opens, and extends to a con- 
siderable distance. The inhabitants of the valley, previous to the neighbourhood becom- 
ing a place of fashionable resort, were extremely rustic in character, and their pursuits 
were confined, on the part of the women, to spinning yarn, and, on that of the men, to 
working the slate quarries, 

Gatesgarth dale, at the head of Buttermere valley, is a tremendous scene : the area is 
concave, the sides almost perpendicular, and composed of a kind of broken craggy rock, 
the ruins of which every where strew the valley, and give it a still greater air of 




desolation. A river also runs through it, which is the principal feeder of the lake, and 
not less wild in its appearance than the valley itself. This awful solitude occupies 
the distance in our illustrative view. On advancing into this mountainous retreat, the 
spectator notices the clouds hanging gloomily on the sides of the hills, and concealing 
from his observation more than half their height. " The middle of the valley is adorned, 
as these valleys in some parts are, by a craggy hill, on the top of which stands the 
fragment of a rock, that looks, in Ossian's language, like the stone of power, the rude 
deity of desolation, to which the scene is sacred." 

That portion of the vale of Buttermere which, with reference to the present view, lies 
in the rear of the observer, is a wide variegated scene, full of rising and falling grounds, 
woody in many parts, well inhabited in some ; fruitful and luxuriant in all. 

The mountain of High Stile appears on the left in our view, and Honister Crag in 
the distance. 


Skelwith Bridge is a hamlet in the township of Loughrigg, on the river Brathay, two 
miles and a half west-south-west of Ambleside. The view is taken passing down the 
Brathay from Lake Windermere. Proceeding on, the tourist reaches the cataract of 
Skelwith Force, which is less remarkable for its height than for the body of water it 
contains. The passage of the river is much contracted for some distance above the 
torrent, within a chasm formed in a vast bed of rocks ; and after rushing down this 
confined channel, the waters are discharged with amazing force into an abyss beneath. 
Colwith Force, of which a view and description have been given, is in this neigh- 


Scout Scar is a mountainous elevation in the vicinity of Kendal, situate eastward of tiie 
town, and overlooking the vale of the Kent river. Hence is obtained a delightful 
prospect, extending to the Irish sea, and diversified with a great variety of pleasing 
and picturesque objects : hill and plain ; the meandering stream, and the wide expanse 
of the distant ocean ; the rich verdure of the valley, and the bleak shattered precipices ; 
all these combine with astonishing effect : — 

" Each gives each a double charm, 
Like pearls upon an Ethiop's arm." 

The Scars in the neighbourhood of Kendal yield a stone of the most durable quality, 
which is so compact in its formation, as to receive a polish equal to that of marble. 



The modern buildings in the town are mostly constructed of this beautiful material; 
and the appearance they present, so elegant in itself, is rendered yet more striking by 
contrast with the tall Lombardy poplars which rise above them, and by the long range of 
hanging gardens to the west of the town. 

The Kent river, after washing the skirts of Kendal, flows southward to the vicinity 
of Milnthorpe, where it receives the Belo into its noble estuary, and thence proceeds to 
the ocean over the sands of Morecambe Bay. 

Milnthorpe, the only sea-port of Westmorland, is seated on the north side of the 
Belo, near the mouth of the Kent, and sends vessels to the port of Liverpool, also 
to Glasgow and Annan in Scotland, laden with the manufactures of Kendal, and the 
natural products of the neighbourhood. 

The Kent sands present at different times a widely different appearance : during the 
flow of the tide, they lie many feet under water, and are covered with shipping ; but at 
the sea ebb they become a lively promenade of carriages and pedestrians. 


Barrow. A hill. 

Beck. A rivulet to which the gills are tributary. 

Fell. A mountain. 

Force, or Forse. A term sufficiently significant for a cataract or waterfall. 

Gill. A stream descending from the mountains ; also, the valley or dell into which it falls. 

Grange. A dwelling near the water. 

Hauchs. Flat grounds lying on the water's side. 

Hause. A narrow passage over an acclivity between two mountains. 

How. A hill rising in the midst of a valley. 

Scar. A range of rocks. 

Screes. A quantity of loose stones, separated from the rocks, and resting upon a steep 
declivity, whence they are dislodged by the slightest motion. 

Slack. A kind of defile between two mountains ; or a depression in the bosom of a hill. 

Thwaite. Frequently terminates the names of localities, and probably signifies an inclosure 
of land. 



The present day may justly be considered the Augustine age of Pictorial art. During the 
last few years, the most energetic and successful efforts have been made by Publishers 
and British Painters to create a refined taste throughout the nation for faithful and vivid 
delineations of native scenery. With true patriot feeling, they have sought out the charming 
picturesque of their own country ; and revealed, with Claude-like grace and effect (the, might 
we not say) unequalled beauty of a British Landscape. The introduction of steel-plate 
engraving also lent powerful co-operation to their labours, and contributed in no small degree 
to produce a new era in the empire of taste. The Painter's single copy could be possessed 
but by one, — be seen, comparatively, by few ; but when transferred by a skilful lingravi r t'> 
a plate of steel, so great a number of fine impressions can be taken, that the treasures of art 
are sold at a price so trifling, as to place these beautiful productions within the reach of all 
who take interest in them, — and who does not ? 

Amidst the laudable efforts which are being made in the present day, to render each 
cherished spot of earth " the mind's familiar image," it might well excite surprise if the 
pencil and burin sought not employment in delineating the Lake and Mountain Scenery 
of " our native land." With what success the attempt has been attended, let the numerous 
specimens of art contained in this Work declare. The sublime and beautiful in nature — all 
that renders earth " an Eden scarce defaced" — are here reflected in a mirror more potent 
than the wizard's glass. This collection of native scenery should kindle love of country in 
the hearts of all : it. is a faithful transcript of "father-land," on which an Englishman ma) 
look with pride. Admit it — a cheerful visitant — to the domestic hearth. It will speak to you 
of your country ; and in the festive seasons of mirth and gaiety, no less than in the hour of 
calm reflection, it will remind you " 'tis your country still." 

To give an idea of the magnitude of this undertaking, and the fearless enterprise with 
which the Proprietors engaged in it, a statement is subjoined, shewing the extent of capital 
employed in the Work. It is pleasing to add, that whilst its thousands of Subscribers are 
unanimous in expressing satisfaction and delight, the Publishers, and all who, under their 
direction, aided the progress of the Work, have no reason to adopt the language of complaint. 

For Paintings, Drawings, and Engravings, 5,000 (t 

Printing Steel Plates, 2,750 u 

Pa P er > 2>06<2 10 0* _ 2750 Q Q 

Revenue Duty on Ditto, . . 687 10 J 

Letter-press Printing, &c 500 

Total for « The Lakes " £11,000 



2 Airey Force page '12 

3 Aisle of Tombs, Chesicr-Ie-st.Ch.13G 

4 Alnwick Castle 7 

5 Alnwick Castle, entrance to ., 19(1 

6 Alnwick Abbey 134 

7 Ambleside, approach to 86 

8 Ambleside 109 

9 Appleby 02 

1 Axwell Park 208 

11 Ayden Castle 187 

12 Bamborough Castle 112 

13 Barnard Castle 58 

14 Barnard Castle Ill 

15 Barrow Fall 124 

16 Bassenthwaitc Lake 210 

17 Berwick-upon-Tweed 112 

18 Birker Force 124 

19 Bishop Auckland, palace at .. . 57 

20 Blea Tarn 29 

21 Blackball Rocks 167 

22 Blea- Water Tarn 19S 

23 Borrowdale 153 

24 Bothal Castle 50 

25 Bowness and Windermere. ... 25 

26 Bowness, from Belle Isle .... 169 

27 Brancepeth Castle 27 

28 Brenckburn PHory 94 

29 Bridge House, Ambleside. ... 86 

30 Brother's Water 110 

31 Brough Castle . . v 88 

32 Brougham Castle 98 

33 Brougham Hall 13 

34 Burnshead Hall 214 

35 Buttermere, from the Wood . . 67 

36 Buttermere Lake and Village 218 

37 Bywell 100 

38 Bywell Hall 1SS 

39 Caldron Snout 114 

40 Calder Abbev 200 

41 Carlisle 7 

42 Carlisle Castle 156 

43 Carlisle Cathedral 126 

44 CarlisleCathedral, interior view 142 

45 Castle Crag, Borrowdale .... 75 

46 Castle Eden Hall 28 

47 Castle Rock, Vale of St John 181 

48 Chillingham Park and Castle 138 

49 Chipchase Castle 149 

50 Clare Moss 213 

51 Cockermouth 8 

52 Colwith Force 12 

53 Corbridge on the Tyne 122 

54 Corby Castle 21 

55 Court-yard, Chillingham Castle 138 

56 Court-yard, Naworth Castle 102 

57 Crummock Water 56 

58 Dallam Tower SS 

59 Darlington 167 

60 Derwent Water S4 

6 1 Derwentwater is 

62 Derwent and Bassenthwaite 176 

63 Derwentwater and Lowdore . . 39 

64 Derwentwater from Applethw. 48 

65 Dilston Hall 164 

06 Dimsdale Spa 73 

67 Druids' Stones, near Keswick 185 

68 Dungeon Gill 12 

69 Dunstanburgh Castle 92 

70 Durham 10 

71 Durham, from the north-east 130 

72 Durham, from the south .... 33 

73 Durham Cathed. from the nave 120 

Langdale Pikes, Vignette Title, page 
4 Durham Cathedral, Interior 159 

75 Eagle Crag, from Rostliwaite 181 

76 Eamont Bridge 128 

77 Egremont 202 

78 Elter Water 78 

79 Ennerdale Water 80 

80 EskdaleMill 148 

81 Featherstone Castle 183 

82 Ferry House Regatta 116 

83 Finchdale Priory 34 

84 Galilee, Durham Cathedral. . 153 

85 Giant's Grave, Penrith .... 153 

86 Gibside 209 

87 GilslandSpa 126 

S8 Gold-rill Beck 218 

89 Grassmere, from Butter Crags 82 

90 Grasmere Lake and Village. . 60 

91 Grasmere,froinLoughriggFell 161 

92 Grisdale 206 

93 Grotto, Castle Eden Dene .. 155 

94 Hartlepool 9 

95 HawesWater,fromThwaiteForce74 



Haysvvater Tarn 205 

Helvellyn.from the N.W. ... 152 

Hexham, from the west .... 100 

Hexham Market Place .... 157 

Hexham Abbey Church .... 69 

101 Highcup Gill 98 

102 High Force of the Tees 161 

103 Honister Crag 90 

104 Holme Hall 186 

105 Houghton Castle 122 

106 Howick Hall 6 

107 Hulne Abbey 195 

108 Jesmond Dean 108 

109 Jarrow on the Tyne 1S9 

110 Kendal from the Castle .... 27 

111 Kendal, from Green Bank. . . 140 

112 Kentmere Head 140 

113 Keswick, from Greta Bridge 48 

114 Keswick 212 

115 Kirkby Lonsdale Bridge ... . 82 

116 Lambton Castle 20 

117 Langdale Pikes, looking East 214 

118 Do., looking towards Bowfell 216 

119 Lanercost Priory 44 

120 Levins Hall 62 

121 Lilburn Tower 146 

122 Lindisfam Abbey 120 

123 Long Sleddale Slate Quarry . 197 

124 Lowes Water 90 

125 Lowdore Cataract 63 

126 Lowther Castle, South Front 38 

127 Lowther Castle, North Front 73 

128 Lumley Castle 136 

129 Lymington Iron Works .... 157 

130 Mardale Green 144 

131 Mardale Head 59 

132 Marsden Rocka 176 

133 Mill Beck &ButtermereChapel 172 
131 Mill Beck, Great Langdale.. 178 

135 Milnthorpe Sands 165 

136 Mitford Castle 53 

137 Muncasier Castle 174 

138 Morpeth 51 

139 Naworth Castle 84 

140 Netherby 102 

141 Newcastle, Tyne 15 

142 Newcastle, from the Side 134 

1 43 Newcastle Castle 94 

144 Newcastle.Ch.ofSt.N'icholasat 206 

145 Newcastle, the Black Gate at, 20S 




Newcastle.Inter.of CastleChapel 32 
Newcastle, Royal Arcade . . 70 
Newcastle, Ch. of St.Nicholas 54 

Norham Castle 96 

Patterdale Bridge 110 


Percy Cross 150 

Prurihoe Castle 163 

Raby Castle 46 

Ravensworth Castle 20 

Rostliwaite, Village of, 68 

Royal Arcade, Newcastle .. 184 
Rush-bearing at Ambleside. . 170 

Rydal Water 106 

Rydal Water, Lower Fall . . 36 
Rydal Water, Upper Fall . . 52 
Rydal Hall from Fox How . 162 
Rydal Water and Grasmere . 193 
Sandhill, Newcastle-upon-Tyne 92 

Scale Force 64 

Scawfell Pikes 76 

Scotswood Bridge, over Tyne 24 

Scout Scar 219 

Second Reach of L'llswater . . 106 
Shields, North and South .. 16 

Si2ergh Hall, Interior 165 

Skelwith Bridge 219 

Skiddaw, from Applethwaite 42 

Stanhope Castle 191 

Stickle Tarn, Langdale Pikes 66 

Stockton-on-Tees 104 

Storrs Hall 116 

Stockgill Force 35 

Stockgill, Mill on the 52 

Stybarrow Crag 179 

Styhead Tarn 148 

Sunderland 47 

Sunderland, Harbour and Pier 72 

Small-Water Tarn 144 

Teesdale, near Winch Bridge 130 

Thirlmere Bridge 116 

Thirlmere and Helvellyn, 

from Raven Crag 118 

Thirlwall Castle 134 

Thirlmere, orWythburn Water 40 
Thrang Crag Slate Quarry . . 78 

Troutbeck, Valley of, 65 

Twysille Castle 98 

TynemouthCast.cV Bathing PI. 108 

Tynemouth Priory '. . , 31 

Tyne, from South Shields .. 175 

Ullswater 17 

Ullswater, Upper Reach .... 22 
Ullswater, from Poolev Biidge 43 

Underlay Hall '. 37 

Vale of St. John 172 

Warkworth Hermitage 146 

Warkworth Castle 24 

Wasdale Hall 194 

WastdaleHead 134 

Wastwater 195 

Watenlath, & Stream of I.odore SO 
Waterfall, near Sty Head .. 142 

Whitehaven 173 

Windermere, Esthwaite, and 

Coniston Lakes 204 

W in dermere, Esthw. Water, &c. 198 

Windermere 14 

Do. from Low Wood Inn. ... 30 
Gen. View of Windermere Lake 1 15 

Wood Hall 55 

Winvard 104 

. .1 

000 015 659 6 

;.:..'.,'- ,.> : w ; / ;j: J